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Encyclopedia > Operation Eagle Claw
Operation Eagle Claw

A left side view of six RH-53D Sea Stallion helicopters in flight. The helicopters, based aboard the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier USS Nimitz (CVN-68), are taking part in Operation Evening Light, a rescue mission to Iran.
Date April 24, 1980 - April 25, 1980
Location Tehran, Iran
Result Unsuccessful hostage rescue attempt; mission aborted with loss.
Belligerents
United States Iran
Commanders
Col. Charles Beckwith,
Col. James Kyle
Casualties and losses
8 KIA
4 WIA
1 civilian
44 civilians temporarily detained (released before the end of the operation)

Operation Eagle Claw (or Operation Evening Light) was a United States military operation to rescue the 53 hostages from the U.S. Embassy in Tehran, Iran on April 24, 1980. The failure of the operation led to the creation of the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) and the U.S. Army’s 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (“The Night Stalkers”). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... German CH-53G presented in Laage CH-53 In Iraq, Summer 2004 The Sikorsky S-65 is a heavy transport helicopter originally developed for use by the United States Marine Corps, who designated it the CH-53 Sea Stallion. ... This article is about applications of nuclear fission reactors as power sources. ... The Nimitz class supercarriers are the largest warships in the world. ... USS Nimitz (CVN-68) is a supercarrier in the United States Navy, the lead ship of its class. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... Col. ... Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ... WIA is a three letter abbreviation meaning Wounded in action. ... The United States Armed Forces are the military services of the United States. ... Planning, calculating, or the giving or receiving of information. ... Iranian militants escort a blindfolded U.S. hostage to the media. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one nation state present in another nation state to represent the sending state in the receiving State. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Emblem of the United States Special Operations Command. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... (Redirected from 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment) Unit name 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne) Abbreviated: 160th SOAR (A) Nickname Night Stalkers Branch U.S. Army Mission Provide aviation support to U.S. Special Operations Forces Headquarters Fort Campbell, Kentucky USA Motto Night Stalkers Dont Quit (NSDQ) Death Waits...


The hostages were eventually released after extensive diplomatic negotiations on January 20, 1981, Carter's last day in office, after 444 days of captivity. Jimmy Carter was determined to ensure the release under his administration, particularly as the Democratic nomination for the 1980 presidential election neared, but the release did not occur until immediately after Reagan had taken the oath of office. is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... The United States presidential election of 1980 featured a contest between incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent, Ronald Reagan, along with third party candidates, the independent John B. Anderson and Libertarian Ed Clark. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with President of the United States oath of office. ...

Contents

Overview

The wreckage of a Sea Stallion helicopter at the Desert One base in Iran
The wreckage of a Sea Stallion helicopter at the Desert One base in Iran
Planned by Joint Task Force (JTF) 1-79 as Operation Rice Bowl, the operation was designed as a complex two-night mission. The first stage of the mission involved establishing a small initial staging site inside Iran itself, near the Tabas in the Yazd Province (formerly in the south of the Khorasan province) of Iran. The site, named Desert One, was to be used as a temporary airstrip for the USAF special ops MC-130E Combat Talon I penetration/transport aircraft and C-130 Hercules (later MC-130P Combat Shadow) refueling aircraft, along with eight Navy RH-53D Sea Stallion minesweeper helicopters flown in by Marine Corps aircrews from the aircraft carrier USS Nimitz stationed in the nearby Indian Ocean.

After flying in under radar and landing at Desert One, the C-130 Hercules would off-load men and equipment and refuel the arriving helicopters, which would undertake the actual rescue operation. After refueling the helicopters at Desert One, the plan was for the ground troops to board the helicopters and fly to Desert Two near Tehran the same night where the helicopters would be concealed. The next night, the rescuers would be transported to the embassy by assets in place and overpower the hostage guards and extract the hostages across Roosevelt Boulevard (the main road in front of the embassy) to a soccer stadium, where the helicopters would land and retrieve the entire force. A 1980 photo depicts the aircraft wreck at Desert One in Iran. ... A 1980 photo depicts the aircraft wreck at Desert One in Iran. ... Sea Stallion can refer to: CH-53 Sea Stallion, a Sikorsky S-65 helicopter. ... Tabas (طبس) or Tabas-e-Golshan (meaning city with a lot of flowers in a desert) is a desert city and a large oasis in the Iranian province of Yazd (and formerly in the south of the Khorasan province). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Map showing the pre-2004 Khorasan Province in Iran Khorasan (Persian: خراسان) (also transcribed as Khurasan and Khorassan, anciently called Traxiane during Hellenistic and Parthian times is currently a region located in north eastern Iran, but historically referred to a much larger area east and north-east of the Persian Empire... The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is a four-engine turboprop cargo aircraft and the main tactical airlifter for many military forces worldwide. ... The CH-53 Sea Stallion is the most common name for the Sikorsky S-65 family of heavy-lift transport helicopters. ... USS Nimitz (CVN-68) is a supercarrier in the United States Navy, the lead ship of its class. ... The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is a four-engine turboprop cargo aircraft and the main tactical airlifter for many military forces worldwide. ...


The assets in place were a Tehran CIA team led by noted special forces legend Richard Meadows, who were there for two purposes: (1) to obtain information about the hostages and the embassy grounds, and (2) to transport the rescuers from Desert Two to the embassy grounds with pre-staged vehicles. (In reality, the most important information came from an embassy cook who was released by the Iranians and discovered on a flight from Tehran at the last minute by another CIA officer, and who confirmed that the hostages were centrally located in the embassy compound - this was a key piece of information long sought after by the planners.) CIA redirects here. ... Major Richard J. Meadows (June 16, 1931 - July 29, 1995) was a U.S. Army Special Forces officer who saw combat in U.S. wars from Korea to the Iran Hostage Rescue mission in 1980. ...


The assault on the embassy compound would occur after eliminating electrical power in the area in order to disrupt military and civilian capabilities, communications, and any counterattacks attempted by the Iranians. Special Ops AC-130 gunships would also orbit overhead to provide supporting fire against reacting forces. The helicopters would transpsort the rescuers and hostages from the soccer stadium to Manzariyeh Air Base outside of Tehran ( 34°58′58″N, 50°48′20″E), where a Ranger force would have captured the air field and C-141 transports would be waiting to remove the entire contingent out of the country under the protection of fighter aircraft. For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ...


However, only the delivery of the rescue force, equipment and fuel by the special ops C-130 Hercules occurred according to plan. An unexpected low-level intense sandstorm of the kind known as a haboob contributed to the loss of three of the eight RH-53D helicopters by the time the helicopter squadron reached Desert One, behind schedule. The first helicopter was grounded and abandoned in the desert with equipment indicating a cracked rotor blade, and its crew picked up by another helicopter that continued the flight. The second helicopter abandoned the flight and returned to the Nimitz with reported erratic instrumentation blamed on the highly elevated temperatures inside the haboob. The third helicopter arrived at Desert One with a malfunctioning primary hydraulics system and insufficient confidence in the secondary (backup) hydraulics system to continue. The first and third helicopters, which were abandoned, now serve with the Iranian Navy. The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is a four-engine turboprop cargo aircraft and the main tactical airlifter for many military forces worldwide. ... A haboob is a type of intense dust storm characteristic of very dry regions. ... The CH-53 Sea Stallion is the most common name for the Sikorsky S-65 family of heavy-lift transport helicopters. ... The Islamic Republic of Iran Navy is the naval force of Iran. ...


Meanwhile, a fuel-smuggling tanker truck was blown up nearby with a shoulder-fired rocket as it tried to escape the site shortly after the first crews landed and began securing Desert One. The resulting fire illuminated the night-time landscape for many miles around, and actually provided a beacon to Desert One for the disoriented and dehydrated incoming helicopter crews, who flew in lower than the undetected C-130 Hercules flight because of miscommunicated instructions and faulty communications equipment, and subsequently encountered the sandstorm. The passenger in the tanker truck perished, while the truck's driver managed to escape in an accompanying pickup truck, and was considered to pose a security threat to the mission, although subsequent evaluation realized that the clandestine smuggling nature of the tanker trunk posed no immediate threat. Soon after the truck driver escaped, a civilian Iranian bus with a driver and 43 passengers traveling on the same road, which served as the runway for the aircraft, was forcefully halted and held until the site was fully evacuated. The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is a four-engine turboprop cargo aircraft and the main tactical airlifter for many military forces worldwide. ...


With only five helicopters remaining for transporting the men and equipment to Desert Two, and needing a predetermined minimum of six helicopters at that stage (Col. Beckwith's plans anticipated losing additional helicopters at later stages, especially as they were notorious for failing on cold starts and they were to be shut down for almost 24 hours at Desert Two), Col. Beckwith recommended that President Carter abort the mission, and Carter did just that on April 25, 1980. While maneuvering the helicopters from refueling positions directly behind the C-130 Hercules fuel aircraft so the C-130s could taxi out and take off, one of the helicopter pilots attempted to hop over its C-130 and became disoriented in the dust cloud raised by its rotors and crashed onto the C-130. The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is a four-engine turboprop cargo aircraft and the main tactical airlifter for many military forces worldwide. ... The Lockheed C-130 Hercules, a four-engine turboprop aircraft, is the main tactical air transport aircraft of the United States and UK military forces. ...


In the ensuing explosion and fire, eight U.S. servicemen died: five USAF aircrew in the C-130, and three USMC aircrew in the RH-53D (the helicopter pilot survived). During the following frantic evacuation of the scene by the C-130s, with many of the helicopter aircrews believing they were under attack due to the ammo cooking off in the fire, five RH-53D helicopters were left behind mostly intact, some damaged by shrapnel, with the sixth helicopter on top of the C-130 where it crashed and was being consumed by the fire. Iranian gains from the failed operation total between four and six RH-53D helicopters. In their haste to quickly evacuate the helicopters, the Marine aircrews inadvertently left behind classified plans that identified the Tehran CIA agents. “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ... The CH-53 Sea Stallion is the most common name for the Sikorsky S-65 family of heavy-lift transport helicopters. ... The CH-53 Sea Stallion is the most common name for the Sikorsky S-65 family of heavy-lift transport helicopters. ... CIA redirects here. ...


The C-130s carried the remaining forces back to the intermediate airfield at Masirah Island where two C-141 Medevac aircraft from the rear staging base at Wadi Kena, Egypt picked up the injured personnel, helicopter crews, Rangers and Delta Force members and returned to Wadi Kena. The injured personnel were then transported to Ramstein Air Base, Germany. The Tehran CIA team fortuitously exfiltrated Iran, unaware that their presence had been compromised. The low-lying island of Masirah in Oman is the site of a significant BBC transmitting station, and is used as an airbase and a base for the American 7th fleet. ... The Lockheed C-141 Starlifter is a military strategic airlifter in service with the US Air Force. ... The 75th Ranger Regiment—also known as the United States Army Rangers—is an elite light infantry special operations force of the United States Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) headquartered in Fort Benning, Georgia. ... The 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta (1st SFOD-D) — commonly known as Delta in the U.S. Army, Delta Force by civilians, and Combat Applications Group by the Department of Defense — is a Special Operations Force (SOF) and an integral element of the Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC). ... Boeing C-17A Lot XII Globemaster III Serial 00-0172 Spirit of the Cascades at the Ramstein cargo terminal. ...


Aftermath

The White House announced the failed rescue operation at 1a.m. the following day. The embassy hostages were scattered across Iran to make a second rescue attempt impossible. Iranian Army investigators found 9 bodies, 8 Americans and 1 Iranian civilian (which was used to criticize the White House’s announcement that “…there were no Iranian casualties…”). The 44 Iranian civilians were interviewed and gave eye witness accounts of the operation.


The failure of the various services to work together with cohesion forced the establishment of a new multi-service organization. The United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) was established and became operational on April 16, 1987. Each service now has its own Special Operations Forces under the overall control of USSOCOM. For example, the Army has its own Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) that controls the Army Special Operations Forces (ARSOF). The Air Force special ops unit that supplied the C-130 elements of the rescue attempt, and was awarded the AF Outstanding Unit Award for both that year and the next, was assigned its own squadron of HH-53H Pave Low (Super Jolly) helicopters for long-range low-level night flying operations, and became co-hosts at its home base of Hurlburt Field with the Air Force Special Operations Command (USAFSOC). Emblem of the United States Special Operations Command. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... USASOC shoulder sleeve patch. ... // Activated as the 16th Pursuit Group on December 1, 1932, in the Panama Canal Zone. ... The Sikorsky HH-53 Super Jolly Green Giant is a USAF version of the CH-53 Sea Stallion helicopter for long-range combat search and rescue (CSAR) helicopters. ... Hurlburt Field is a base of the United States Air Force located in Okaloosa County, Florida on the Eglin Air Force Base reservation immediately west of the Town of Mary Esther. ... AFSOC logo. ...


The lack of highly trained Army helicopter pilots that were capable of the low-level night flying needed for modern special forces missions prompted the creation of the 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (SOAR) (Night Stalkers). The 160th Special Operations Aviation Regiment (Airborne) (160th SOAR (A)) is a special operations force of the United States Army that provides aviation support by helicopters to general purpose forces and other special operations forces. ...


A second rescue mission was planned under the name Operation Credible Sport (a.k.a. Operation Honey Badger), but was never put into action. This second rescue attempt was planned using highly modified YMC-130H Hercules aircraft. Outfitted with rocket thrusters fore and aft to allow an extremely short landing and take-off in a soccer stadium, three aircraft were modified under a rushed secret program. One aircraft crashed during a demonstration at Duke Field, Fl, at Eglin Air Force Base Auxiliary Field 3 on October 29, 1980, when its landing braking rockets were fired too soon. The misfire caused a hard touchdown that tore off the starboard wing and started a fire. All on board survived. The impending change in the White House led to the abandonment of this project. The two surviving airframes were returned to regular duty with the rocket packages removed. One is now on display at the Museum of Aviation located next to Dobbins Air Force Base in Georgia.[1] Operation Credible Sport, also known as Operation Honey Badger, was a United States military operation plan in late 1980 to rescue the hostages held on American soil in Iran using C-130 cargo planes modified with rocket engines. ... Americas first rocket-assisted Take-off, an Ercoupe fitted with a GALCIT booster, in 1941 JATO is an acronym for Jet-Assisted Take Off. ... Eglin Air Force Base is the home of the United States Air Force 96th Air Base Wing of the Air Force Materiel Command, and is also headquarters for more than 45 associate units. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ...


Not long after the failure of the mission, on 6 May 1980, the Iranian Embassy Siege occurred in London. is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The Iranian Embassy Siege of 1980 was a terrorist siege of the Iranian embassy in London, United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


As for the situation in Iran, the hostages were released after 444 days of captivity on January 20, 1981, the day that Ronald Reagan succeeded Jimmy Carter as president. is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Reagan redirects here. ...


Retired Chief of Naval Operations Admiral James L. Holloway III led the official investigation in 1980 into the causes of the failure of the operation on behalf of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Holloway Report primarily cited deficiencies in mission planning, command and control, and inter-service operability, and provided a catalyst to reorganize the Department of Defense, and the Goldwater-Nichols Act of 1986.[2] The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is the senior military officer in the United States Navy. ... For other uses, see Admiral (disambiguation). ... James Lemuel Holloway III (born 1922) is a retired U.S. Navy admiral and naval aviator who was highly decorated for his actions during World War II, the Korean War, and the Vietnam War. ... The Goldwater-Nichols Department of Defense Reorganization Act of 1986 (PL 99-433) was a reorganization plan which focused the chain of command in military operations undertaken by the United States Department of Defense. ...


Units involved in the operation

These units are known to have participated:

USS Nimitz (CVN-68) is a supercarrier in the United States Navy, the lead ship of its class. ... For other ships of the same name, see USS California. ... USS South Carolina (CGN-37) was the second ship in the California-class of nuclear powered guided missile cruisers in the United States Navy. ... Texas CGN-39. ... USS Coral Sea (CV/CVB/CVA-43), a Midway-class aircraft carrier, was the second ship of the United States Navy to be named for the Battle of the Coral Sea. ... (Redirected from 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta) Official force name 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta (Airborne) 1st SFOD-D (A) Combat Application Group (CAG) Delta Force Nicknames D-boys Delta boys Deltas Branch U.S. Army Chain of Command USASOC Description Versatile Special Operations Force, mainly trained for... For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... Major is a military rank the use of which varies according to country. ... General Peter Schoomaker (b. ... The Flag of the Chief of Staff of the United States Army The Chief of Staff of the United States Army (CSA) is the highest ranking officer in the United States Army and is member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff [1]. Prior to 1903, the military head of the... Lieutenant-General William G. Boykin is the Deputy Undersecretary of Defense for Intelligence. ... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about a military rank and position. ... Inside Delta Force: The Story of Americas Elite Counterterrorist Unit is a book written by Eric L. Haney, a founding member of Delta Force. ... The 75th Ranger Regiment—also known as the United States Army Rangers—is an elite light infantry special operations force of the United States Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) headquartered in Fort Benning, Georgia. ... Blue Light redirects here. ... USS Okinawa (LPH–3) was the second Iwo Jima-class amphibious assault ship of the United States Navy. ... The 31st Marine Expeditionary Unit (31st MEU) is one of seven Marine Expeditionary Units currently in existence in the United States Marine Corps. ... 3rd Battalion 3rd Marines (3/3) is an infantry battalion in the United States Marine Corps based out of Marine Corps Base Hawaii consisting of approximately 1000 Marines and Sailors. ... Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 165 (HMM-165) is a United States Marine Corps helicopter squadron consisting of CH-46E Sea Knight transport helicopters. ... “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... // Activated as the 16th Pursuit Group on December 1, 1932, in the Panama Canal Zone. ... The AC-130 Gunship is an armed variant of the Lockheed C-130 Hercules. ... This aircraft article has not been updated to WikiProject Aircrafts current standards. ... United States Air Force Rapid Engineer Deployable Heavy Operational Repair Squadron Engineers (RED HORSE) units are the services equivalent of the Armys Corps of Engineers and Navy Seabees. ...

See also

“Sandstorm” redirects here. ... The V-22 Osprey is a joint service, multimission, military tiltrotor aircraft with both a vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) and short takeoff and landing capability (STOL). ...

Fictional depictions

  • The Desert One phase of the operation is depicted in the 1986 film The Delta Force. The sequence in the film shows the explosion of a Sea Stallion helicopter and the subsequent rescue of an injured soldier by a character played by Chuck Norris. The film also depicts the escape from Desert One in a Hercules C-130 aircraft.

Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Official force name 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta (Airborne) 1st SFOD-D (A) Combat Application Group (CAG) Delta Force Nicknames D-boys Delta boys Deltas Branch U.S. Army Chain of Command USASOC Description Versatile Special Operations Force, mainly trained for counter-terrorism. ... Sea Stallion can refer to: CH-53 Sea Stallion, a Sikorsky S-65 helicopter. ... For other uses, see Helicopter (disambiguation). ... Carlos Ray Chuck Norris (born on 10 March 1940) is an American martial artist, action star, Hollywood actor, and recently, an internet phenomenon, who is best known for playing Cordell Walker on Walker, Texas Ranger. ... The Lockheed C-130 Hercules, a four-engine turboprop aircraft, is the main tactical air transport aircraft of the United States and United Kingdom military forces. ...

References

  1. ^ The Hostage Rescue Attempt In Iran, April 24-25, 1980.by James Bancroft. Accessed 31 March 2007.
  2. ^ The Holloway Report (PDF). Accessed 31 March 2007.
  • USAF College of Aerospace Doctrine, Research and Education. Air & Power Course: Operation Eagle Claw. United States of America: US Air Force.
  • Kamps, Charles (2006). "Operation Eagle Claw: The Iran Hostage Rescue Mission". Air & Space Power Journal. 
  • Olausson, Lars, Lockheed Hercules Production List 1954-2005, Såtenäs, Sweden, annually, no ISBN.
  • Kyle, Col. James H., USAF (Ret.) (1990). The Guts to Try. New York: Orion Books. ISBN 0-517-57714-3. 
  • Lenahan, Rod (1998). Crippled Eagle: A Historical Perspective Of U.S. Special Operations 1976-1996. Narwhal Press. ISBN 1-886391-22-x. 
  • Beckwith, Col. Charlie A., US Army (Ret.) (2000). Delta Force: The Army's Elite Counter Terrorist Unit. Avon. ISBN 0-380-80939-7. 
  • Haney, Eric (2002). Inside Delta Force: The Story Of America's Elite Counter Terrorist Unit. Random House. ISBN 0-385-33603-9. 
  • Bowden, Mark (May 2006). The Desert One Debacle. The Atlantic Monthly.
  • Bowden, Mark (2006). Guests Of The Ayatollah: The First Battle In America's War With Militant Islam. Atlantic Monthly Press. ISBN 0-87113-925-1. 

The Atlantic redirects here; for the ocean, see Atlantic Ocean. ...

External links

Coordinates: 33°05′N, 55°48′E Kuro5hin (K5) (pronounced corrosion) is a community discussion website (sometimes known as an example of Commons-based peer production) focused on technology and culture. ... The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Reference.com/Encyclopedia/Eagle Claw (2550 words)
Eagle Claw is said to have had its origins in 1130, at a time of warfare between the Southern Song Dynasty and the Jurchen in the north, who were the ancestors of the Manchus and founders of the Jin Dynasty.
Because Eagle Claw was primarily taught through the Ching Mo Association, training generally includes a number of standard northern kung fu forms and techniques taught to all practitioners at the Association, alongside the elements specific to the Eagle Claw system.
Because the dramatic acrobatics and precise footwork of Eagle Claw depend highly upon the flexibility of the student, it is said that the ideal age to begin training is in childhood or adolescence.
Operation Eagle Claw - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1011 words)
The concept of USSOCOM was born and finally established, and became operational in 1988/1989.
Retired Chief of Naval Operations Admiral James L. Holloway III led the official investigation in 1980 into the causes of the failure of the operation on behest of the Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The Desert One phase of the operation is depicted in the 1986 film The Delta Force.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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