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Encyclopedia > Operation Dragoon
Operation Dragoon
Part of World War II

A map of the operation.
Date 15 August 1944
Location Southern France
Result Allied victory
Combatants
United States1

United Kingdom2

Free France3
Germany
Commanders
Lt. Gen.Jacob L. Devers
Lt. Gen.Alexander Patch
Gen. Obrst. Johannes Blaskowitz
Strength
175,000-200,000 85,000-100,000 in assualt area,
285,000-300,000 in S. France
Casualties
unknown 125,000+ (approx)
Western European Campaign
Normandy - Dragoon - Siegfried Line - Ardennes Offensive - Elbe
Western Front (World War II)
France - The Netherlands - Dunkirk - Britain - Dieppe - Villefranche-de-Rouergue - Normandy - Dragoon - Siegfried Line - Market Garden - Aintree - Scheldt - Hurtgen Forest - Aachen - Bulge - Colmar Pocket - Plunder

Operation Dragoon was the Allied invasion of southern France, on 15 August 1944, as part of World War II. The invasion took place between Toulon and Cannes. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1265x965, 1975 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Operation Dragoon ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Free_France_1940-1944. ... The Free French Forces (Forces Françaises Libres in French) were French fighters who decided to go on fighting against Germany after the Fall of France and German occupation and to fight against Vichy France in World War II. General Charles de Gaulle was a member of the French Cabinet... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... General Jacob Jake Loucks Devers (September 8, 1887 - October 15, 1979), who is best remembered for his command of the 6th Army Group in Europe during World War II, graduated from the US Military Academy in 1909. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... Georges Thierry dArgenlieu (right) with Brigadier General Alexander M. Patch. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... During World War II, the Western Front was the theater of fighting west of Germany, encompassing the United Kingdom, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Denmark. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Poland Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Omar Bradley (US 1st Army) Miles Dempsey (UK 2nd Army) Harry Crerar (Canadian 1st Army) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe B... American soldiers cross the Siegfried Line The drive to the Siegfried Line was one of the final Allied phases in World War II of the Western European Campaign. ... Combatants United States United Kingdom Germany Commanders Dwight D. Eisenhower Bernard Montgomery Omar N. Bradley George S. Patton, Jr. ... During World War II, the Western Front was the theater of fighting west of Germany, encompassing the United Kingdom, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Denmark. ... Combatants Kingdom of the Netherlands Germany Commanders Henry G. Winkelman, Jan Joseph Godfried baron van Voorst tot Voorst Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Strength 9 divisions, 676 guns, 1 tank (inoperational), 124 aircraft Total: 350,000 men 22 divisions, 1,378 guns, 759 tanks, 1150 aircraft Total: 750,000... This article is about a Second World War battle in 1940, for the 1658 battle of the same name see Battle of the Dunes (1658) Combatants United Kingdom France Belgium Germany Commanders Lord Gort General Weygand Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Ewald von Kleist (Panzergruppe von Kleist) Strength approx. ... Combatants Canada United Kingdom Germany Commanders Louis Mountbatten J. H. Roberts Gerd von Rundstedt Strength 6,086 1,500 Casualties Canada: 950 dead, 2,340 captured wounded or not; United Kingdom: 600; United States:4+; 311 dead, 280 wounded The Dieppe Raid, also known as The Battle of Dieppe or... Combatants Croat SS soldiers Germany Commanders Ferid Džanić Unknown Strength 500-1,000 Unknown Casualties 146 N/A The Villefranche-de-Rouergue uprising took place on September 17, 1943, when a division composed of about 500-1000 Croats and Bosnian Muslims from Croatia, which has been sent by force... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Poland Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Omar Bradley (US 1st Army) Miles Dempsey (UK 2nd Army) Harry Crerar (Canadian 1st Army) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe B... American soldiers cross the Siegfried Line The drive to the Siegfried Line was one of the final Allied phases in World War II of the Western European Campaign. ... Combatants United Kingdom United States Canada Poland Germany Commanders Bernard Montgomery Brian Horrocks Roy Urquhart James M. Gavin Maxwell Taylor Stanislaw Sosabowski Walter Model Wilhelm Bittrich Kurt Student Strength 35,000 20,000 Casualties 17,000 dead or wounded 4,000 - 8,000 dead or wounded Operation Market Garden (September... The Battle of Overloon (Code named Operation Aintree) took place between September 30th and October 18th 1944. ... Combatants Canada United Kingdom Poland Belgium Norway Germany Commanders Guy Simonds (acting) (First Canadian Army) Gustav-Adolf von Zangen (German 15th Army) Strength  ?  ? Casualties 12,873 total; including 6,367 Canadian  ? The Battle of the Scheldt was a series of military operations which took place in northern Belgium and south... Combatants United States Germany Commanders Courtney Hodges Walther Model Strength 120,000 80,000 Casualties 33,000 casualties 12,000 dead The Battle of Hurtgen Forest (German: Schlacht im Hürtgenwald) is the name given to the series of fierce battles fought between the American and German forces during World... Combatants United States Germany Commanders William Simpson Gerhard Wilck Strength 100,000 soldiers 12,000 soldiers Casualties 2000 killed 3000 wounded 5500 killed or wounded, 5,600 POW The Battle of Aachen was a battle in World War II that took place in October 1944 in the German city of... Combatants United States United Kingdom Germany Commanders Dwight D. Eisenhower Bernard Montgomery Omar N. Bradley George S. Patton, Jr. ... Located near Alsace in Eastern France, the Colmar Pocket was the site of a ten-day battle during the Second World War that saw four divisions of the French Army and an entire Corps from the U.S. Army overwhelm German resistance. ... During World War II, Operation Plunder was the crossing of the Rhine river at Rees, Wesel and south of the Lippe Canal by the British Second Army, under Lieutenant-General Miles C Dempsey, and the US Ninth Army, under Lieutenant-General William H Simpson. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Panorama of Toulon area Satellite view Coat of Arms of Toulon view of Toulon harbour around 1750, by Joseph Vernet. ... Cannes - receding storm Cannes, as seen from a ferry speeding towards lÃŽle Saint-Honorat Cannes (pronounced ) (Provençal Occitan: Canas in classical norm or Cano in Mistralian norm) is a city and commune in southern France, located on the Riviera, in the Alpes-Maritimes département and the r...

Contents

Planning

During the planning stages, the operation was known as Anvil, to complement Operation Hammer, which was at that time the codename for the invasion of Normandy. Subsequently both plans were renamed, the latter becoming Operation Overlord, the former becoming Operation Dragoon; a name many thought was picked by Winston Churchill, who was opposed to the plan, and claimed to having been "dragooned" into accepting it. (This legend about Churchill later turned out to be false.) Flag of Normandy Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region in northern France. ... The Battle of Normandy was fought in 1944 between the German forces occupying Western Europe and the invading Allies. ... Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill, KG, OM, CH, TD, FRS, PC (Can) (30 November 1874 – 24 January 1965) was a British statesman, soldier, and author. ...


Churchill argued that Operation Dragoon diverted resources that would have been put to better use in an invasion of the oil producing regions of the Balkans and then possibly to other Eastern European countries. In addition to further limiting Germany's access to much needed oil, it would also have better positioned the West for the peace following World War II by liberating these areas from the German occupation and forestalling the Red Army. Red Army flag The Workers and Peasants Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya; RKKA or usually simply the Red Army) were the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and that in 1922 became the army of the Soviet Union. ...


The plan originally envisaged a mixture of Free French and American troops taking Toulon and later Marseille, with subsequent revisions encompassing Saint Tropez. The plan was revised throughout 1944, however, with conflict developing between British military staff — who were opposed to the landings, arguing that the troops and equipment should be either retained in Italy or sent there — and American military staff, who were in favour of the assault. This was part of a larger Anglo-American strategic disagreement. Free French Forces under review during the Battle of Normandy. ... Panorama of Toulon area Satellite view Coat of Arms of Toulon view of Toulon harbour around 1750, by Joseph Vernet. ... http://www. ... Saint-Tropez promenade Saint-Tropez is a commune of the Var département in southern France, located on the French Riviera. ...


The balance was tipped in favour of Dragoon by two events: the eventual fall of Rome in early June, plus the success of Operation Cobra, the breakout from the Normandy pocket, at the end of the month. Operation Dragoon's D-day was set for 15 August 1944. The final go-ahead was given at short notice. Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Combatants Allied Powers Germany Commanders General Omar Bradley, General George S. Patton SS General Paul Hausser Strength 8 infantry divisions, 4 armoured divisions 2 infantry divisions, 11 infantry battlegroups, 2 Panzer Divisions, 1 Panzergrenadier Division Casualties Unknown Unknown Operation Cobra was the codename for the World War II operation planned... Combatants United States United Kingdom Canada Free France Poland Germany Commanders Dwight Eisenhower (Supreme Allied Commander) Bernard Montgomery (land) Bertram Ramsay (sea) Trafford Leigh-Mallory (air) Omar Bradley (US 1st Army) Miles Dempsey (UK 2nd Army) Harry Crerar (Canadian 1st Army) Gerd von Rundstedt (OB WEST) Erwin Rommel (Heeresgruppe B... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...


The U.S. 6th Army Group, also known as the Southern Group of Armies and as Dragoon Force, commanded by Lieutenant General Jacob L. Devers was created in Corsica and activated on August 1, 1944 to consolidate the combined French and American forces that were planning to invade southern France in Operation Dragoon. At first it was subordinate to AFHQ (Allied Forces Headquarters) under the command of General Sir Henry Maitland Wilson who was the supreme commander of the Mediterranean Theater. One month after the invasion, command was handed over to SHAEF (Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Forces) under U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower, the supreme commander of Allied forces on the Western Front. Task Force 88 was also activated in August to support the landing. The 6th Army Group was an Army Group of the Allies (namely the United States Army) during World War II. It was created in Corsica, Italy (specifically activated on August 1, 1944) to consolidate the combined French and American forces that were planning to invade southern France in Operation Dragoon. ... General Jacob Jake Loucks Devers (September 8, 1887 - October 15, 1979), who is best remembered for his command of the 6th Army Group in Europe during World War II, graduated from the US Military Academy in 1909. ... (Territorial collectivity flag) (Territorial collectivity logo) Location Administration Capital Ajaccio President of the Executive Council Ange Santini (UMP) (since 2004) Departments Corse-du-Sud Haute-Corse Arrondissements 5 Cantons 52 Communes 360 Statistics Land area1 8,680 km² Population (Ranked 25th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... August 1 is the 213th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (214th in leap years), with 152 days remaining. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Allied Forces Headquarters was the headquarters that controlled all Allied forces in the Mediterranean theatre from late 1943 to the end of the war. ... Field Marshal Henry Maitland Wilson, 1st Baron Wilson of Libya (5 September 1881 - 31 December 1964), better known as Jumbo Wilson was a senior British General during World War II. He saw active service in the Boer War and the First World War. ... The Mediterranean region. ... Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force (abbreviated as SHAEF), was the command headquarters of the commander of Allied forces in North West Europe in 1944 and 1945. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 - March 28, 1969) was an American soldier and politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953-1961). ... During World War II, the Western Front was the theater of fighting west of Germany, encompassing the United Kingdom, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, and Denmark. ... Task Force 88 (TF88) was the escort carrier force, commanded by Rear-Admiral T H Troubridge, that supported Operation Dragoon, the allied invasion of southern France. ...


The landings

The assault troops were formed of three American divisions of the VI Corps, reinforced with a French armoured division. The 3rd Infantry Division landed on the left at Alpha Beach (Cavalaire-sur-Mer), the 45th Infantry Division landed in the centre at Delta Beach (Saint-Tropez), and the 36th Infantry Division landed on the right at Camel Beach (Saint-Raphaël). The 93rd Evac landed at Saint-Maxime at H-6. At Cap Negre, on the western flank of the main invasion, a large group of French commandos landed to destroy German artillery emplacements (Operation Romeo). These were supported by other French commando groups landing on both flanks, and by Rugby Force, a parachute assault in the LeMuy-Le Luc area by the 1st Airborne Task Force: British 2nd Independent Parachute Brigade, the U.S. 517th Parachute Regimental Combat Team, and a composite U.S. airborne glider regimental combat team formed from the 509th Parachute Infantry Battalion, the 550th Glider Infantry Battalion, and the 1st Battalion, 551st Parachute Infantry Regiment(Operation Dove). The 1st Special Service Force took two offshore islands to protect the beachhead (Operation Sitka). Operation Span, a deception plan, was carried out to shield the main invasion. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Shoulder sleeve patch of the United States Army 3d Infantry Division (Mechanized). ... For the VI Corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War, see VI Corps (ACW) The VI Corps took part in some of the most high profile operations in World War II. Its first combat was during the Allied invasion of Italy when it landed at Salerno with... Shoulder sleeve patch of the United States Army 3d Infantry Division (Mechanized). ... Cavalaire-sur-Mer, in the Var département, is considered part of the French Riviera. ... The 45th Infantry Division was a unit of the United States Army in World War II. // Activated: In 1924 as a National Guard Division in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Oklahoma. ... Saint-Tropez is a commune of the Var département in southern France, located on the French Riviera. ... Shoulder sleeve patch of the United States National Guard 36th Infantry Division, the Texas Division. ... Saint-Raphaël is a commune of the Var département, in southeastern France. ... The 93rd Evacuation Hospital was a make-over of the 61st Surgical Hospital and operated through WWII, Vietnam, and the Gulf War. ... Operation Romeo was a French commando operation to disable German artillery atop the cliffs of Cap Nègre. ... 517th PIR Logo 460th PFAB Logo 596th PCEC Logo The 517th Parachute Regimental Combat Team (517th PRCT), one of the U.S. Armys first elite combat units, began its existence in March of 1943, training at Camp Toccoa in the backwoods of Georgia. ... During World War II, the 509th Parachute Infantry Battalion (509th PIB) was the first combat paratrooper unit of the United States Army. ... In World War II, Operation Dove (Allies, 1944) was the glider-borne assault conducted as part of the invasion of southern France (Operation Dragoon) on 15 August 1944. ... (Redirected from 1st Special Service Force) Shoulder sleeve patch of the 1st Special Service Force. ... During World War II, Operation Span was a deception operation in support of the 1944 invasion of southern France (Operation Dragoon). ...


Naval gunfire from Allied ships, including the French battleship Lorraine, British battleship HMS Ramillies, and the American capital ships USS Texas, Nevada and Arkansas and a fleet of over 50 cruisers and destroyers supported the landings. Seven Allied escort carriers provided air cover. The French battleship Lorraine was a Bretagne-class dreadnought battleship of the French Navy. ... HMS Ramillies (pennant number 07) was a Revenge-class battleship of the Royal Navy, named after the Battle of Ramillies. ... USS Texas (BB-35), a New York-class battleship, was the second ship of the United States Navy named to honor Texas, the 28th state. ... The second United States Navy Nevada (BB-36) was a battleship, lead ship of her class of two (Oklahoma (BB-37) being the other). ... USS Arkansas (BB-33), a Wyoming-class battleship was the third ship of the United States Navy named in honor of the 25th state. ... The escort aircraft carrier or escort carrier, was a small aircraft carrier developed by the Royal Navy in the early part of World War II to deal with the U-boat crisis of the Battle of the Atlantic. ...


Over ninety-four thousand troops and eleven thousand vehicles were landed on the first day. A number of German troops had been diverted to fight the Allied forces in Northern France after Operation Overlord and a major attack by French resistance fighters, coordinated by Captain Aaron Bank of the OSS, helped drive the remaining German forces back from the beachhead in advance of the landing. As a result, the Allied forces met little resistance as they moved inland. The quick success of this invasion, with a twenty-mile penetration in twenty-four hours, sparked a major uprising by resistance fighters in Paris. The Battle of Normandy was fought in 1944 between the German forces occupying Western Europe and the invading Allies. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Aaron Bank (November 23, 1902-April 1, 2004) was the founder of the US Army Special Forces, commonly called Green Berets. ... The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a United States intelligence agency formed during World War II. It was the wartime intelligence agency and was a lineage precursor to the Central Intelligence Agency, as well as for the Special Forces and Navy Seals, who have traced their lineage back to... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ...


Follow-up formations included U.S. VI Corps HQ, U.S. Seventh Army HQ, French Army B (later redesignated the French First Army) and French I and II Corps, as well as the 51st Evacuation Hospital. For the VI Corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War, see VI Corps (ACW) The VI Corps took part in some of the most high profile operations in World War II. Its first combat was during the Allied invasion of Italy when it landed at Salerno with... Shoulder Sleeve Insignia of the U.S. Seventh Army. ... French First Army was a field army that fought during World War I and World War II. At the beginning of WWI the First Army was put in charge of General Auguste Dubail and took part, along with the French Second Army, in the Invasion of Lorraine. ...


After the landings

Monument to the landings of Allied troops under General Patch on the beach of St Tropez, France.
Monument to the landings of Allied troops under General Patch on the beach of St Tropez, France.

The rapid retreat of the German Nineteenth Army resulted in swift gains for the Allied forces. The plans had envisaged greater resistance near the landing areas and under-estimated transport needs. The consequent need for vehicle fuel outstripped supply and this shortage proved to be a greater impediment to the advance than German resistance. As a result, several German formations escaped into the Vosges and Germany. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1410x1897, 1563 KB) Summary Monument to the landings of Allied troops under General Patch on August 14, 1944. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1410x1897, 1563 KB) Summary Monument to the landings of Allied troops under General Patch on August 14, 1944. ... The German Nineteenth Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ...


The Dragoon force met up with southern thrusts from Overlord in mid-September, near Dijon. Dijon ( , IPA: ) is a city in eastern France, the préfecture (administrative capital) of the Côte-dOr département and of the Bourgogne région. ...


A planned benefit of Dragoon was the usefulness of the port of Marseilles. The rapid Allied advance after Operation Cobra and Dragoon slowed almost to a halt in September 1944 due to a critical lack of supplies, as thousands of tons of supplies were shunted to NW France to compensate for the inadequacies of port facilities and land transport in northern Europe. Marseilles and the southern French railways were brought back into service despite heavy damage to the Port of Marseilles and its railroad trunk lines. They became a significant supply route for the Allied advance into Germany, providing about a third of the Allied needs. Marseilles redirects here. ... Combatants Allied Powers Germany Commanders General Omar Bradley, General George S. Patton SS General Paul Hausser Strength 8 infantry divisions, 4 armoured divisions 2 infantry divisions, 11 infantry battlegroups, 2 Panzer Divisions, 1 Panzergrenadier Division Casualties Unknown Unknown Operation Cobra was the codename for the World War II operation planned...


Notes

  1. A significant number of Canadians also took part in the battles in southern France as members of the bi-national US-Canadian First Special Service Force.

Shoulder sleeve patch of the 1st Special Service Force. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Operation Dragoon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1007 words)
Operation Dragoon was the Allied invasion of southern France, on 15 August 1944, as part of World War II.
The balance was tipped in favour of Dragoon by two events: the eventual fall of Rome in early June, plus the success of Operation Cobra, the breakout from the Normandy pocket, at the end of the month.
The rapid Allied advance after Operation Cobra and Dragoon slowed almost to a halt in September 1944 due to a critical lack of supplies, as thousands of tons of supplies were shunted to NW France to compensate for the inadequacies of port facilities and land transport in northern Europe.
Dragoon (2766 words)
An operation on the coast of southern France was first envisaged at the 11th August 1942 Quebec conference.
This proposed operation had to be coordinated with the main landing in the north of France, planned for the spring of 1944, and had to enable the destruction of German forces between the northern "Hammer" and southern "Anvil", as the two operations were code named.
After the success of Operation Dragoon the 1st ABTF was assigned to liberate Cannes and Nice, then to secure strategic mountain top positions in the Maritime Alps along the Franco-Italian border.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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