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Encyclopedia > Operation Desert Storm
Persian Gulf War

Date: 2 August 199028 February 1991
Location: Persian Gulf
Result: Decisive Coalition Victory, Liberation of Kuwait
Combatants
U.S.-led coalition Iraq
Commanders
George H. W. Bush, Norman Schwarzkopf, Colin Powell Saddam Hussein, Ali Hassan Al-Majid, Hussein Kamel
Strength
660,000 ~545,000
Casualties
345 dead,
1,000 wounded
25,000 - 100,000 dead,
100,000 - 300,000 wounded
Modern wars in the Persian Gulf
Iran-Iraq WarGulf War2003 Invasion of Iraq
Arab-Israeli conflict
1920 riots · 1929 riots · 1936-1939 uprising · 1948 Arab-Israeli War · 1956 Suez Crisis · 1967 Six-Day War · War of Attrition · 1973 Yom Kippur War · 1982 Lebanon War · First Intifada · Gulf War · al-Aqsa Intifada

The 1991 Gulf War (also Persian Gulf War) was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of approximately 30 nations[1] led by the United States and mandated by the United Nations in order to liberate Kuwait. Image File history File links M-3_Bradley_cavalry_fighting_vehicle_from_the_2d_Squadron,_4th_Cavalry_(24th_Infantry_Division). ... August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... This article is about the year. ... February 28 is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... George Herbert Walker Bush, GCB, (born June 12, 1924 in Milton, MA) was the 41st President of the United States (1989–1993). ... Norman Schwarzkopf can refer to: Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf, Sr. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti, (Arabic ), born April 28, 1937 , was the President of Iraq from 1979 until he lost power over Iraq when American troops arrived in Baghdad on April 9, 2003. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ... Combatants Iran Iraq Casualties Est. ... This article covers invasion specifics. ... Israel (in blue color) and the Arab League states (in green, Comoros is not shown). ... This article describes violent events in the Old City of Jerusalem from April 4-7, 1920. ... In the summer of 1929, a long-running dispute between Muslims and Jews over access to the Western Wall in Jerusalem became steadily more violent, erupting in a week of riots in late August. ... The Great Uprising, Great Revolt, or Great Arab Revolt was an uprising by Palestinian Arabs in the British Mandate of Palestine which lasted from 1936 to 1939. ... The 1948 Arab-Israeli War is referred to as the War of Independence (Hebrew: מלחמת העצמאות) or as the War of Liberation (Hebrew: מלחמת השחרור) by Israelis. ... Combatants Israel, France, United Kingdom Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan (CoS of the IDF) General Sir Charles Keightley (C-in-C), Vice-Admiral Pierre Barjot (Deputy) Gamal Abdel Nasser Strength 45,000 British, 34,000 French, 175,000 Israeli 300,000 Egyptians Casualties 189 Israelis KIA, unknown number WIA, 16 British... Combatants Israel Egypt, Syria, Jordan, Iraq Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Sharif Zaid Ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 50,000 troops (264,000 including mobilized reservists); 197 combat aircraft Egypt 150,000 troops; Syria 75,000; Jordan... The War of Attrition was a limited war fought between Egypt and Israel from 1968 to 1970. ... Combatants Israel Egypt, Syria, (Jordan, Iraq) Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali Strength 415,000 troops; 1,500 tanks, 3,000 armored carriers; 945 artillery units 100 mm and up; 561 airplanes, 84 helicopters; 38 warships. ... Lebanon War (Hebrew: מלחמת לבנון Milkhemet Levanon), also known as the 1982 Invasion of Lebanon or Operation Peace of the Galilee (מבצע שלום הגליל Mivtsa Shlom HaGalil in Hebrew), began June 6, 1982, when the Israel Defense Forces invaded southern Lebanon. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The wreckage of a commuter bus in West Jerusalem after a suicide bombing on Tuesday, 18 June 2002. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... United Nations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


The lead up to the war began with the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990, following unproven Iraqi contentions that Kuwait was illegally "slant-drilling" oil across Iraq's border. The invasion was met with immediate economic sanctions by the United Nations against Iraq. Hostilities commenced in January 1991, resulting in a decisive victory for the coalition forces, which drove Iraqi forces out of Kuwait with minimal coalition deaths. The main battles were aerial and ground combat within Iraq, Kuwait, and bordering areas of Saudi Arabia. The war did not expand outside the immediate Iraq/Kuwait/Saudi border region, although Iraq fired missiles on Israeli cities. August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... This article is about the year. ... ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ), crude oil, sometimes colloquially called black gold or Texas Tea, is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Economic sanctions are economic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries) on another for a variety of reasons. ... United Nations - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... A missile (CE pronunciation: ; AmE: ) is, in general, a projectile—that is, something thrown or otherwise propelled. ...

Contents


Name

Main article: Naming the Gulf War

Gulf War and Persian Gulf War are the most common terms for the conflict used within the Western countries. These names have been used by the overwhelming majority of popular historians and journalists in the United States. Since "Operation Iraqi Freedom" on March 22, 2003 and America's subsequent occupation of Iraq, the 1991 conflict is now often referred to as Gulf War I. The conflict is also known to Americans as Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm and to the British as Operation Granby. Kuwaitis and most Arab coalition members refer to the conflict as Harb Tahrir al-Kuwait or "The war of Kuwait Liberation". In Iraq, the war is often colloquially called Um M'aārak - "The Mother of All Battles". The Gulf War was the 1990 invasion of Kuwait by Iraq and the subsequent liberation of Kuwait by the Coalition Forces. ... The British named their particaption in the 1991 defense of Saudi Arabia (know to the Americans as Operation Desert Shield) Operation Granby. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are a large and heterogeneous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ...


Causes

Prior to World War I, under the Anglo-Ottoman Convention of 1913, Kuwait was considered to be an autonomous caza within Ottoman Iraq. Following the war, Kuwait fell under British rule who treated Kuwait and Iraq as separate countries known as emirates. However, Iraqi officials did not accept the legitimacy of Kuwaiti independence or the authority of the Kuwaiti Emir. Iraq never recognized Kuwait's sovereignty and in the 1960s, the United Kingdom deployed troops to Kuwait to deter an Iraqi annexation. Combatants Allies: Serbia, Russia, France, Romania, Belgium, British Empire, United States, Italy, and others Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Ottoman Empire Casualties Military dead:5 million Civilian dead:3 million Total dead:8 million Military dead:4 million Civilian dead:3 million Total dead:7 million The First World... The Anglo-Ottoman Convention of 1913 was a short-lived agreement signed in July 1913 between the Ottoman sultan Mehmed VI and the British over several issues. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Entrance to the emirs palace in Bukhara. ...

Former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein

During the Iran-Iraq War of the 1980s, Kuwait was allied with Iraq, largely due to desiring Iraqi protection from Shi'ite Iran. After the war, Iraq was heavily indebted to several Arab countries, including a $14 billion debt to Kuwait. Iraq hoped to repay its debts by raising the price of oil through OPEC oil production cuts, but instead, Kuwait increased production, lowering prices, in an attempt to leverage a better resolution of their border dispute. In addition, Iraq began to accuse Kuwait of slant drilling into neighboring Iraqi oil fields, and furthermore charged that it had performed a collective service for all Arabs by acting as a buffer against Iran (Persia) and that therefore Kuwait and Saudi Arabia should negotiate or cancel Iraq's war debts. Iraqi President Saddam Hussein's primary two-fold justification for the war was a blend of the assertion of Kuwaiti territory being an Iraqi province arbitrarily cut off by imperialism, with the use of annexation as retaliation for the "economic warfare" Kuwait had waged through slant drilling into Iraq's oil supplies while it had been under Iraqi protection. Image File history File links Saddam_Hussein_(107). ... Image File history File links Saddam_Hussein_(107). ... Combatants Iran Iraq Casualties Est. ... The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Debt is that which is owed. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Petroleum (from Greek petra – rock and elaion – oil or Latin oleum – oil ), crude oil, sometimes colloquially called black gold or Texas Tea, is a thick, dark brown or greenish liquid. ... Logo The Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) is made up of Algeria, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates and Venezuela; since 1965, its international headquarters have been in Vienna, Austria. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Directional drilling. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti, (Arabic ), born April 28, 1937 , was the President of Iraq from 1979 until he lost power over Iraq when American troops arrived in Baghdad on April 9, 2003. ...


The war with Iran had also seen the destruction of almost all of Iraq's port facilities on the Persian Gulf, cutting off Iraq's main trade outlet. Many in Iraq, expecting a resumption of war with Iran in the future, felt that Iraq's security could only be guaranteed by controlling more of the Persian Gulf Coast, including more secure ports. Kuwait thus made a tempting target. Map of the Persian Gulf. ...


Ideologically,the invasion of Kuwait was justified through calls to Arab nationalism. Kuwait was described as a natural part of Iraq carved off by British imperialism. The annexation of Kuwait was described as a step on the way to greater Arab union. Other reasons were given as well. Hussein presented it as a way to restore the empire of Babylon in addition to the Arab nationalist rhetoric. The invasion was also closely tied to other events in the Middle East. The First Intifada by the Palestinians was raging, and most Arab states, including Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and Egypt, were dependent on western alliances. Saddam thus presented himself as the one Arab statesman willing to stand up to Israel and the U.S.. Arab nationalism refers to a common nationalist ideology in wider Arab world. ... Babylon is the Greek variant of Akkadian Babilu, an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ... The term Western world or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ... A military alliance is an agreement between two, or more, countries; related to wartime planning, commitments, or contingencies; such agreements can be both defensive and offensive. ... Motto: E pluribus unum (1789 to 1956) (Latin: Out of Many, One) In God We Trust (1956 to present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at federal level; English de facto Government • President • Vice President Federal republic George...


Pre-war Iraqi-American Relations

To the U.S. Iran-Iraqi relations were stable, and Iraq had been chiefly an ally of the Soviet Union. The U.S. was concerned with Iraq's belligerence toward Israel and disapproval of moves towards peace with other Arab states. It also condemned Iraqi support for various Arab and Palestinian militant groups such as Abu Nidal, which led to its inclusion on the incipient State Department list of states that sponsor terrorism on December 29, 1979. The U.S. remained officially neutral during the outbreak of hostilities in the Iran-Iraq War, as it had previously been humiliated by a 444 day long Iran hostage crisis and expected that Iran was not likely to win. In March 1982, however, Iran began a successful counteroffensive (Operation Undeniable Victory). In a bid to open the possibility of relations to Iraq, the country was removed from the list of state sponsors of terrorism. Ostensibly this was because of improvement in the regime's record, although former United States Assistant Secretary of Defense Noel Koch later stated, "No one had any doubts about [the Iraqis'] continued involvement in terrorism...The real reason was to help them succeed in the war against Iran." [2] With Iran's newfound success in the war and its rebuff of a peace offer in July, arms sales from other states (most importantly the USSR, France, Egypt, and starting that year, China) reached a record spike in 1982, but an obstacle remained to any potential U.S.-Iraqi relationship - Abu Nidal continued to operate with official support in Baghdad. When the group was expelled to Syria in November 1983, the Reagan administration sent Donald Rumsfeld as a special envoy to cultivate ties. Abu Nidal in 1976 in a photograph released by the Israeli army, one of only a handful of photographs of him known to exist. ... The U.S. list of state sponsors of international terrorism is a list complied by the U.S. State Department of countries that the United States sees as sponsoring terrorism. ... December 29 is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 2 days remaining. ... This page refers to the year 1979. ... Combatants Iran Iraq Casualties Est. ... The former US embassy, Tehran, Iran, as it appears today The Iran hostage crisis was a 444-day (about 14 months) period during which student proxies of the new Iranian regime held hostage 52 diplomats and citizens of the United States, which lasted from November 4, 1979 until January 20... Assistant Secretary of Defense is a title used for many executive positions in the United States Department of Defense. ... The Soviet Union and her satellites were the main suppliers of arms to Iraq following the 1972 signing of the Soviet-Iraqi Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is currently serving as the 21st United States Secretary of Defense, since January 20, 2001, under President George W. Bush. ...


Due to fears that revolutionary Iran would defeat Iraq and export its Islamic Revolution to other Middle Eastern nations, the U.S. began giving aid to Iraq. From 1983 to 1990, the U.S. government approved around $200 million in arms sales to Iraq, according to the Stockholm International Peace Institute (SIPRI). [3] These sales amounted to less than 1% of the total arms sold to Iraq in the relevant period, though the US also sold helicopters which, although designated for civilian use, were immediately deployed by Iraq in its war with Iran. [4] 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The Soviet Union and her satellites were the main suppliers of arms to Iraq following the 1972 signing of the Soviet-Iraqi Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation. ...


An investigation by the Senate Banking Committee in 1994 determined that the U.S. Department of Commerce had approved, for the purpose of research, the shipping of dual use biological agents to Iraq during the mid 1980s, including Bacillus anthracis (anthrax), later identified by the Pentagon as a key component of the Iraqi biological warfare program, as well as Clostridium botulinum, Histoplasma capsulatum, Brucella melitensis, and Clostridium perfringens. The Committee report noted that each of these had been "considered by various nations for use in war." [5] Declassified U.S. government documents indicate that the U.S. government had confirmed that Iraq was using chemical weapons "almost daily" during the Iran-Iraq conflict as early as 1983. [6] The chairman of the Senate committee, Don Riegle, said: “The executive branch of our government approved 771 different export licences for sale of dual-use technology to Iraq. I think it’s a devastating record”. [7] There is little proof that Iraq ever used biological weapons in combat, and none of the materials in the above report were chemical-weapons related. Dual-use is a term often used in politics and diplomacy to refer to technology which can be used for both peaceful and military aims, usually in regard to the proliferation of nuclear weapons. ... The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ... Binomial name Bacillus anthracis Cohn, 1872 Bacillus anthracis is a bacterium of the genus Bacillus, which causes the disease known as anthrax. ... Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism (bacteria, virus or other disease-causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. ... Binomial name Clostridium botulinum van Ermengem, 1896 Clostridium botulinum is a bacterium that produces the toxin botulin, the causative agent in botulism. ... Histoplasmosis is a disease caused by the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. ... Brucella melitensis is a type of microorganism that damages tissue. ... Binomial name Clostridium perfringens Clostridium perfringens is a bacterium of the genus Clostridium. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ...


Chiefly, the U.S. government provided Iraq with economic aid. Iraq's war with Iran, and the consequent disruption in its oil export business, had caused the country to enter a deep debt. U.S. government economic assistance allowed Hussein to continue using resources for the war which would have otherwise had to have been diverted. Between 1983 and 1990, Iraq received $5 billion in credits from the Commodity Credit Corporation program run by the Department of Agriculture, beginning at $400 million per year in 1983 and increasing to over $1 billion per year in 1988 and 1989, finally coming to an end after another $500 million was granted in 1990. [8] Besides agricultural credits, the U.S. also provided Hussein with other loans. In 1985 the U.S. Export-Import Bank extended more than $684 million in credits to Iraq to build an oil pipeline through Jordan with the construction being undertaken by Californian construction firm Bechtel Corporation. [9] [10] The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ... The Export-Import Bank of the United States (“Ex-Im Bank”, “Exim Bank” or “Eximbank”) is an independent bank established by Congress that finances or insures foreign purchases of U.S. goods for customers unable or unwilling to accept credit risk. ... Bechtel Corporation (Bechtel Group) is the largest civil engineering company in the world. ...


Following the war, however, there were moves within the Congress of the United States to isolate Iraq diplomatically and economically over concerns about human rights violations, its dramatic military build-up, and hostility to Israel. Specifically, the Senate in 1988 unanimously passed the "Prevention of Genocide Act of 1988," which imposed sanctions on Iraq. The legislation passed. [11] Congress in Joint Session. ...


These moves were disowned by some Congressmen though some U.S. officials, such as Reagan's head of Policy Planning Staff at the State Dept. and Assistant Secretary for East Asian Affairs Paul Wolfowitz disagreed with giving support to the Iraqi regime. Paul Dundes Wolfowitz (born December 22, 1943) is an American academic and political figure. ...


The relationship between Iraq and the United States remained unhindered until the day Iraq invaded Kuwait. On October 2, 1989, President George H.W. Bush signed secret National Security Directive 26, which begins, "Access to Persian Gulf oil and the security of key friendly states in the area are vital to U.S. national security." [12] With respect to Iraq, the directive stated, "Normal relations between the United States and Iraq would serve our longer term interests and promote stability in both the Persian Gulf and the Middle East." Order: 41st President Vice President: Dan Quayle Term of office: January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993 Preceded by: Ronald Reagan Succeeded by: Bill Clinton Date of birth: June 12, 1924 Place of birth: Milton, Massachusetts First Lady: Barbara Pierce Bush Political party: Republican George Herbert Walker Bush, KBE (born June...


In late July, 1990, as negotiations between Iraq and Kuwait stalled, Iraq massed troops on Kuwait's borders and summoned American Ambassador April Glaspie for an unanticipated meeting with Iraqi President Saddam Hussein. Two transcripts of that meeting have been produced, both of them controversial. According to the transcripts, Saddam outlined his grievances against Kuwait, while promising that he would not invade Kuwait before one more round of negotiations. In the version published by The New York Times on September 23, 1990, Glaspie expressed concern over the troop buildup, but went on to say: This article is about the year. ... April Catherine Glaspie (born April 26, 1942), American diplomat, is best-known for her role in the events leading up to the Gulf War of 1991. ... The New York Times is a newspaper published in New York City by Arthur O. Sulzberger Jr. ... September 23 is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years). ... This article is about the year. ...

We have no opinion on the Arab-Arab conflicts, like your border disagreement with Kuwait. I was in the American Embassy in Kuwait during the late '60s. The instruction we had during this period was that we should express no opinion on this issue and that the issue is not associated with America. James Baker has directed our official spokesmen to emphasize this instruction. We hope you can solve this problem using any suitable methods via [Chadli] Klibi [then Arab League General Secretary] or via President Mubarak. All that we hope is that these issues are solved quickly.

Some have interpreted these statements as diplomatic language signalling an American "green light" for the invasion. Although the State Department did not confirm the authenticity of these transcripts, U.S. sources say that she had handled everything "by the book" (in accordance with the US's official neutrality on the Iraq-Kuwait issue) and had not signaled Iraqi President Saddam Hussein any approval for defying the Arab League's Jeddah crisis squad, which had conducted the negotiations. Many believe that Saddam's expectations may have been influenced by a perception that the US was not interested in the issue, for which the Glaspie transcript is merely an example, and that he may have felt so in part because of U.S. support for the reunification of Germany, another act that he considered to be nothing more than the nullification of an artificial, internal border. Others, such as Kenneth Pollack, believe he had no such illusion, or that he simply underestimated the extent of American military response. Flag of the League of Arab States The Arab League or League of Arab States (Arabic: جامعة الدول العربية), is an organization of Arab states (compare Arab world). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Kenneth Pollack is a noted American Intelligence analyst on the Middle East. ...


In November 1989, CIA director William Webster met with the Kuwaiti head of security, Brigadier Fahd Ahmed Al-Fahd. Subsequent to Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, Iraq claimed to have found a memorandum pertaining to their conversation. The Washington Post reported that Kuwaiti's foreign minister fainted when confronted with this document at an Arab summit in August. Later, Iraq cited this memorandum as evidence of a CIA - Kuwaiti plot to destabilize Iraq economically and politically. The CIA and Kuwait have described the meeting as routine and the memorandum as a forgery. The purported document reads in part: William Hedgcock Webster (born March 6, 1924) was the director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) from 1978 to 1987 and director of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) from 1987 to 1991. ... The Washington Post is the largest and oldest newspaper in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States. ...

We agreed with the American side that it was important to take advantage of the deteriorating economic situation in Iraq in order to put pressure on that country's government to delineate our common border. The Central Intelligence Agency gave us its view of appropriate means of pressure, saying that broad cooperation should be initiated between us on condition that such activities be coordinated at a high level.
TIME magazine January 28, 1991 cover

Image File history File links TIME_magazine_cover,_January_28,_1991. ... Image File history File links TIME_magazine_cover,_January_28,_1991. ... A pocket watch. ... January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Invasion of Kuwait

At the break of dawn on August 2, 1990, Iraqi troops crossed the Kuwaiti border with armor and infantry, occupying strategic posts throughout the country, including the Emir's palace. The Kuwaiti Army was quickly overwhelmed, though they bought enough time for the Kuwaiti Air Force to flee to Saudi Arabia. The heaviest fighting occurred at the Emir's Palace, where members of the royal guard fought a rear guard action to allow the royal family time to escape. A cousin of the Emir, who commanded the guard, was amongst those killed. Iraqi troops looted medical and food supplies, detained thousands of civilians and took over the media. There were reports of incidents of murder, brutality, and rape being committed by Iraqi troops against Kuwaiti citizens. However, Iraq detained thousands of Western visitors as hostages and later attempted to use them as bargaining chips. After a brief puppet government headed by Alaa Hussein Ali was installed, Iraq annexed Kuwait. Hussein then installed a new Iraqi provincial governor, describing this as "liberation" from the Kuwaiti Emir; this was largely dismissed as war propaganda. August 2 is the 214th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (215th in leap years), with 151 days remaining. ... This article is about the year. ... An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is a military vehicle, equipped with protection against hostile attacks and often mounted weapons. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I. Infantry are soldiers or marines who fight primarily on foot with small arms in organized military units. ... The term Western world or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ... Alaa Hussein Ali served at the head of a puppet government in Kuwait during the initial stages of the 1991 Iraqi invasion from August 4, 1990 to August 8, 1990. ... U.S. propaganda poster, depicting a Nazi stabbing a Bible. ...


Diplomacy

Within hours of the initial invasion, the Kuwaiti and United States of America delegations requested a meeting of the UN Security Council, which passed Resolution 660, condemning the invasion and demanding a withdrawal of Iraqi troops. On August 3, the Arab League passed its own resolution condemning the invasion and demanding a withdrawal of Iraqi troops. The Arab League resolution also called for a solution to the conflict from within the Arab League, and warned against foreign intervention. On August 6, the Security Council passed Resolution 661, placing economic sanctions on Iraq. A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 660 was adopted on 2 August 1990. ... August 3 is the 215th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (216th in leap years), with 150 days remaining. ... Flag of the League of Arab States The Arab League or League of Arab States (Arabic: جامعة الدول العربية), is an organization of Arab states (compare Arab world). ... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... RESOLUTION 661 (1990) Adopted by the Security Council at its 2933rd meeting on 6 August 1990 The Security Council, Reaffirming its resolution 660 (1990) of 2 August 1990, Deeply concerned that that resolution has not been implemented and that the invasion by Iraq of Kuwait continues with further loss of... Economic sanctions are economic penalties applied by one country (or group of countries) on another for a variety of reasons. ...


The decision by the West to repel the Iraqi invasion had as much to do with preventing an Iraqi invasion of Saudi Arabia, a nation of far more importance to the world than Kuwait, as it did with Kuwait itself. The rapid success of the Iraqi army against Kuwait had brought Iraq's army within easy striking distance of the Hama oil fields, Saudi Arabia's most valuable resources. Iraqi control of these fields as well as Kuwait and Iraqi reserves would have given it a large share of the world's oil supply, second only to Saudi Arabia itself. The United States, Europe, and Japan in particular saw such a potential monopoly as dangerous. Saudi Arabia, a geographically large nation with dispersed population centers would have found it difficult to quickly mobilize to meet the Iraqi division deployed in Southern Kuwait. Very likely Iraq would have gained control of the Eastern oil fields but it is heavily debatable whether Iraq could have fought into the Saudi capital of Riyadh. The Iraqi armoured divisions would face the same difficulties that Saudi forces were facing in order to defend the Oil fields, namely to transverse large distances across inhospitable desert. This would have all occurred against the backdrop of intense bombing by the Saudi Airforce, by far the most modern arm of the Saudi military. The term Western world or the West can have multiple meanings depending on its context. ... The Orontes River and norias in Hama Hama (Arabic: حماه) is a city which is located on the Orontes river in central Syria, north of the city of Homs, midway between Damascus and Aleppo. ... In economics, a monopoly (from the Greek monos, one + polein, to sell) is defined as a persistent market situation where there is only one provider of a kind of product or service. ...


Iraq had a number of grievances with Saudi Arabia. The concern over debts stemming from the Iran-Iraq war was even greater when applied to Saudi Arabia, which Iraq owed some 26 billion dollars. The long desert border was also ill-defined. Soon after his victory over Kuwait, Saddam began verbally attacking the Saudi kingdom. He argued that the American-supported Kingdom was an illegitimate guardian of holy cities of Mecca and Medina. Saddam combined the language of the Islamist groups that had recently fought in Afghanistan with the rhetoric Iran had long used to attack the Saudis. CITY OF TRASH ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ...


The addition of Allahu Akbar "God is Great" to the flag of Iraq and images of Saddam praying in Kuwait were seen as part of a plan to win the support of the Muslim Brotherhood and detach Islamist Mujahideen from Saudi Arabia. There was further escalation of such propaganda attacks on Saudi Arabia as western troops poured into the country. This article is about Islamic religious phrase God is most great. For other usages, see Allahu Akbar (disambiguation). ... The Muslim Brotherhood or The Muslim Brothers (Arabic: الإخوان المسلمون al-ikhwān al-muslimūn, full title جماعة الإخوان المسلمين jamāat al-ikhwān al-muslimīn, The Society of the Muslim Brothers, often simply الإخوان al-ikhwān, the Brotherhood) is the name of several Islamist organizations in the Middle East. ... Mujahedeen (Arabic: , also transliterated as mujāhidīn, mujahedeen, mujahedin, mujahidin, mujaheddin, etc. ...

The battleship USS Wisconsin was one of several naval vessels deployed for Operation Desert Shield.
The battleship USS Wisconsin was one of several naval vessels deployed for Operation Desert Shield.

President George H. W. Bush quickly announced that the US would launch a "wholly defensive" mission to prevent Iraq from invading Saudi Arabia - Operation Desert Shield - and US troops moved into Saudi Arabia on August 7. On August 8, Iraq declared parts of Kuwait to be extensions of the Iraqi province of Basra and the rest to be the 19th province of Iraq. Image File history File links Wisconsin_Preps. ... Image File history File links Wisconsin_Preps. ... HMS Victory in 1884. ... Radars: AN/SPS-49 Air Search Radar AN/SPS-67 Surface Search Radar Fire control: 4 × Mk 37 Gun Fire Control 2 × Mk 38 Gun Director 1 × Mk 40 Gun Director EW: AN/SLQ-32 Other: AN/SLQ-25 NIXIE Decoy System 8 × Super Rapid Bloom Rocket Launchers (SRBOC) Armor... The presidential seal was used by president Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... George Herbert Walker Bush, GCB, (born June 12, 1924 in Milton, MA) was the 41st President of the United States (1989–1993). ... August 7 is the 219th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (220th in leap years), with 146 days remaining. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... Basra province, or Al Basrah province, is a province in the nation of Iraq. ...


The United States Navy mobilized two naval battle groups, USS Dwight D. Eisenhower and USS Independence, to the area, where they were ready by August 8. Also on August 8th, 1990, 48 US Air Force F-15s from the 1st Fighter Wing at Langley AFB, Virginia, landed in Saudia Arabia and immediately commenced round the clock air patrols of the Saudi-Kuwait-Iraq border areas to prevent further Iraqi advances. The United States also sent the battleships USS Missouri and USS Wisconsin to the region, and they would later become the last battleships to actively participate in a war. Military buildup continued from there, eventually reaching 500,000 troops. The consensus among military analysts is that until October, the American military forces in the area would have been insufficient to stop an invasion of Saudi Arabia had Iraq attempted one. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The fifth USS Independence (CVA-62), a Forrestal-class aircraft carrier, was launched by New York Navy Yard 6 June 1958; sponsored by Mrs. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... HMS Victory in 1884. ... Radars: AN/SPS-49 Air Search Radar AN/SPS-67 Surface Search Radar Fire control: 4 × Mk 37 Gun Fire Control 2 × Mk 38 Gun Director 1 × Mk 40 Gun Director EW: AN/SLQ-32 Other: AN/SLQ-25 NIXIE Decoy System 8 × Super Rapid Bloom Rocket Launchers (SRBOC) Armor... Radars: AN/SPS-49 Air Search Radar AN/SPS-67 Surface Search Radar Fire control: 4 × Mk 37 Gun Fire Control 2 × Mk 38 Gun Director 1 × Mk 40 Gun Director EW: AN/SLQ-32 Other: AN/SLQ-25 NIXIE Decoy System 8 × Super Rapid Bloom Rocket Launchers (SRBOC) Armor...


A long series of UN Security Council and Arab League resolutions were passed regarding the conflict. One of the most important was Resolution 678, passed on November 29, giving Iraq a withdrawal deadline of January 15, 1991, and authorizing "all necessary means to uphold and implement Resolution 660", a diplomatic formulation authorizing the use of force. UN Security Council Resolution 678 authorizes member states to use all necessary means to uphold and implement resolution 660 and all subsequent relevant resolutions (resolution 661, resolution 662, resolution 664, resolution 665, resolution 666, resolution 667, resolution 669, resolution 670, resolution 674 and resolution 667), and to restore international peace... November 29 is the 333rd (in leap years the 334th) day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The United States, especially Secretary of State James Baker, assembled a coalition of forces to join it in opposing Iraq, consisting of forces from 34 countries: Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Honduras, Italy, Kuwait, Morocco, The Netherlands, New Zealand, Niger, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, South Korea, Spain, Syria, Turkey, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom and the United States itself. US troops represented 74% of 660,000 troops in the theater of war. Many of the coalition forces were reluctant to join; some felt that the war was an internal Arab affair, or feared increasing American influence in Kuwait. In the end, many nations were persuaded by Iraq's belligerence towards other Arab states, and offers of economic aid or debt forgiveness. Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice The United States Secretary of State is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with foreign affairs. ... James Addison Baker III (born April 28, 1930), American politician and diplomat, was Chief of Staff in President Ronald Reagans first administration, United States Secretary of the Treasury from 1985 to 1988 in the second Reagan administration, and Secretary of State in the administration of President George H. W... The Netherlands (Dutch: Nederland) is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (Dutch: Koninkrijk der Nederlanden). ...

H. Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr. and President George H. W. Bush visit U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia on Thanksgiving Day, 1990.
H. Norman Schwarzkopf, Jr. and President George H. W. Bush visit U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia on Thanksgiving Day, 1990.

The United States gave several public justifications for involvement in the conflict. The first reason given was the importance of the United States' longstanding friendly relationship with Saudi Arabia. However, some Americans were dissatisfied with this explanation and "No Blood For Oil" became a rallying cry for domestic opponents of the war, though they never reached the size of opposition to the Vietnam War. Later justifications for the war included Iraq's history of human rights abuses under President Saddam Hussein, the potential that Iraq may develop nuclear weapons or weapons of mass destruction, and that "naked aggression will not stand." George H.W. Bush riding in an armored jeep with General Schwarzkopf in Saudi Arabia, November 22, 1990 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... George H.W. Bush riding in an armored jeep with General Schwarzkopf in Saudi Arabia, November 22, 1990 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Herbert Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) United States of America South Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand the Philippines Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) National Liberation Front (Viet Cong) Strength ~1,200,000 (1968) ~420,000 (1968) Casualties South Vietnamese dead: 1,250,000+ US dead: 58,226 US wounded... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) generally include nuclear, biological, chemical and, increasingly, radiological weapons. ...


Although the human rights abuses of the Iraq regime before and after the Kuwait invasion were well-documented, the government of Kuwait set out to influence American opinion with a few accounts. Shortly after Iraq's invasion of Kuwait, the organization Citizens for a Free Kuwait was formed in the U.S. It hired the public relations firm Hill and Knowlton for about $11 million, money from the Kuwaiti government. This firm went on to manufacture a campaign which described Iraqi soldiers pulling babies out of incubators in Kuwaiti hospitals and letting them die on the floor. One year later, however, this allegation was labeled a fabricated hoax. The person that testified to this allegation was found to be a member of the Kuwaiti Royal Family living in Paris during the war, and therefore could not have been present during the alleged crime. (See Nurse Nayirah.) Citizens for a Free Kuwait (CFK) was a front group established by the Hill & Knowlton PR firm to promote the 1991 U.S. war in the Persian Gulf (Operation Desert Storm). ... Nurse Nayirah was a creation of public relations firm Hill & Knowlton for promoting the 1991 Gulf War. ...


Various peace proposals were floated, but none were agreed to. The United States insisted that the only acceptable terms for peace were Iraq's full, unconditional withdrawal from Kuwait. Iraq insisted that withdrawal from Kuwait must be "linked" to a simultaneous withdrawal of Syrian troops from Lebanon and Israeli troops from the West Bank, Gaza Strip, the Golan Heights, and southern Lebanon. Morocco and Jordan were persuaded by this proposal, but Syria, Israel, and the anti-Iraq coalition denied that there was any connection to the Kuwait issue. Syria joined the coalition to expel Saddam but Israel remained officially neutral despite rocket attacks on Israeli civilians. The Bush administration persuaded Israel to remain outside the conflict with promises of increased aid, while the PLO under Yasser Arafat openly supported Saddam Hussein, leading to a later rupture in Palestinian-Kuwaiti ties and the expulsion of many Palestinians from Kuwait. Sites on the Golan in blue are Israeli settlement communities. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic: منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية (help· info) or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinians dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state in the region historically known as Palestine. ... Arafat redirects here; for the hill east of Mecca, see Mount Arafat Yasser Arafat (Arabic: ياسر عرفات‎) (August 4 or August 24, 1929 – November 11, 2004), born Mohammed Abdel-Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini (محمد عبد الرؤوف القدوة الحسيني) and also known by the kunya Abu `Ammar (أبو عمّار), was Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (1969...


On January 12, 1991 the United States Congress authorized the use of military force to drive Iraq out of Kuwait. Soon after the other states in the coalition did the same. January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Congress in Joint Session. ...


Air campaign

USAF F-16A, F-15C, F-15E combat aircraft flying over burning oil wells (set alight by retreating Iraqi forces) during Desert Storm.
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USAF F-16A, F-15C, F-15E combat aircraft flying over burning oil wells (set alight by retreating Iraqi forces) during Desert Storm.

A day after the deadline set in Resolution 678, the coalition launched a massive air campaign codenamed Operation Desert Storm with more than 1,000 sorties launching per day, beginning early morning on January 17, 1991. Five hours after the first attacks, Baghdad state radio broadcast a voice identified as Saddam Hussein declaring that "The great duel, the mother of all battles has begun. The dawn of victory nears as this great showdown begins." Image File history File links USAF_F-16A_F-15C_F-15E_Desert_Storm_pic. ... Image File history File links USAF_F-16A_F-15C_F-15E_Desert_Storm_pic. ... Seal of the Air Force. ... The F-16 Fighting Falcon is a modern multi-role jet fighter aircraft built in the United States and used by dozens of countries all over the world. ... The McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle is an all-weather, extremely maneuverable, tactical fighter designed to permit the U.S. Air Force to gain and maintain air superiority in aerial combat. ... F-15E Strike Eagle The F-15E Strike Eagle is a modern American all-weather strike fighter, designed for long-range interdiction of enemy ground targets deep behind enemy lines. ... An oil well is a term for any perforation through the Earths surface designed to find and release both petroleum oil and gas hydrocarbons. ... January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Weapons used in the air campaign included precision-guided munitions (or "smart bombs"), cluster bombs, BLU-82 "daisy cutters", and cruise missiles. Iraq responded by launching 8 Scud missiles into Israel the next day. The first priority for coalition forces was destruction of the Iraqi air force and anti-aircraft facilities. This was quickly achieved and for the duration of the war Coalition aircraft could operate largely unchallenged. Despite Iraq's better-than-expected anti-aircraft capabilities, only one coalition aircraft was lost in the opening day of the war. Stealth aircraft were heavily used in this phase to elude Iraq's extensive SAM systems and anti-aircraft weapons; once these were destroyed, other types of aircraft could more safely be used. The sorties were launched mostly from Saudi Arabia and the six coalition aircraft carrier groups in the Persian Gulf. BOLT-117 laser guided bomb Precision-guided munitions (smart munitions or smart bombs) are self-guiding weapons intended to maximize damage to the target while minimizing collateral damage. Because the damage effects of an explosive weapon scale as a power law with distance, quite modest improvements in accuracy (and hence... Demonstration cluster bomb cutaway, showing bomblets (photo circa 1943) Cluster munitions are air-dropped or ground launched shells that eject multiple small submunitions (bomblets). ... A 15,000lb BLU-82/B on display at the USAF museum Note: Though commonly called daisy cutter, Daisy Cutter actually refers to the fuse extender on the nose of the bomb. ... A Tomahawk cruise missile A cruise missile is a guided missile which uses a lifting wing and most often a jet propulsion system to allow sustained flight. ... Polish missile wz. ... B-2 Spirit stealth bomber. ... A surface-to-air missile (SAM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft. ... An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft—in effect acting as a sea-going airbase. ...

USAF A-10A Thunderbolt II ground attack plane flying over target area during Desert Storm.
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USAF A-10A Thunderbolt II ground attack plane flying over target area during Desert Storm.

The next coalition targets were command and communication facilities. Saddam had closely micromanaged the Iraqi forces in the Iran-Iraq War and initiative at the lower levels was discouraged. Coalition planners hoped Iraqi resistance would quickly collapse if deprived of command and control. The first week of the air war saw a few Iraqi sorties but these did little damage, and thirty-eight Iraqi MiGs were shot down by Coalition planes. Soon after, the Iraqi airforce began fleeing to Iran, with between 115 to 140 aircraft flown to Iran [13]. The mass exodus of Iraqi aircraft to Iran took coalition forces by surprise and they were unable to react before most of the Iraqi aircraft had made it "safely" to Iranian airbases. Iran has never returned the aircraft to Iraq and didn't release the aircrews to return home until years later. On January 23, Iraq began dumping approximately 1 million tons of crude oil into the gulf, causing the largest oil spill in history. Image File history File links A-10A_Thunderbolt_II_Desert_Storm. ... Image File history File links A-10A_Thunderbolt_II_Desert_Storm. ... A-10 Thunderbolt II USAF A-10A Thunderbolt II USAF A-10 Thunderbolt from 1975 The only twin seat A-10 created. ... MIG may refer to one of the following. ... January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Gulf War oil spill was one of the worst oil spills in history, resulting from actions taken during the Gulf War in 1991. ... Volunteers cleaning up the aftermath of the Prestige oil spill An oil spill is the intentional or unintentional release of oil (generally, petroleum) into the natural environment as a result of human activity. ...


The third and largest phase of the air campaign targeted military targets throughout Iraq and Kuwait: Scud missile launchers, weapons of mass destruction sites, weapons research facilities and naval forces. About one third of the Coalition airpower was devoted to attacking Scuds, which were on trucks and therefore difficult to locate. In addition, it targeted facilities useful for both the military and civilians: electricity production facilities, nuclear reactors, telecommunications equipment, port facilities, oil refineries and distribution, railroads and bridges. Electrical power facilities were destroyed across the country. At the end of the war, electricity production was at four percent of its pre-war levels. Bombs destroyed the utility of all major dams, most major pumping stations and many sewage treatment plants. Some US and British special forces teams had been covertly inserted into western Iraq to aid in the search and destruction of scuds. However, the lack of adequate terrain for concealment hindered their operations and many of them were killed or captured. Polish missile wz. ... Weapons of mass destruction (WMD) generally include nuclear, biological, chemical and, increasingly, radiological weapons. ... Special forces or special operations forces are military units which are formed and trained to conduct missions involving unconventional warfare, counter-terrorism, reconnaissance, direct action and foreign internal defense. ...

Targeting camera showing US missile strike during Desert Storm - such images became familiar to Western television audiences, and were compared to video games.
Targeting camera showing US missile strike during Desert Storm - such images became familiar to Western television audiences, and were compared to video games.

In most cases, the Allies avoided hitting civilian-only facilities. However, on February 13, 1991, two laser-guided "smart bombs" destroyed the Amiriyah blockhouse, which the Iraqis claimed was for the auspices of an air shelter. U.S. officials claimed that the blockhouse was a military communications center, but Western reporters have been unable to find evidence for this. The White House claims, in a report titled Apparatus of Lies: Crafting Tragedy, that U.S. intelligence sources reported the blockhouse was being used for military command purposes. [14] In his book, Saddam's Bombmaker, the former director of Iraq's nuclear weapon program, who defected to the west, supports the theory that the facility was used for both purposes. Image File history File links Gulf_war_target_cam. ... Image File history File links Gulf_war_target_cam. ... Computer and video games A screenshot of Tetris for the Nintendo Game Boy A console game (better known as a video game) is a form of interactive multimedia used for entertainment, which consists of a moveable image displayed on a screen that is usually controlled and manipulated using a handheld... February 13 is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... BOLT-117 laser guided bomb Precision-guided munitions (smart munitions or smart bombs) are self-guiding weapons intended to maximize damage to the target while minimizing collateral damage. Because the damage effects of an explosive weapon scale as a power law with distance, quite modest improvements in accuracy (and hence... Many Iraqi civilians lost their lives when Amiriyah shelter was hit by USAF smart bombs on 13 February 1991 during the Gulf War. ... A 19th-century-era block house in Fort York, Toronto In military science, a blockhouse is a small, isolated fort in the form of a single building. ...

We sought refuge several times at the shelter.... But it was always filled.... The shelter had television sets, drinking fountains, its own electrical generator, and looked sturdy enough to withstand a hit from conventional weapons. But I stopped trying to get in one night after noticing some long black limousines slithering in and out of an underground gate in the back. I asked around and was told that it was a command center. After considering it more closely, I decided it was probably Saddam's own operational base.

Iraq launched missile attacks on coalition bases in Saudi Arabia and on Israel, in the hopes of drawing Israel into the war and drawing other Arab states out of it. This strategy proved ineffective. Israel did not join the coalition, and all Arab states stayed in the coalition except Jordan, which remained officially neutral throughout. The Scud missiles generally caused fairly light damage, although its potency was felt on February 25 when 28 Americans were killed when a Scud destroyed their barracks in Dhahran. The Scuds targeting Israel were ineffective due to the fact that increasing the range of the Scud resulted in the dramatic reduction in accuracy and payload. On January 29, Iraq attacked and occupied the lightly Marine defended Saudi city of Khafji with tanks and infantry. However, the Battle of Khafji ended when Iraqis were driven back by Saudi forces supported by US Marines with close air support over the following two days. Khafji was a strategic city immediately after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait. The Iraqi reluctance to commit several armoured divisions to the occupation and subsequent use of Khafji as a launching pad into the initially lightly defended Eastern portion of Saudi Arabia was a grave strategic error. Not only would Iraq have secured a majority of Middle Eastern Oil Supplies, it would have found itself better able to threaten the subsequent U.S. deployment along superior defensive lines. The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ) are a large and heterogeneous ethnic group found throughout the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ... February 25 is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Road to Dhahrans main gate (Picture taken from Khobar way) Dhahran (Arabic الظهران aẓ-Ẓahrān) is a city in Saudi Arabia located in the countrys Eastern Province not far from the Persian Gulf. ... January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ras Al Khafji was historically the principle town in the neutral zone between Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. ... The Battle of Khafji was the first major ground engagement of the Gulf War It took place in the Saudi Arabian city of Khafji. ...


The effect of the air campaign was to decimate entire Iraqi brigades deployed in the open desert in combat formation. The air campaign also prevented effective Iraqi resupply to forward deployed units engaged in combat, as well preventing the large number (450,000) of Iraqi troops from achieving the force concentration essential to victory.


The air campaign had a significant effect on the tactics employed by opposing forces in subsequent conflicts. No longer were entire divisions dug in the open facing U.S. forces but rather they were dispersed, e.g. Serbian forces in Kosovo. Opposing forces also reduced the length of their supply lines and the total area defended. This was seen during the war in Afghanistan when the Taliban preemptively abandoned large swaths of land and retreated into their strongholds. This increased their force concentration and reduced long vulnerable supply lines. This tactic was also observed in the invasion of Iraq when the Iraqi forces retreated from northern Iraqi Kurdistan into the cities. The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Combatants al-Qaeda, Taliban Northern Alliance, United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, France, New Zealand, Italy, Germany Commanders Mohammed Omar Osama bin Laden Tommy Franks Mohammed Fahim Strength Casualties {{{notes}}} The United States invasion of Afghanistan occurred in October 2001, in the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks on... Flag flown by the Taliban. ... Kurdistan (literally meaning the land of Kurds)[1] is the name of a geographic region and a cultural region in Middle East inhabited predominantly by Kurds. ...


Ground campaign

Operation Desert Storm
Operation Desert Storm

On February 22, 1991, Iraq agreed to a Soviet-proposed cease-fire agreement. The agreement called for Iraq to withdraw troops to pre-invasion positions within three weeks following a total cease-fire, and called for monitoring of the cease-fire and withdrawal to be overseen by the UN Security Council. The US rejected the proposal but said that retreating Iraqi forces would not be attacked, and gave twenty-four hours for Iraq to begin withdrawing forces. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2346x1650, 561 KB) Description: Map of Troop Movements from Desert Shield/Storm Source: US-Army images Licence: Public Domain File links The following pages link to this file: Gulf War ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2346x1650, 561 KB) Description: Map of Troop Movements from Desert Shield/Storm Source: US-Army images Licence: Public Domain File links The following pages link to this file: Gulf War ... February 22 is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... An armistice is the effective end of a war, when the warring parties agree to stop fighting. ...


On February 24, the U.S.-led forces began Operation Desert Sabre, the ground portion of its campaign. Soon after, U.S. Marines and their Arab allies penetrated deep into Kuwait, collecting thousands of deserting Iraqi troops, weakened and demoralized by the extensive air campaign. A few days into the campaign, Kuwait City was recaptured by units of the Kuwaiti Army. February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


At the same time, the U.S. VII Corps launched a massive armored attack into Iraq, just to the west of Kuwait, taking the Iraqis completely by surprise. The left flank of this movement was protected by the French 6th Light Armored Division (which included units of the French Foreign Legion), and their right flank by the British 1st Armoured Division. Once the allies had penetrated deep into Iraqi territory, they turned eastward, launching a massive flank attack against the Republican Guard. Tank battles flared as the Republican Guard attempted to retreat, which the Allies won with minimal losses. Légionnaires in dress uniform. ... History The 1 (United Kingdom) Armoured Division has existed in the British Army since 1809 when the Duke of Wellington formed it, in Portugal, from two British brigades and one Hanoverian brigade of the Kings German Legion. ...

General Colin Powell briefs President George H. W. Bush and his advisors on the progress of the ground war
General Colin Powell briefs President George H. W. Bush and his advisors on the progress of the ground war

Once Iraq had decided it was not going to advance into the eastern oil fields of Saudi Arabia, there was no reason for Iraqi forces to deploy further south from Kuwait City in great numbers. The decision to deploy significant quantities of troops along the desert border of Kuwait unnecessarily increased the length of Iraqi supply lines. Secondly once the decision had been made to deploy along the border, the decision to extend it only slightly along the Iraqi border invited a massive flanking. Indeed the Iraqis did not possess enough forces to maintain a long enough front along the border of Kuwait and South Western Iraq. Therefore it was imperative that the deployment and the front should have been shortened to just South of Kuwait City and extending to the outskirts of Basra. Iraq possessed only one absolute military advantage over the allies being the quality and quantity of its artillery pieces. Most of Iraq's artillery pieces were towed and hence not well suited to large expansive maneuvers. This also meant that it was in Iraq's interest to slow down the movement of opposition forces and engage along lines that could not be easily broken or flanked. http://teachpol. ... http://teachpol. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... George Herbert Walker Bush, GCB, (born June 12, 1924 in Milton, MA) was the 41st President of the United States (1989–1993). ...


The allied advance was much swifter than US generals expected. On February 26, Iraqi troops began retreating out of Kuwait, setting fire to Kuwaiti oil fields as they left. A long convoy of retreating Iraqi troops formed along the main Iraq-Kuwait highway. This convoy was bombed so extensively by the Allies that it came to be known as the Highway of Death. One hundred hours after the ground campaign started, President Bush declared a ceasefire and on February 27 declared that Kuwait had been liberated. February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Kuwaiti oil wells on fire. ... The Highway of Death A rusting tank at the Highway of Death, taken in February 2003 A sole, the only remaining part of a shoe, that lays where it was left by its wearer. ... February 27 is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...

The "Highway of Death".
The "Highway of Death".

Both sides had roughly equal numbers of troops- approximately 540,000 Allied troops to approximately 545,000 Iraqi troops. A further 100,000 Turkish troops were deployed along the common border of Turkey and Iraq. This caused significant force dilution of the Iraqi military by forcing it to deploy its forces along all its borders (except, ironically, its bitter enemy Iran). This allowed the main thrust by the Americans to not only possess a significant technological advantage but also an equality in force numbers. us military photo (public domain) File links The following pages link to this file: Gulf War Highway of Death On the Justice of Roosting Chickens Category:Persian Gulf War Categories: U.S. military images ... us military photo (public domain) File links The following pages link to this file: Gulf War Highway of Death On the Justice of Roosting Chickens Category:Persian Gulf War Categories: U.S. military images ... The Highway of Death A rusting tank at the Highway of Death, taken in February 2003 A sole, the only remaining part of a shoe, that lays where it was left by its wearer. ...

A US Army convoy crosses the Iraqi desert.
A US Army convoy crosses the Iraqi desert.

The main surprise of the ground campaign was relatively low Allied casualties. This was due to the Iraqis failing to find an effective countermeasure to the thermal sights and the kinetic energy rounds used by the M1 Abrams and the other Coalition tanks. This equipment enabled Coalition tanks to effectively engage and destroy Iraqi tanks from three times the distance (or more) that Iraqi tanks could engage. The Iraqi forces also failed to utilize the advantage that could be gained from using urban warfare - fighting within Kuwait City, which could have inflicted significant casualities on the attacking forces. Urban combat reduces the range at which fighting occurs and thus favours the technologically inferior force when it is defending. This has been proven most recently in the combat between U.S. forces and Iraqi partisans in urban environments after the 2003 Invasion of Iraq. The confines of the urban geography would have reduced the greatest advantage of the Allies, the ability to kill at long range. public domain (us military photo) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... public domain (us military photo) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A kinetic energy penetrator, long-rod penetrator, or armour-piercing fin-stabilized discarding sabot (APFSDS) is a type of ammunition which, like a bullet, does not contain explosives, but uses kinetic energy to penetrate the target. ... The M1 Abrams main battle tank is the principal combat tank of the United States Army and the United States Marine Corps, with three main versions being deployed starting in 1980: the M1, M1A1, and M1A2. ... US Marines fight in the city of Fallujah during Operation Al Fajr (New Dawn) in November 2004. ... Kuwait City Kuwait City (also Al-Kuwait - الكويت), population 305,694 (1998), is the capital of the emirate of Kuwait and part of the Al-Asimah goveronate. ... This article covers invasion specifics. ...


The end of hostilities

A peace conference was held in Iraqi territory occupied by the coalition. At the conference, Iraq won the approval of the use of armed helicopters on their side of the temporary border, ostensibly for government transit due to the damage done to civilian transportation. Soon after, these helicopters — and much of the Iraqi armed forces — were refocused toward fighting against a Shiite uprising in the south. In the North, Kurdish leaders took heart in American statements that they would support an uprising and began fighting, in the hopes of triggering a coup. However, when no American support was forthcoming, Iraqi generals remained loyal and brutally crushed the Kurdish troops. Millions of Kurds fled across the mountains to Kurdish areas of Turkey and Iran. These incidents would later result in no-fly zones being established in both the North and the South of Iraq. In Kuwait, the Emir was restored and suspected Iraqi collaborators were repressed. Eventually, over 400,000 people were expelled from the country, including a large number of Palestinians (due to their support of and collaboration with Saddam Hussein). Shi‘as (the adjective in Arabic is شيعى shi‘i; English has traditionally used Shiite) which mean follower in Arabic make up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%-35% of all Muslim. ... The Kurds are an ethno-linguistic group inhabiting parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey (a region commonly referred to as Kurdistan). ... A No-Fly Zone is a territory over which aircraft generally or certain unauthorized aircraft are not permitted to fly. ...


There was some criticism of the Bush administration for its decision to allow Saddam Hussein to remain in power, rather than pushing on to capture Baghdad and overthrowing his government. In their co-written 1998 book, A World Transformed, Bush and Brent Scowcroft arguing that such a course would have fractured the alliance and would have had many unnecessary political and human costs associated with it. Lieutenant General Brent Scowcroft KBE (born March 19, 1925 in Ogden, Utah), USAF (Ret. ...


In 1992, the United States Secretary of Defense during the war, Dick Cheney, made the same point: Seal of the United States Department of Defense The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is appointed by the President with the approval of the Senate, and is a member of the Cabinet. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941) is the 46th Vice President of the United States under President George W. Bush. ...

I would guess if we had gone in there, I would still have forces in Baghdad today. We'd be running the country. We would not have been able to get everybody out and bring everybody home.

And the final point that I think needs to be made is this question of casualties. I don't think you could have done all of that without significant additional U.S. casualties. And while everybody was tremendously impressed with the low cost of the (1991) conflict, for the 146 Americans who were killed in action and for their families, it wasn't a cheap war.

And the question in my mind is how many additional American casualties is Saddam (Hussein) worth? And the answer is not that damned many. So, I think we got it right, both when we decided to expel him from Kuwait, but also when the president made the decision that we'd achieved our objectives and we were not going to go get bogged down in the problems of trying to take over and govern Iraq.[15]

Instead of greater involvement of its own military, the United States hoped that Saddam would be overthrown in an internal coup. The Central Intelligence Agency used its assets in Iraq to organize a revolt, but the Iraqi government defeated the effort. A coup détat (pronounced ), or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government against the volonté générale formed by the majority of the citizenry, usually done by a smaller supposedly weaker body that just replaces the top power figures. ... The CIAs seal features an eagle atop a sixteen-point compass. ...


On March 10, 1991, Operation Desert Storm began to move 540,000 American troops out of the Persian Gulf. March 10 is the 69th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (70th in Leap years). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... See also: 2003 invasion of Iraq and Gulf War (disambiguation) C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division The Persian Gulf War was a conflict between Iraq and a coalition force of 34 nations led by the United States. ... Map of the Persian Gulf. ...


Coalition involvement

C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division
C Company, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division

Members of the Coalition included Argentina, Australia, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Japan, Kuwait, Morocco, Netherlands, New Zealand, Niger, Norway, Oman, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, South Korea, Spain, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom and the United States of America. Germany and Japan provided financial assistance and donated military hardware instead of direct military assistance. America asked Israel not to participate in the war despite air strikes on Israeli citizens. India wasn't a part of the coalition but did extend military support to the United States in the form of refueling facilities. Company C, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division live fire training exercise to assault mock village and trench complex, Medics moving to treat simulated casualty. ... Company C, 1st Battalion, The Staffordshire Regiment, 1st UK Armoured Division live fire training exercise to assault mock village and trench complex, Medics moving to treat simulated casualty. ...


Canada

Canada was one of the first nations to agree to condemn Iraq's invasion of Kuwait and it quickly agreed to join the U.S.-led coalition. In August Prime Minister Brian Mulroney sent the destroyers HMCS Terra Nova and HMCS Athabaskan to enforce the trade blockade against Iraq. The supply ship HMCS Protecteur was also sent to aid the gathering coalition forces. Stephen Harper is the current Prime Minister of Canada. ... Martin Brian Mulroney (born March 20, 1939), known as Brian Mulroney, was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993. ... HMCS Terra Nova is a Canadian destroyer of the Restigouche class. ... HMCS Athabaskan (DDH 282) is an Iroquois class destroyer of the Canadian Navy. ... Protecteur-class Auxiliary Oiler Replenishment (AOR) ships are used by the Canadian Navy to resupply ships at sea with food, munitions, fuel and spare parts. ...


After the UN authorized full use of force in the operation Canada sent a CF18 squadron with support personnel. Canada also sent a field hospital to deal with casualties from the ground war. When the air war began, Canada's planes were integrated into the coalition force and provided air cover and attacked ground targets. This was the first time since the Korean War that Canadian forces had participated in offensive combat operations. The CF-18 Hornet is a Canadian Forces aircraft, based on the American F/A-18 Hornet. ... Overview map of the Korean War The Korean War from June 25, 1950 to cease-fire on July 27, 1953 (the war has not ended officially), was a conflict between North Korea and South Korea. ...


Canada suffered no casualties during the conflict but since its end many veterans have complained of suffering from Gulf War Syndrome. // Gulf War syndrome (GWS) is the name given to a variety of psychological and physical symptoms, including increases in the rate of immune system disorders and birth defects, reported by veterans of the Gulf War. ...


Troop Deployment

Casualties

Casualties during the War

Persian Gulf War casualty numbers are controversial. Coalition military deaths have been reported to be around 378, but the DoD reports that US forces suffered 147 battle-related and 325 non-battle-related deaths. The UK suffered 24 deaths (nine of those due to friendly fire), the Arab countries lost 39 men (18 Saudis, 10 Egyptians, 6 from the UAE, 3 Syrians, and 1 Kuwaiti), and France lost 2 men. The largest single loss of Coalition forces happened on February 25, 1991, when an Iraqi Scud missile hit an American military barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia killing 28 U.S. Army Reservists from Pennsylvania. The number of coalition wounded seems to have been less than 1,000. However, as of the year 2000, 183,000 Gulf War veterans, more than a quarter of the troops who participated in the War, have been declared permanently disabled by the Department of Veterans Affairs (National Gulf War Resource Center May 31, 2000 [16]; See also, Gulf War Syndrome and U.S. use of Depleted Uranium). Friendly fire (or non-hostile fire) is a term originally adopted by the United States military in reference to an attack on friendly forces by other friendly forces, which may be deliberate (e. ... February 25 is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the comics character Scud, see Scud: The Disposable Assassin. ... Road to Dhahrans main gate (Picture taken from Khobar way) Dhahran (Arabic الظهران aẓ-Ẓahrān) is a city in Saudi Arabia located in the countrys Eastern Province not far from the Persian Gulf. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Official language(s) None Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Area  - Total  - Width  - Length  - % water  - Latitude  - Longitude Ranked 33rd 119,283 km² 255 km 455 km 2. ... // Gulf War syndrome (GWS) is the name given to a variety of psychological and physical symptoms, including increases in the rate of immune system disorders and birth defects, reported by veterans of the Gulf War. ... Depleted uranium (DU) is uranium which has a reduced proportion of the isotope Uranium-235. ...


Before the war Pentagon officials were estimating 30,000-40,000 coalition casualties. The Dupuy Institute stood alone and in front of Congress predicted Coalition Casualties below 6,000. They used the TNDM model which makes use of historical data from previous wars to predict casualties. While the Institute was phenomenally accurate, it was because the Iraqi armed forces fought in the open desert with tanks placed behind sand berms. Had the Iraqi military made use of urban warfare in Kuwait city and dug their tanks in within the city perimeters instead of behind sand berms the actual figures may have been different. The TNDM model makes use of 'human' factors such as morale and they predicted that very few Iraqi divisions would put up resistance. This is a value judgment that is difficult to make accurately before war. The 120,000 professional Iraqi soldiers backed by 4,500 tanks, 4,000 armored vehicles and 3,000 artillery pieces and with another 280,000 conscripted soldiers armed with RPG's, heavy mortars and heavy machine guns provided a force that could have made the low casualty estimate not inevitable. The United States, on the other hand had 3,400 tanks, 3,700 artillery pieces, 4,000 armored personnel carriers, 2,000 helicopters and about 2,600 aircraft.


The 2003 invasion and subsequent occupation of Iraq have aptly demonstrated how casualties can be inflicted by a technologically inferior force which utilizes urban environments for concealment and cover against precise artillery and air strikes. It has demonstrated how urban warfare might have blunted the greatest advantage of the Coalition, long distance killing. 120,000 committed soldiers backed by modern equipment could be expected to cause large causalities on the order of several thousand; the fact that it did not happen in the Gulf War is no guarantee that it will not happen in the future. This article covers invasion specifics. ... Occupation zones in Iraq as of September 2003 The post-invasion period in Iraq followed the 2003 invasion of Iraq by a multinational coalition led by the United States, which overthrew the Baath Party government of Saddam Hussein. ...


Independent analysts generally agree the Iraqi death toll was well below initial post-war estimates. In the immediate aftermath of the war, these estimates ranged as high as 100,000 Iraqi troops killed and 300,000 wounded. According to "Gulf War Air Power Survey" by Thomas A. Keaney and Eliot A. Cohen, (a report commissioned by the U.S. Air Force; 1993-ISBN 0-16-041950-6), there were an estimated 10-12,000 Iraqi combat deaths in the air campaign and as many as 10,000 casualties in the ground war. This analysis is based on enemy prisoner of war reports. The Iraqi government claimed that 2,300 civilians died during the air campaign, most of them during an F-117 Stealth Fighter strike on what was believed to be an Iraqi military communications center in Baghdad (it turned out to be an air raid shelter also). The Gulf War Air Power Survey is a report commissioned by the United States Air Force in 1993 to document and analyze its performance during the 1991 Gulf War. ... Eliot A. Cohen Eliot A. Cohen is a professor at the Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS) at Johns Hopkins University. ...


One infamous incident during the war highlighted the question of large-scale Iraqi combat deaths. This was the `bulldozer assault' in which two brigades from the U.S. 1st Infantry Division (Mechanized) used anti-mine plows mounted on tanks and combat earthmovers to bury Iraqi soldiers defending the fortified "Saddam Line." While approximately 2,000 of the troops surrendered, escaping burial, one newspaper story reported that the U.S. commanders estimated thousands of Iraqi soldiers had been buried alive during the two-day assault February 24-25, 1991. However, like all other troop estimates made during the war, the estimated 8,000 Iraqi defenders was probably greatly inflated. While one commander, Col. Anthony Moreno of the 2nd Brigade, thought the numbers might have been in the thousands, another reported his brigade buried between 80 and 250 Iraqis. After the war, the Iraqi government claimed to have found 44 such bodies. [17] A bulldozer is a powerful crawler (caterpillar tracked tractor) equipped with a blade. ... The 1st Infantry Division of the United States Army —nicknamed the Big Red One after its shoulder patch—is the oldest continuously serving division in the American Army. ... The 2nd Brigade, also known as the Dagger Brigade, is a manuver brigade in the US 1st Infantry Division. ...


The Post-War Effects of Depleted Uranium

In 1998, Iraqi government doctors reported that Coalition use of depleted uranium caused a massive increase in birth defects and cancer among Iraqis, particularly leukemia. The government doctors claimed they were unable to provide evidence linking depleted uranium to the cancer and birth defects because the sanctions prevented them from obtaining necessary testing equipment. Subsequently, a World Health Organization team visited Basra and proposed a study to investigate the causes of higher cancer rates in southern Iraq, but Saddam refused. Depleted uranium (DU) is uranium which has a reduced proportion of the isotope Uranium-235. ... WHO emblem The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations, acting as a coordinating authority on international public health, headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. ...


The World Health Organization was nonetheless able to assess the health risks of Depleted Uranium in a post-combat environment thanks to a 2001 mission to Kosovo. A 2001 WHO fact sheet on depleted uranium concludes: "because DU is only weakly radioactive, very large amounts of dust (on the order of grams) would have to be inhaled for the additional risk of lung cancer to be detectable in an exposed group. Risks for other radiation-induced cancers, including leukaemia, are considered to be very much lower than for lung cancer." In addition, "no reproductive or developmental effects have been reported in humans" as a result of DU exposure. [18]


The U.S. Department of State has also published a fact sheet on depleted uranium. It states: "World Health Organization and other scientific research studies indicate Depleted Uranium poses no serious health risks" and "depleted Uranium does not cause birth defects. Iraqi military use of chemical and nerve agents in the 1980's and 1990's is the likely cause of alleged birth defects among Iraqi children." In regard to cancer claims, the fact sheet states that "according to environmental health experts, it is medically impossible to contract leukemia as a result of exposure to uranium or depleted uranium," and "cancer rates in almost 19,000 highly exposed uranium industry workers who worked at Oak Ridge National Laboratory projects between 1943 and 1947 have been examined, and no excess cancers were observed through 1974. Other epidemiological studies of lung cancer in uranium mill and metal processing plant workers have found either no excess cancers or attributed them to known carcinogens other than uranium, such as radon." [19]


However, some claim that the effect is more severe as the Depleted Uranium ammunition would fragment into tiny particles when it hit the target. [20] In fact, most recently a comprehensive study by The Royal Society, a fellowship of over 1400 distinguished scientists, researchers and professors, found that Depleted Uranium poses serious health risks for civilians as well as soldiers. [21]


Cost

Kuwaiti oil wells on fire.
Kuwaiti oil wells on fire.

The cost of the war to the United States was calculated by Congress to be $61.1 billion. Other sources estimate up to $71 billion. About $53 billion of that amount was paid by different countries around the world: $36 billion by Kuwait, Saudi Arabia and other Gulf States; $16 billion by Germany and Japan (which sent no forces due to the treaties that ended WW II). About 25% of Saudi Arabia's contribution was paid in the form of in-kind services to the troops, such as food and transportation. from U.S. military File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... from U.S. military File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead:17 million Civilian dead:33 million Total dead:50 million Military dead:8 million Civilian dead:4 million Total dead:12 million World War II...


U.S. troops represented about 74% of the combined force, and the global cost was therefore higher. The United Kingdom, for instance, spent $4.1 billion during this war.


Media

The Persian Gulf War was a heavily televised war. For the first time people all over the world were able to watch live pictures of missiles hitting their targets and fighters taking off from aircraft carriers. Allied forces were keen to demonstrate the accuracy of their weapons.


In the United States, the "big three" network anchors led the network news coverage of the war: ABC's Peter Jennings, CBS's Dan Rather, and NBC's Tom Brokaw were anchoring their evening newscasts when air strikes began on January 16, 1991. ABC News correspondent Gary Shepard, reporting live from Baghdad, told Jennings of the quietness of the city. But, moments later, Shepard was back on the air as flashes of light were seen on the horizon and tracer fire was heard on the ground. On CBS, viewers were watching a report from correspondent Allen Pizzey, who was also reporting from Baghdad, when the war began. Rather, after the report was finished, announced that there were unconfirmed reports of flashes in Baghdad and heavy air traffic at bases in Saudi Arabia. On the "NBC Nightly News", correspondent Mike Boettcher reported unusual air activity in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia. Moments later, Brokaw announced to his viewers that the air attack had begun. But it was CNN who gained the most popularity for their coverage. CNN correspondents John Holliman and Peter Arnett and CNN anchor Bernard Shaw relayed telephone reports from the Al-Rashid Hotel as the air strikes began. Newspapers all over the world also covered the war and TIME Magazine published a special issue dated January 28, 1991, the headline "WAR IN THE GULF" emblazoned on the cover over a picture of Baghdad taken as the war began. The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is a television and radio network in the United States. ... Peter Charles Archibald Ewart Jennings, CM (July 29, 1938 – August 7, 2005) was a Canadian-American lead news anchor for the ABC network from the 1980s to the 2000s. ... For other uses, see CBS (disambiguation). ... Dan Rather, from a telecast in October 2004. ... NBC, formerly called the National Broadcasting Company, is an American television broadcasting company based in New York Citys Rockefeller Center. ... Tom Brokaw Thomas John Brokaw (born February 6, 1940) is a television journalist and the former NBC News anchorman and managing editor of the program NBC Nightly News with Tom Brokaw. ... January 16 is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ABC News is a division of the American Broadcasting Company (ABC). ... Road to Dhahrans main gate (Picture taken from Khobar way) Dhahran (Arabic الظهران aẓ-Ẓahrān) is a city in Saudi Arabia located in the countrys Eastern Province not far from the Persian Gulf. ... CNN or Cable News Network is a cable television network that was founded in 1980 by Ted Turner & Reese Schonfeld [1]. It is a division of the Turner Broadcasting System, owned by Time Warner. ... Peter Arnett (born 1934), born in Invercargill is New Zealand-American journalist. ... Multiple people share the name Bernard Shaw: George Bernard Shaw, the celebrated Irish playwright (1856 - 1950) Bernard Shaw, a journalist and longtime CNN anchorman (1940 - ) This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The Al-Rashid Hotel is an 18-story hotel in Baghdad, Iraq, favored by journalists and media personnel. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Notable Time magazine covers from the dates May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


U.S. policy regarding media freedom was much more restrictive than in the Vietnam War. The policy had been spelled out in a Pentagon document entitled Annex Foxtrot. Most of the press information came from briefings organized by the military. Only selected journalists were allowed to visit the front lines or conduct interviews with soldiers. Those visits were always conducted in the presence of officers, and were subject to both prior approval by the military and censorship afterward. This was ostensibly to protect sensitive information from being revealed to Iraq, but often in practice it was used to protect politically embarrassing information from being revealed. This policy was heavily influenced by the military's experience with the Vietnam War, which it believed it had lost due to public opposition within the United States. Combatants Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) United States of America South Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand the Philippines Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) National Liberation Front (Viet Cong) Strength ~1,200,000 (1968) ~420,000 (1968) Casualties South Vietnamese dead: 1,250,000+ US dead: 58,226 US wounded... Annex Foxtrot was the name given to a 10-page memo written by Captain Ron Wildermuth, the chief Public Affairs Officer for U.S. Central Command, to outline theretofore unprecedented Pentagon restrictions on news reporting. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) United States of America South Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand the Philippines Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) National Liberation Front (Viet Cong) Strength ~1,200,000 (1968) ~420,000 (1968) Casualties South Vietnamese dead: 1,250,000+ US dead: 58,226 US wounded...


At the same time, the coverage of this war was new in its instantaneousness. Many American journalists remained stationed in the Iraqi capital Baghdad throughout the war, and footage of incoming missiles was carried almost immediately on the nightly television news and the cable news channels such as CNN. A British crew from CBS News (David Green and Andy Thompson), equipped with satellite transmission equipment travelled with the front line forces and, having transmitted live TV pictures of the fighting en route, arrived the day before the forces in Kuwait City, broadcasting live television from the city and covering the entrance of the Arab forces (and other journalists!) the following day. Location of Baghdad within Iraq Baghdad (Arabic: ‎ translit: , Kurdish: Bexda, from Persian Baagh-daad meaning given by God) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house Cable television or Community Antenna Television (CATV) (often shortened to cable) is a system of providing television, FM radio programming and other services to consumers via radio frequency signals transmitted directly to people’s televisions through fixed optical... A CBS News Special Report ident card CBS News is the news division of American television and radio network CBS. Its current president is Sean McManus who is also head of CBS Sports. ... Kuwait City Kuwait City (also Al-Kuwait - الكويت), population 305,694 (1998), is the capital of the emirate of Kuwait and part of the Al-Asimah goveronate. ...


Consequences

Saddam Hussein in a propaganda picture overseeing a war scene in the foreground.

Following the uprisings in the north and south, Iraqi no-fly zones were established to help protect the Shi'ite and Kurdish groups in South and North Iraq, respectively. These no-fly zones (originally north of the 36th parallel and south of the 32nd parallel) were monitored mainly by the United States and the United Kingdom, though France also participated. Combined, they flew more sorties over Iraq in the eleven years following the war than were flown during the war. These sorties dropped bombs nearly every other day against surface-to-air missiles and anti-aircraft guns which engaged the patrolling aircraft. However, the greatest amount of bombs was dropped during two sustained bombing campaigns: Operation Desert Strike, which lasted a few weeks in September 1996, and Operation Desert Fox, in December 1998. Operation Northern Watch, the no-fly zone covering the Kurds, allowed the population to focus on developing security and infrastructure, which was reflected after Saddam's fall in 2003 by a much more progressive and sustainable region (when compared to the rest of the country falling Operation Iraqi Freedom). Operation Southern Watch, on the other hand, was not successful in providing the Shi'ite population the opportunity to build. Picture released by Saddam regime. ... Picture released by Saddam regime. ... U.S. propaganda poster, depicting a Nazi stabbing a Bible. ... A no-fly zone is a territory over which aircraft (or unauthorized aircraft) are not permitted to fly. ... Shia Islam, also Shi`ite Islam or Shi`ism (Arabic: ‎ translit: Persian: ‎) is the second largest denomination of the religion of Islam. ... The Kurds are an ethno-linguistic group inhabiting parts of Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Turkey (a region commonly referred to as Kurdistan). ... Operation Desert Strike was a military operation that lasted for a few weeks in September 1996 during one of the Iraqi disarmament crises. ... A Tomahawk cruise missile (TLAM) is fired from an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer during the fourth wave of attacks on Iraq. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... For other uses of the term, see Iraq war (disambiguation) The 2003 invasion of Iraq (also called the 2nd or 3rd Persian Gulf War) began on March 20, 2003, when forces belonging primarily to the United States and the United Kingdom invaded Iraq arguably without the explicit backing of the... Operation Southern Watch was an operation conducted by Joint Task Force Southwest Asia (JTF-SWA) with the mission of monitoring and controlling airspace south of the 33rd Parallel in Iraq, following the 1991 Gulf War up until the start of the Second Gulf War in 2003. ... Shia Islam, also Shi`ite Islam or Shi`ism (Arabic: ‎ translit: Persian: ‎) is the second largest denomination of the religion of Islam. ...


Widespread infrastructure destruction during the ground war hurt the Iraqi population. Years after the war, electricity production was less than a quarter of its pre-war level. The destruction of water treatment facilities caused sewage to flow directly into the Tigris River, from which civilians drew drinking water, resulting in widespread disease. Funds provided by Western nations to help combat the problem were diverted instead to maintaining Saddam's military control over the country. The Tigris (Old Persian: Tigr, Syriac Aramaic: Deqlath, Arabic: دجلة, Dijla, Turkish: Dicle; biblical Hiddekil) is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ...


Economic sanctions were kept in place following the war, pending a weapons inspection regime with which Iraq never fully cooperated. Iraq was later allowed to import certain products under the UN's Oil for Food program. A 1998 UNICEF report found that the sanctions resulted in an increase to 90,000 deaths per year. Many argue that the sanctions on Iraq and the American military presence in Saudi Arabia contributed to an increasingly negative image of the United States in the Arab world. United Nations sanctions against Iraq were imposed by the United Nations in 1991 following Iraqs invasion of Kuwait in 1990, and continued until the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003. ... The Oil-for-Food Programme was established by the United Nations in 1996 to allow Iraq to sell oil on the world market in exchange for food, medicine and the like. ... UNICEF logo The United Nations International Childrens Emergency Fund (UNICEF) was established by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946. ...


A United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) on weapons was established, to monitor Iraq's compliance with restrictions on weapons of mass destruction and ballistic missiles. Iraq accepted some and refused other weapons inspections. The team found some evidence of biological weapons programs at one site and non-compliance at many other sites. United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) was a United Nations organisation performing arms inspections in Iraq after the Gulf War. ...


In 1997, Iraq expelled all U.S. members of the inspection team, alleging that the United States was using the inspections as a front for espionage; members of UNSCOM were in regular contact with various intelligence agencies to provide information on weapons sites back and forth. The team returned for an even more turbulent time period between 1997 and 1999; one member of the weapons inspection team, U.S. Marine Scott Ritter, resigned in 1998, alleging that the Clinton administration was blocking investigations because they did not want a full-scale confrontation with Iraq. In 1999, the team was replaced by UNMOVIC, which began inspections in 2002. In 2002, Iraq — and especially Saddam Hussein — became targets in the United States' War on Terrorism, leading to the 2003 invasion of Iraq, led by the United States and, to a lesser extent, the United Kingdom. William Scott Ritter, Jr. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... The United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) was created through the adoption of Security Council resolution 1284 of 17 December 1999. ... For the Cusco album, see 2002 (album). ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... This article covers invasion specifics. ...


The People's Republic of China (whose army in many ways resembled the Iraqi army) was surprised at the performance of American technology on the battlefield. The swiftness of the coalition victory resulted in an overall change in Chinese military thinking and began a movement to technologically modernize the People's Liberation Army. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


A crucial result of the Gulf War, according to Gilles Kepel, was the sharp revival in Islamic extremism. The change of face by Saddam's secular regime did little to draw support from Islamist groups. However, it, combined with the Saudi Arabian alliance with the United States and Saudi Arabia being seen as being on the same side of Israel dramatically eroded that regime's legitimacy. Activity of Islamist groups against the Saudi regime increased dramatically. In part to win back favour with Islamist groups Saudi Arabia greatly increased funding to those that would support the regime. Throughout the newly independent states of Central Asia the Saudis paid for the distribution of millions of Qur'ans and the building of hundreds of mosques for extremist groups. In Afghanistan the Saudi regime became a leading patron of the Taliban in that nation's civil war, and one of the only foreign countries to officially recognize the government. Gilles Kepel on a Frontline documentary Gilles Kepel is a prominent French scholar of Islam and the Arab world. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Qurān (Arabic: recitation), also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly as Alcoran, is the holy book of Islam. ... Yeni Camii (the New Mosque), one of the landmarks of İstanbul A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Flag flown by the Taliban. ...


Gulf War Syndrome
Many returning coalition soldiers reported illnesses following their participation in the Gulf War, a phenomenon known as Gulf War Syndrome. There has been widespread speculation and disagreement about the causes of the syndrome and reported birth defects (the number of children born in soldier's families with serious congenital defects or serious illnesses has been reported as high as 67%, according to a study by the Department of Veterans Affairs.[22]) A report published in 1994 by the Government Accountability Office said that American troops were exposed to 21 potential "reproductive toxicants". Some factors considered as possibly causal include exposure to radioactive materials, oil fires, and the fast series of anthrax vaccine given to deploying soldiers (the normal series is a graduated, multi-month process). // Gulf War syndrome (GWS) is the name given to a variety of psychological and physical symptoms, including increases in the rate of immune system disorders and birth defects, reported by veterans of the Gulf War. ... The United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is a Cabinet department of the United States government responsible for administering programs of veterans benefits for veterans, their families, and survivors. ... 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is the audit, evaluation, and investigative agency of the United States Congress. ...


Technology

Missouri launches a Tomahawk missile.
Missouri launches a Tomahawk missile.

Precision guided munitions (PGMs, also "smart bombs"), such as the United States Air Force guided missile AGM-130, were heralded as key in allowing military strikes to be made with a minimum of civilian casualties compared to previous wars. Specific buildings in downtown Baghdad could be bombed whilst journalists in their hotels watched cruise missiles fly by. PGMs amounted to approximately 7.4% of all bombs dropped by the coalition. Other bombs included cluster bombs, which break up into clusters of bomblets, and daisy cutters, 15,000-pound bombs which can disintegrate everything within hundreds of yards. USS Missouri fires a BGM-109 Tomahawk missile. ... USS Missouri fires a BGM-109 Tomahawk missile. ... Radars: AN/SPS-49 Air Search Radar AN/SPS-67 Surface Search Radar Fire control: 4 × Mk 37 Gun Fire Control 2 × Mk 38 Gun Director 1 × Mk 40 Gun Director EW: AN/SLQ-32 Other: AN/SLQ-25 NIXIE Decoy System 8 × Super Rapid Bloom Rocket Launchers (SRBOC) Armor... A Tomahawk cruise missile The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile with stubby wings. ... BOLT-117 laser guided bomb Precision-guided munitions (smart munitions or smart bombs) are self-guiding weapons intended to maximize damage to the target while minimizing collateral damage. Because the damage effects of an explosive weapon scale as a power law with distance, quite modest improvements in accuracy (and hence... The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerospace branch of the United States armed forces. ... Location of Baghdad within Iraq Baghdad (Arabic: ‎ translit: , Kurdish: Bexda, from Persian Baagh-daad meaning given by God) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Demonstration cluster bomb cutaway, showing bomblets (photo circa 1943) Cluster munitions are air-dropped or ground launched shells that eject multiple small submunitions (bomblets). ... A 15,000lb BLU-82/B on display at the USAF museum Note: Though commonly called daisy cutter, Daisy Cutter actually refers to the fuse extender on the nose of the bomb. ...


Scud is a tactical ballistic missile that the Soviet Union developed and deployed among the forward deployed Red Army divisions in Eastern Germany. The role of the Scuds which were armed with nuclear and chemical warheads was to destroy Command and Control, Communication Facilities and delay full mobilisation of Western German and Allied Forces in Germany. It could also be used to directly target ground forces. Scud missiles utilise inertial guidance which operates for the duration that the Engines operate. Iraq used Scud missiles, launching them into both Saudi Arabia and Israel. Some bombs caused extensive casualties, others caused little damage. Concerns were raised of possible chemical or biological warheads on these rockets, but if they existed they were not used. Scud missile are not as effective at delivering chemical payloads as is commonly believed because intense heat during the Scud's flight at approximately Mach 5 denatures most of the chemical payload. Chemical weapons are inherently better suited to being delivered by cruise missiles or fighter bombers. The Scud is best suited to delivering tactical nuclear warheads, a role for which it is as capable today as it was when it was first developed. Polish missile wz. ...


America's Patriot missile defense was used for the first time in combat. The U.S. military claimed a high effectiveness against Scud at the time, which reassured allied troops and would not have encouraged the operators. Later estimates of Patriot's effectiveness range widely, down to 0%. Further, there is at least one incident of a software error causing a Patriot missile to fail, resulting in deaths. [23] Unclassified evidence on Scud interception is lacking. The higher estimates are based on the percentage of Scud warheads which were known to have impacted and exploded compared to the number of Scud missiles launched, but other factors such as duds, misses and impacts which were not reported confound these. Some Scud variations were re-engineered in a manner outside their original tolerance, and said to have frequently failed or broken up in flight. The lowest estimates are typically based upon the number of interceptions where there is proof that the warhead was hit by at least one missile, but due to the way the Al-Hussein (Scud derivative) missiles broke up in flight, it was often hard to tell which piece was the warhead, and there were few radar tracks which were actually stored which could be analyzed later. Realistically the actual performance will not be known for many years. The U.S. Army and the manufacturers maintain the Patriot delivered a "miracle performance" in the Persian Gulf War. [24] Four Patriot missiles like the one shown here can be fired from this mobile launcher between loadings. ...


Global Positioning System units were key in enabling coalition units to navigate easily across the desert. Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) and satellite communication systems were also important. GPS satellite in orbit, image courtesy NASA GPS redirects here. ... Airborne Warning and Control System (AWACS) is a radar-based electronic system designed to carry out airborne surveillance, and C2BM (command and control, battle management) functions for both tactical and air defence forces. ...


See also

See also

After the Gulf War, several of the coalition forces issued service and campaign awards: Argentina Medal for the Gulf War 1991 Australia Australian Active Service Medal Bahrain Kuwait Liberation Medal (Bahrain) Canada Canada Gulf and Kuwait Medal Egypt Kuwait Liberation Medal (Egypt) Italy Commemorative Cross for the Operations in the... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation) The Iraq War (2003-present) is an ongoing conflict in Iraq, which began with the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and continues to the present in the form of an insurgent rebellion, which is partly believed to be assisted by Muslim militant groups like... This article covers invasion specifics. ... The Soviet Union and her satellites were the main suppliers of arms to Iraq following the 1972 signing of the Soviet-Iraqi Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation. ... The Battle of 73 Easting was a decisive tank battle fought on 26 February 1991, during the Gulf War, between armored forces of the United States Army and those of the Iraqi Republican Guard. ... The Battle of Al Busayyah was a tank battle fought on 26 February 1991, during the Gulf War, between armored forces of the United States Army and those of the Iraqi Army. ... The Battle of Medina Ridge was a decisive tank battle fought on 27 February 1991, during the Gulf War, between the United States 1st Armored Division and the 2nd Brigade of the Iraqi Republican Guard Medina Luminous Division outside Basra. ... The Battle of Norfolk was a tank battle fought on 27 February 1991, during the Gulf War, between armored forces of the United States Army and those of the Iraqi Republican Guard. ... The Gulf War Did Not Take Place, a book by Jean Baudrillard, is a translation of 3 essays published in Liberation between January and March 1991. ... // Gulf War syndrome (GWS) is the name given to a variety of psychological and physical symptoms, including increases in the rate of immune system disorders and birth defects, reported by veterans of the Gulf War. ... Timeline of events related to the Iraq disarmament crisis 1990 July 24, 1990 Nine days before Iraqs invasion of Kuwait US State Department spokeswoman, Margaret Tutweiller encourages Iraq with the statement: We do not have any defence treaties with Kuwait, and there are no special defence or security commitments... Timeline of events related to the Iraq disarmament crisis Continued from Iraq disarmament crisis timeline 1990-1996 February, 1997 Iraq allows UNSCOM to remove the missile parts found last September March 26, 1997 US Secretary of State Madeleine Albright delivers a speech at Georgetown University in which she argues that... Timeline of events related to the Iraq disarmament crisis Continued from Iraq disarmament crisis timeline 1997-2000 February, 2001 British and US forces carry out bombing raids in an attempt to disable Iraqs air defense network. ... In the last 60 years, there have been a number of conflicts in the Middle East. ... Military history is the recording (in writing or otherwise) of the events in the history of humanity that fall within the category of conflict. ... The Military history of the United States spans a period of less than two and a half centuries. ... The Highway of Death A rusting tank at the Highway of Death, taken in February 2003 A sole, the only remaining part of a shoe, that lays where it was left by its wearer. ...

Films about the Persian Gulf War

Three Kings is a 1999 American movie directed and co-written by David O. Russell from a story by John Ridley. ... DVD cover for Live From Baghdad Live from Baghdad is a television movie produced in 2002 by HBO. Directed by Mick Jackson and written by Robert Wiener (based on the book by Robert Wiener). ... DVD cover Courage Under Fire is a motion picture, released on Friday, July 12, 1996, starring Denzel Washington as Lieutenant Colonel Nate Sirling and Meg Ryan as Captain Karen Emma Walden, that was one of the first films to depict the 1991 Persian Gulf War. ... Bravo Two Zero is a 1999 film based on the British SAS patrol of the same name charged with finding Iraqi Scud missile launchers during the Gulf War. ... Jarhead is a 2005 film starring Jake Gyllenhaal as U.S. Marine Anthony Swofford, and is based on Swoffords real pre-Gulf War experiences described in his 2003 book, Jarhead: A Marines Chronicle of the Gulf War and Other Battles. ...

Further reading

  • Felicity Arbuthnot. Allies Deliberately Poisoned Iraq Public Water Supply In Gulf War[25] September 17, 2000. Sunday Herald (Scotland)
  • Rick Atkinson and Ann Devroy. U.S. Claims Iraqi Nuclear Reactors Hit Hard[26] Jan 12, 1991. Washington Post.
  • Mitchell Bard. The Gulf War.[27] Jewish virtual library.
  • BBC News. Timeline: War in the Gulf[28] August 2000.
  • William Blum. Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II[29] 1995. Common Courage Press. ISBN 1567510523
  • Christoper Bolkom and Jonathan Pike. Attack Aircraft Proliferation: Areas for Concern[30]
  • Miland Brown. First Persian Gulf War[31]
  • Daniel Forbes. Gulf War crimes?[32] May 15, 2000. Salon Magazine.
  • T. M. Hawley. Against the Fires of Hell: The Environmental Disaster of the Gulf War. 1992. ISBN 0-15-103969-0.
  • Dilip Hiro. Desert Shield to Desert Storm: The Second Gulf War. 1992. Routledge.
  • Ronald Andrew Hoskinson and Norman Jarvis. Gulf War Photo Gallery[33] 1994.
  • Gilles Kepel. "From the Gulf War to the Taliban Jihad." Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. 2002.
  • Allan Little. Iraq coming in from the cold?[34] December 1, 1997. BBC.
  • John MacArthur. Independent Policy Forum Luncheon Honoring[35]
  • Alan Munro. Arab Storm: Politics and Diplomacy Behind the Gulf War I.B. Tauris. 2006. ISBN 1845111281.
  • Naval Historical Center. The United States Navy in Desert Shield/Desert Storm[36] May 15, 1991.
  • Larry A. Niksch and Robert G. Sutter. Japan's Response to the Persian Gulf Crisis: Implications for U.S.-Japan Relations[37] May 23, 1991. Congressional Research Service, Library of Congress.
  • Micah Sifry and Christopher Cerf. The Gulf War Reader. 1991. ISBN 0812919475.
  • Jean Edward Smith, George Bush's War, New York: Henry Holt & Company, 1992.
  • Peter Turnley. The Unseen Gulf War (photo essay)[38] December 2002.
  • Paul Walker and Eric Stambler. ...and the dirty little weapons[39] 1991. Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, Vol 47, Number 4.
  • Andre Gunder Frank. Third World War in the Gulf: A New World Order[40]May 20, 1991. Political Economy Notebooks for Study and Research, no. 14, pp. 5-34.
  • PBS Frontline. The Gulf War:an in-depth examination of the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf crisis[41]
  • Report to Congress on the Conduct of the Persian Gulf War, Chapter 6[42]

Desert Shield to Desert Storm: The Second Gulf War is a non-fiction historical book written by Dilip Hiro and first published by Routledge in 1992. ... Christopher Cerf (born August 19, 1941) is an author, composer-lyricist, and record and television producer. ... Jean Edward Smith is an accomplished educator and biographer having authored such works as Grant, John Marshall: Definer of a Nation, and Presently he is the John Marshall Professor of Political Science at Marshall University. ...

Notes

  1.   The reported number of countries participating in the Coalition varies according to source. These variations may be in part be due to uncertainty over what level of participation constitutes being a Coalition member, and vagueness over the organization timeline of the Coalition. Examples of count variations include: an Arab anti-Gulf War essay - 31; CNN - 34; an Arab media site - 36; the Heritage Foundation (a US conservative thinktank citing a 1991 Department of Defense report) - 38; US Institute of Medicine report on Gulf War Veterans' Health - 39. The number of Coalition members has been reported to be as low as 19 at the beginning of the air campaign.
  2.   U.S. Army Professional Writing. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  3.   - Arms transfers to Iraq, 1970-2004. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  4.   U.S. Army Professional Writing (See above). URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  5.   Senator Riegle's Report. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  6.   Shaking Hands with Saddam Hussein. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  7.   T-NSIAD-91-13 Iraq's Participation in the Commodity Credit Corporation's GSM-102/103 Export Credit Guarantee Programs. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  8.   U.S. Army Professional Writing (See above). URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  9.   More U.S. Exports to Iraq?, by John Haldane, Nov. 26, 1984. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  10.   Search Results - THOMAS (Library of Congress). URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  11.   http://www.fas.org/irp/offdocs/nsd/nsd26.pdf. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  12.   Iraqi Air Force Equipment - Introduction. URL accessed on January 18, 2005.
  13.   Apparatus of Lies: Crafting Tragedy. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  14.   "Cheney changed his view on Iraq", by Charles Pope, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, September 29, 2004. URL accessed on January 7, 2005.
  15.   frontline: the gulf war: appendix: iraqi death toll. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  16.   WHO : Depleted Uranium. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  17.   Fact Sheet on the Health Effects of Depleted Uranium. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  18.   Gulf War Veterans and Depleted Uranium. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  19.   Royal Society : Science issues : Depleted uranium. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  20.   Project Censored Media democracy in action. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  21.   Conclusions. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  22.   Allies Deliberately Poisoned Iraq Public Water Supply In Gulf War. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  23.   U.S. Claims Iraqi Nuclear Reactors Hit Hard. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  24.   The Gulf War. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  25.   Timeline: War in the Gulf. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  26.   Killing Hope: U.S. Military and CIA Interventions Since World War II. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  27.   Attack Aircraft Proliferation: Areas for Concern. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  28.   First Persian Gulf War. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  29.   Gulf War crimes?. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  30.   Gulf War Photo Gallery. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  31.   Iraq coming in from the cold?. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  32.   Independent Policy Forum Luncheon Honoring. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  33.   The United States Navy in Desert Shield/Desert Storm. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  34.   Japan's Response to the Persian Gulf Crisis: Implications for U.S.-Japan Relations. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  35.   The Unseen Gulf War (photo essay). URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  36.   ...and the dirty little weapons. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  37.   Third World War in the Gulf: A New World Order. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  38.   The Gulf War:an in-depth examination of the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf crisis. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.
  39.   Report to Congress on the Conduct of the Persian Gulf War, Chapter 6. URL accessed on December 4, 2005.

December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 7 is the seventh day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Desert Storm, Operation - Hutchinson encyclopedia article about Desert Storm, Operation (146 words)
The build-up phase was code-named Operation Desert Shield and lasted from August 1990, when Kuwait was first invaded by Iraq, to January 1991 when Operation Desert Storm was unleashed, starting the Gulf War.
Desert Storm ended with the defeat of the Iraqi army in the Kuwaiti theatre of operations in late February 1991.
The cost of the operation was $53 billion.
- GAO Report (4895 words)
First, the effectiveness of air power in Desert Storm was inhibited by the aircraft sensors' inherent limitations in identifying and acquiring targets and by DOD's failure to gather intelligence on the existence or location of certain critical targets and its inability to collect and disseminate timely battle damage assessments (BDA).
During Desert Storm, the ratio of guided-to- unguided munitions delivered did not vary, indicating that the relative preferences among these types of munitions did not change over the course of the campaign.
For example, we found in Desert Storm that multiple strikes and weapon systems were used against the same targets; more munitions were delivered than peacetime test capabilities would indicate as necessary; determinations of whether target objectives were met were frequently unknown; and when objectives were met, the specific system responsible could not be determined.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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