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Encyclopedia > Operation Defensive Shield
Operation Defensive Shield
Part of the Al-Aqsa Intifada

Israeli tanks in Ramallah
Date 2002.
Location West Bank
Casus
belli
Series of Palestinian terror attacks on Israeli civilian population, culminating in the Passover Massacre
Result Turning point in Al-Aqsa Intifada. Extensive damage to Palestinian infrastructure in the West Bank, arrest of leading Palestinian figures and hundreds more low-level activists[1], widespread destruction of Palestinian private and public property[2]
Combatants
Flag of Israel Israel (Israel Defense Forces) Fatah (Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades & Tanzim)

Hamas For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ramallah (Arabic:  ) is a Palestinian city in the West Bank of approximately 57,000 residents. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... This article contains a trivia section. ... The Netanya suicide attack (also known as the Netanya bombing and the Passover massacre) was a Palestinian suicide bombing in Park Hotel at Netanya on March 27, 2002. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Fatah (Arabic: ); a reverse acronym from the Arabic name Harakat al-Tahrir al-Watani al-Filastini (literally: Palestinian National Liberation Movement) is a major secular Palestinian political party and the largest organization in the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a generally secular multi-party confederation. ... The Al_Aqsa Martyrs Brigades (كتائب شهداء الاقصى) are one of the militias of Palestinian leader Yasser Arafats al_Fatah faction. ... Tanzim (Organization in Arabic) is a faction of the Palestinian al-Fatah movement. ... Hamas (Arabic: ; acronym: Arabic: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement,[1]) is a Palestinian Sunni Islamist organization. ...


Palestinian Islamic Jihad The emblem of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad shows a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip) superimposed on the images of the Dome of the Rock, two fists and two rifles. ...


Palestinian security forces

Commanders
Aluf Itzhak Eitan (Central commander)
Strength
Golani Brigade, Nahal Brigade, Paratroopers Brigade, 5th Reserve Infantry Brigade, 408th Reserve Infantry Brigade, Jerusalem Brigade(reserve), Shayetet 13, Armor and Engineering forces.
Casualties
29 Dead, over 100 wounded. Around 250 dead

Hundreds wounded Hundreds captured Important intelligence obtained The Golani Brigade חטיבת גולני (aka. ... Nahal is a Hebrew acronym for Noar Halutzi Lohem (Fighting Pioneer Youth) and refers to a scheme for Israeli youth that combines active military service with civilian service, the latter usually in a new agricultural settlement. ... The Paratroopers Brigade (חטיבת הצנחנים) is a unit of paratroopers within the Israel Defence Forces (IDF). ... Shayetet 13 ( שייטת 13 ) is the Israeli naval commando elite special forces unit. ...

Operation Defensive Shield (Hebrew: מבצע חומת מגן‎) was a large-scale military operation conducted by the Israel Defense Forces in April 2002 after a series of terrorist attacks launched against Israel. It was the largest military operation in the West Bank since the 1967 Six-Day War. The al-Aqsa Intifada is the wave of violence and political conflict that began in September 2000 between Palestinian Arabs and Israelis; it is also called the Second Intifada (see also First Intifada). ... The October 2000 events is a term used to describe several days of protests in northern Israel that soon escalated into clashes between Arab citizens of Israel and Israel Police. ... List of massacres committed during the al-Aqsa Intifada This is all wrong info ... Operation Noah’s Ark (Hebrew: מבצע תיבת נוח) was the Israeli military action in which they seized the Karine A, a Palestinian Authority freighter in the Red Sea. ... This is a list of notable Qassam attacks. ... Combatants  Israel Defense Forces Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, Palestinian Islamic Jihad, Fatah, Tanzim, Hamas Commanders Yedidia Yehuda [5] Mahmoud Tawallbe† Strength 1,000 200-250 Casualties 23 soldiers killed 52 killed (38 armed men, 14 civilians according to IDF; 30 militants, 22 civilians according to HRW) 685 persons arrested (mostly... Combatants  Israel (Israel Defense Forces) Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades Fatah and Tanzim Strength Unknown 200 Casualties N/A 9 The Siege of the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem occurred during the April/May 2002 Israeli “Operation Defensive Shield” in the West Bank. ... The 2004 Israel-Gaza conflict refers to the series of battles between Palestinian militants and the Israel Defense Forces (IDF). ... Operation Rainbow (In Hebrew, מבצע קשת בענן) is a controversial military operation which began on May 18, 2004 in the Gaza Strip. ... Combatants Israel Defense Forces Hamas Casualties 5 killed (3 Of them civilians) 104 - 133 killed (42 of them civilians) Operation Days of Penitence (In Hebrew, מבצע ימי תשובה) was the name used by Israel to describe an Israel Defense Forces operation in the northern Gaza Strip, conducted between September 30, 2004 and October... Combatants  Israel Defense Forces (Israeli Security Forces) Hamas Fatah (al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades), Popular Resistance Committees Palestinian Islamic Jihad Palestinian Army of Islam Commanders Dan Halutz (Chief of Staff) Yoav Galant (Regional) Khaled Mashal (Leader of Hamas[1])Mohammed Deif (Leader of Hamas military wing) Strength 3,000 unknown possibly... Combatants Israel Defense Forces (Israeli Security Forces) Hamas Popular Resistance Committees, al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, Jaish al-Islam Commanders Dan Halutz (Chief of Staff) Yoav Galant (Regional) Khaled Mashal (Leader of Hamas[1])Mohammed Deif (Leader of Hamas military wing) Casualties 1 killed[1] 48 killed (mostly civilians) 200 wounded... Combatants  Israel (Israel Defense Forces) Hamas ,Palestinian Islamic Jihad Commanders Gabi Ashkenazi Khaled Meshaal Casualties none 23 killed Palestinian civilians: 8 killed Israeli civilians: 1 killed The 2007 Israel-Gaza conflict refers to a series of battles between Palestinian militants and the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) that began in mid... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar (the link is to a full 1967 calendar). ... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Saudi Arabia Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ...

Contents

Background

In March 2002, more than 135 Israeli civilians were killed in terrorist attacks committed by Palestinian groups such as Hamas, Islamic Jihad and the Al-Aqsa Martyrs' Brigades (the military branch of Fatah). These attacks reached their peak on March 27, 2002, with the event known as the Passover massacre, in which a Palestinian suicide bomber killed 30 people at the Park Hotel in Netanya (28 immediately, then two more died from their injuries). Palestinian people, Palestinians, or Palestinian Arabs are terms used today to refer mainly to Arabic-speaking people with family origins in Palestine. ... Hamas (Arabic: ; acronym: Arabic: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement,[1]) is a Palestinian Sunni Islamist organization. ... The emblem of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad shows a map of Israel superimposed on the images of the Dome of the Rock, two fists and two rifles. ... The al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades (كتائب شهداء الأقصى) are a Palestinian armed terrorist group closely linked to the Fatah party. ... Fatah (Arabic: ); a reverse acronym from the Arabic name Harakat al-Tahrir al-Watani al-Filastini (literally: Palestinian National Liberation Movement) is a major secular Palestinian political party and the largest organization in the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a generally secular multi-party confederation. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Netanya suicide attack (also known as the Netanya bombing and the Passover massacre) was a Palestinian suicide bombing in Park Hotel at Netanya on March 27, 2002. ... A suicide attack is an attack on a military or civilian target, in which an attacker — either an individual or a group — intends to kill others and knows he or she will most likely die (see suicide). ... Early morning in Netanya, Israel Netanya (Hebrew: נְתַנְיָה, Standard Hebrew Nətanya) is a city in the Center District of Israel and is the capital of the Sharon plain. ...


Within twenty-four hours, the Israel Defense Forces had issued emergency call-up notices for 30,000 reserve soldiers, the largest such call-up since the 1982 Lebanon War. Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army LF (nominally neutral) PLO Syria Amal LCP Commanders Menachem Begin (Prime Minister) Ariel Sharon, (Ministry of Defence) Rafael Eitan, (CoS) Yasser Arafat Strength 76,000 37,000 Casualties 670 17,825 The 1982 Lebanon War (Hebrew: , Milkhemet Levanon), (Arabic: ), called by Israel the Operation Peace...


Goals

The stated goals of the operation (as conveyed to the Israeli Knesset by Prime Minister Ariel Sharon on April 8, 2002) were to "enter cities and villages ; to catch and arrest terrorists and, primarily, their dispatchers and those who finance and support them; to confiscate weapons intended to be used against Israeli citizens; to expose and destroy facilities and explosives, laboratories, weapons production factories and secret installations. The orders are clear: target and paralyze anyone who takes up weapons and tries to oppose our troops, resists them or endanger them - and to avoid harming the civilian population." The modern Knesset building, Israels parliament, in Jerusalem Though similar-sounding, Beit Knesset (בית כנסת) literally means House of Assembly, and refers to a synagogue. ...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ... April 8 is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


The operation

The Arab-Israeli conflict
in 2002

Events Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United... Also see: 2002 (number). ...

v  d  e

By April 3, the IDF was conducting major military operations in all Palestinian cities with the exception of Hebron and Jericho. The major points of conflict were: The Netanya suicide attack (also known as the Netanya bombing and the Passover massacre) was a Palestinian suicide bombing in Park Hotel at Netanya on March 27, 2002. ... Combatants  Israel Defense Forces Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, Palestinian Islamic Jihad, Fatah, Tanzim, Hamas Commanders Yedidia Yehuda [5] Mahmoud Tawallbe† Strength 1,000 200-250 Casualties 23 soldiers killed 52 killed (38 armed men, 14 civilians according to IDF; 30 militants, 22 civilians according to HRW) 685 persons arrested (mostly... Combatants  Israel (Israel Defense Forces) Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades Fatah and Tanzim Strength Unknown 200 Casualties N/A 9 The Siege of the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem occurred during the April/May 2002 Israeli “Operation Defensive Shield” in the West Bank. ... The wreckage of a commuter bus in West Jerusalem after a suicide bombing by Hamas on Tuesday, 18 June, 2002. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Arabic الخليل Government City Also Spelled al-Khalil (officially) al-Halil (unofficially) Governorate Hebron Population 166,000 (2006) Jurisdiction  dunams Head of Municipality Mustafa Abdel Nabi Hebron (Arabic:   al-ḪalÄ«l or al KhalÄ«l; Hebrew:  , Standard Hebrew: Ḥevron, Tiberian Hebrew: Ḥeḇrôn) is a city in the southern Judea... The Taking of Jericho, by Jean Fouquet Near central Jericho, November 1996 Jericho (Arabic  , Hebrew  , ʼArīḥā; Standard YÉ™riḥo Tiberian YÉ™rîḫô / YÉ™rîḥô; meaning fragrant.[1] Greek Ἱεριχώ) is a town in Palestine, located within the Jericho Governorate, near the Jordan River. ...

During the operation, strict curfews were placed on at least six major Palestinian cities, resulting in complaints by human rights groups that essential medical attention was being denied to sick and elderly Palestinians, as well as complaints that Israel was practicing collective punishment, which is prohibited under the Fourth Geneva Convention. In some cities, there were scheduled breaks in the curfews. In others, curfews continued uninterrupted for a week or more. Central Bethlehem Bethlehem (Arabic بيت لحم   house of meat; Standard Hebrew בית לחם house of bread, Bet léḥem / Bet láḥem; Tiberian Hebrew Bêṯ léḥem / Bêṯ lāḥem; Greek: Βηθλεέμ) is a city in the Bethlehem Governorate of the West Bank under Palestinian Authority considered a central hub of Palestinian cultural and tourism... It has been suggested that Anem be merged into this article or section. ... Map of the West Bank, with Nablus in the center north. ... Ramallah (Arabic:  ) is a Palestinian city in the West Bank of approximately 57,000 residents. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Fourth Geneva Convention The Fourth Geneva Convention (GCIV) relates to the protection of civilians during times of war in the hands of an enemy and under any occupation by a foreign power. ...


Throughout the two weeks of fighting in Jenin and for a few days afterward, the city and its refugee camp were under curfew. It has been suggested that Anem be merged into this article or section. ...


The city of Bethlehem and its environs remained under curfew for five weeks, though there were periodic breaks, until an impasse involving Palestinian gunmen [1] who had sought refuge in the Church of the Nativity was resolved [2]. Most of the armed Palestinians in the Church of the Nativity agreed to go to the Gaza Strip. The rest were exiled to Cyprus. Central Bethlehem Bethlehem (Arabic بيت لحم   house of meat; Standard Hebrew בית לחם house of bread, Bet léḥem / Bet láḥem; Tiberian Hebrew Bêṯ léḥem / Bêṯ lāḥem; Greek: Βηθλεέμ) is a city in the Bethlehem Governorate of the West Bank under Palestinian Authority considered a central hub of Palestinian cultural and tourism... View of The Church of the Nativity from Manger Square The Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem is one of the oldest continuously operating churches in the world. ...


In reply to these complaints, the Israeli army stated that the curfew was placed in order to prevent civilians from being caught in gunfights and getting hurt. Palestinian ambulances were stopped for checks following the discovery of an explosive belt in a Red Crescent ambulance.(Higgins, Alexander G., "International Red Cross says 'unacceptable' Israeli actions curbed its West Bank operations," Associated Press Newswires, 6 April 2002.) Explosive belt (technically, a vest) worn by a Palestinian bomber captured by Israeli police An explosive belt (also called suicide belt, suicide vest or shaheed belt) is a vest packed with explosives and armed with a detonator, worn by suicide bombers. ... The Red Cross and the Red Crescent emblems, the symbols from which the Movement derives its name. ... An ambulance in San Jose del Cabo, Mexico A Helicopter used as an Ambulance. ...


One of the most notorious and controversial events of current conflict between Israel and the Palestinians was the April, 2002 Israeli invasion of Jenin Refugee Camp. For weeks, the Israeli army assaulted the camp with helicopters, tanks, bulldozers, and troops. There was much concern at the time about possible human rights violations occurring in the camp. However, reports of a large-scale massacre there were later found to be false. Other notable events were the siege of the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem and the siege of Yasser Arafat's compound. Combatants  Israel Defense Forces Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades, Palestinian Islamic Jihad, Fatah, Tanzim, Hamas Commanders Yedidia Yehuda [5] Mahmoud Tawallbe† Strength 1,000 200-250 Casualties 23 soldiers killed 52 killed (38 armed men, 14 civilians according to IDF; 30 militants, 22 civilians according to HRW) 685 persons arrested (mostly... It has been suggested that Anem be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants  Israel (Israel Defense Forces) Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades Fatah and Tanzim Strength Unknown 200 Casualties N/A 9 The Siege of the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem occurred during the April/May 2002 Israeli “Operation Defensive Shield” in the West Bank. ... Mohammed Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini (August 24, 1929 – November 11, 2004; Arabic: ), popularly known as Yasser Arafat, was Chairman of the Palestine Liberation Organization (1968–2004) and President[2] of the Palestinian National Authority (1993–2004). ...


Aftermath

The operation officially ended on May 10, 2002, although occupations and curfews continued after that time, gradually tapering off. Shortly afterwards, Operation Determined Path was launched. is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Operation Determined Path (‎) was a military operation carried out by the Israel Defense Forces, starting June 22, 2002, following Operation Defensive Shield, with the goal of reaching some of the unreached objectives set forth for Defensive Shield, especially in the northern West Bank. ...


A poll conducted after the end of the operation indicated that 86 percent of Israeli Jews thought that the operation contributed to Israel's security, but 54 percent thought the Operation has damaged Israel politically. However, in the final analysis, fully 90 percent of those surveyed asserted that the decision to launch Operation Defensive Shield was the correct decision. Views among Israeli Arabs were the opposite, with equally high numbers against the Operation.


According to the Guardian, at least 500 Palestinians were killed and 1500 were wounded. According to the Palestinian Red Crecent over 4,258 detained by the Israeli military. The Israeli offensive also left 29 Israeli soldiers dead, and 127 wounded. The World Bank estimated that over $360 million worth of damage was caused to Palestinian infrastructure and institutions. $158 million of which came from the massive aerial bombardment and destruction of houses in Nablus and Jenin. Large sectors of the Palestinian population were left homeless by the Operation. ([3]) ... Map of the West Bank, with Nablus in the center north. ... It has been suggested that Anem be merged into this article or section. ...


Human Rights Watch as well as Amnesty International determined that "Israeli forces committed serious violations of international humanitarian law, some amounting prima facie to war crimes." ([4]) This had to be established after the fact because the IDF would not allow human rights observers, nor journalists, in the camps during the operations. Collective punishment, indiscriminate killings, using human shields and the denial of adequate access to food and medical supplies are cited within the investigations. Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a pressure group that promotes human rights. ...


A UN fact-finding mission was to be established under UN Security Council Resolution 1405 (April 19, 2002) to investigate the operations in Jenin. Initially Israel seemed to welcome an investigation but later refused to cooperate. They cited 'media distortions' as to what actually occurred in the camp as the reason.([5]) However, it was Israel that denied journalists access to the camp which in turn resulted in flawed second hand reporting. Palestinian cabinet minister Saeb Erekat was widely misquoted by the press as saying there were 500 deaths in the assault on Jenin, when in fact he had been referring to the entire scope of Operation Defensive Shield.([6]) Israeli foreign minister Shimon Peres is quoted (in Haaretz) as saying "When the world sees the pictures of what we have done there, it will do us immense damage." Haaretz (Hebrew: (help· info), The Land) is an Israeli newspaper, founded in 1919. ...


References

is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Israel's Operation Defensive Shield, 2002 (256 words)
The goal was to dismantle the terrorist infrastructure developed by the Palestinian Authority (PA), or allowed to operate in territory the PA controls.
The operation consisted of moving Israeli forces into Judea and Samaria (the West Bank) and Gaza for the purpose of arresting terrorists, finding and confiscating weapons and destroying facilities for the manufacture of explosives.
Palestinians claimed a massacre took place at Jenin, but independent observers found no evidence of anything other than a battle in which the terrorists used the civilian population as a shield.
Operation Defensive Shield - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (582 words)
Operation Defensive Shield (In Hebrew, מבצע חומת מגן) was a large-scale military operation conducted by the Israeli Defence Forces in April 2002.
By April 3, the IDF was conducting major military operations in all Palestinian cities with the exception of Hebron and Jericho.
During the operation, strict curfews were placed on at least six major Palestinian cities, resulting in complaints by human rights groups that essential medical attention was being denied to sick and elderly Palestinians, as well as complaints that Israel was practicing collective punishment, which is prohibited under the Fourth Geneva Convention.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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