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Encyclopedia > Operation Condor
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For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... Operation Condor has been the codename of a number of military operations: Operation Condor (Spanish:Operación Cóndor) was a campaign of assassination and intelligence-gathering, dubbed counter-terrorism, conducted jointly by the security services of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay in the mid-1970s. ...


Operation Condor (Spanish: Operación Cóndor, Portuguese: Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repressions involving assassination and intelligence operations officially implemented starting in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships that dominated the Southern Cone in South America from the 1950s to 1980s. This aimed both to deter democratic and left-wing influence and ideas and to control active or potential opposition movements against these governments. Due to its clandestine nature, the precise number of deaths directly attributable to Operation Condor will likely never be known, but it is reported to have caused thousands of victims, possibly even more.[1][2][3] Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... Intelligence (abbreviated or ) is the process and the result of gathering information and analyzing it to answer questions or obtain advance warnings needed to plan for the future. ... “Right wing” redirects here. ... Benito Mussolini and Adolf Hitler were two of the 20th centurys most notorious dictators. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... “Leftism” redirects here. ...


Condor's key members were the right-wing military governments in Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia and Brazil, with Ecuador and Peru joining later in more peripheral roles.[2] These nations were ruled by dictators such as Jorge Rafael Videla, Augusto Pinochet, Ernesto Geisel and Alfredo Stroessner. The operation was jointly conducted by the intelligence and security services of these nations during the mid-1970s in conjunction the knowledge and some support provided by the United States[4]. Jorge Rafael Videla Redondo (born August 21, 1925 in Mercedes, Buenos Aires) was the de facto President of Argentina from 1976 to 1981. ... Captain General Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915 – December 10, 2006) was President of Chile from 1974 to 1990. ... Ernesto Beckmann Geisel, pron. ... Alfredo Stroessner Matiauda, whose name is also spelled Strössner or Strößner, (November 3, 1912, Encarnación - August 16, 2006, Brasília) served as President of Paraguay from 1954 to 1989. ...

Contents

History

On 25 November 1975, leaders of the military intelligence of Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay met together, with Manuel Contreras, chief of DINA (the Chilean secret police), in Santiago de Chile, officially creating the Plan Condor [5]. However, cooperation between various security services, in the aim of "eliminating Marxist subversion", previously existed before this meeting and Pinochet's coup d'état. Thus, during the Xth Conference of American Armies held in Caracas on September 3, 1973, Brazilian General Breno Borges Fortes, head of the Brazilian army, proposed to "extend the exchange of information" between various services in order to "struggle against subversion".[6] Furthermore, in March 1974, representants of the police forces of Chile, Uruguay and Bolivia met with Alberto Villar, deputy chief of the Argentine Federal Police and co-founder of the Triple A death squad, to implement cooperation guidelines in order to destroy the "subversive" threat represented by the presence of thousands of political exilees in Argentina [6]. In August 1974 the corpses of the first victims of Condor, Bolivian refugees, were found in garbage dumps in Buenos Aires [6]. Image File history File links Pinochet_y_Videla_2. ... Image File history File links Pinochet_y_Videla_2. ... Captain General Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915 – December 10, 2006) was President of Chile from 1974 to 1990. ... Jorge Rafael Videla Redondo (born August 21, 1925 in Mercedes, Buenos Aires) was the de facto President of Argentina from 1976 to 1981. ... General Juan Manuel Guillermo Contreras Sepúlveda (born May 4, 1929) was the head of Augusto Pinochets National Intelligence Directorate (DINA) and one of the most powerful men in Chile during Pinochets rule. ... Dina may refer to: A villBold textge in India where the Zafarnama was written A Sanskrit word meaning day An English spelling variation of Dinah, a Hebrew name. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... Nickname: La Sultana del Avila (English:The Avilas Sultan) La Sucursal del paraiso Motto: Ave María Santísima, sin pecado concebida, en el primer instante de su ser natural. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... The Policía Federal Argentina (PFA; in English Argentine Federal Police) is a nationwide police force, it is the federal police agency of Argentina, with detachments in each of the countrys provinces, with a jurisdiction and organization similar to the United States FBI. Because of this, most routine police... The Argentine Anticommunist Alliance (Spanish: , usually known as Triple A or AAA) was a far-right death squad active in Argentina during the mid-1970s, particularly active under Isabel Peróns rule (1974-1976). ...


According to French journalist Marie-Monique Robin, author of Escadrons de la mort, l'école française (2004, Death Squads, The French School), the paternity of Operation Condor is to be attributed to General Rivero, intelligence officer of the Argentine Armed Forces and former student of the French.[7] Marie-Monique Robin (1960-) is a French journalist, who was awarded the Albert Londres prize in 1995 for Voleurs dyeux, on organ theft. ... The armed forces of Argentina are controlled by the Commander-in-Chief (the President) and a civilian Minister of Defense. ...


Operation Condor, which took place in the context of the Cold War, was given at least tacit approval by the United States which feared a Marxist revolution in the region. The targets were officially leftist guerrillas (such as the MIR, the Montoneros or the ERP, the Tupamaros, etc.) but in fact included all kinds of political opponents, including their families and others, as reported by the Valech Commission. The Argentine "Dirty War", for example, which resulted in approximatively 30,000 victims according to most estimates, targeted many trade-unionists, relatives of activists, etc. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... Revolutionary Left Movement Revolutionary Left Movement (MIR) (Spanish Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionaria) is a Chilean communist party founded on October 12, 1965. ... Official logo of Montoneros The Movimiento Peronista Montonero was an Argentinian radical leftist nationalist-catholic guerrilla group, active during the 1970s. ... ERP may stand for: Effective radiated power, used in radio communications Effective rate of protection, a method of working out the value of import tariffs Effective Refractory Period, (Medicine- Cardiac electrophysiology) Peoples Revolutionary Army (Argentina) (Ejército Revolucionario del Pueblo) Peoples Revolutionary Army (Colombia) Peoples Revolutionary Army... Tupamaros, also known as the MLN (Movimiento de Liberación Nacional or National Liberation Army), was an urban guerrilla organization in Uruguay in the 1960s and 1970s. ... Monsignor Valech delivers the report to President Lagos The Valech Report (officially The National Commission on Political Imprisonment and Torture Report) was a study published on November 29, 2004 that detailed abuses committed in Chile between 1973 and 1990 by agents of Augusto Pinochets military regime. ... Poster by the Madres de la Plaza de Mayo NGO with photos of disappeared. This article especially refers to the Argentine dirty war; however, the term has been used in other contexts, for example in Morocco; see also lead years. ...


From 1976 onwards, the Chilean DINA and its Argentine counterpart, SIDE, were its front-line troops. The infamous "death flights", theorized in Argentina by Luis Maria Mendía — and also used during the Algerian War (1954–1962) by Marcel Bigeard — were widely used, in order to make the corpses, and therefore evidence, disappear. There were also many cases of child abduction. A forced disappearance occurs when an organization forces a person to vanish from public view, either by murder or by simple sequestration. ... Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj Jacques Massu Maurice Challe Said Boualam Pierre Lagaillarde Raoul... Marcel Bigeard (born 14 February 1916) is a French military officer who fought in World War II, Indochina and Algeria. ...


On December 22, 1992, a significant amount of information about Operation Condor came to light when José Fernández, a Paraguayan judge, visited a police station in the Lambaré suburb of Asunción to look for files on a former political prisoner. Instead he found what became known as the "terror archives", detailing the fates of thousands of Latin Americans secretly kidnapped, tortured and killed by the security services of Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay. Some of these countries have since used portions of this archive to prosecute former military officers. The archives counted 50,000 persons murdered, 30,000 "desaparecidos" and 400,000 incarcerated people.[8] December 22 is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... José Fernández may refer to: José Agustín Fernández, Paraguayan judge and human rights activist, found the terror archives. José Ramón Fernández Álvarez (b. ... Lambaré is a city in Central Department, Paraguay. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The terror archives were found in December 22, 1992 by Dr. Martín Almada, a lawyer and human-rights activist and judge José Fernandez in a police station in a suburb of Asunción (Lambaré), capital of Paraguay. ...


According to these archives, other countries such as Peru also cooperated to varying extents by providing intelligence information in response to requests from the security services of the Southern Cone countries. Even though Peru were not at the secret November 1975 meeting in Santiago de Chile there is evidence of its involvement. For instance, in June 1980, Peru was known to have been collaborating with Argentine agents of 601 Intelligence Battalion in the kidnapping, torture and disappearance of a group of Montoneros living in exile in Lima.[9] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Satellite image of Santiago Santiago (full form Santiago de Chile) is the capital of Chile. ... The Batallón de Inteligencia 601 (601 Intelligence Battalion) was a special military intelligence service of the Argentine Army active in the Dirty War and Operation Condor. ... Official logo of Montoneros The Movimiento Peronista Montonero was an Argentinian radical leftist nationalist-catholic guerrilla group, active during the 1970s. ... Nickname: Motto: Hoc signum vere regum est Lima Province and Lima within Peru Coordinates: , Country  Peru Region Lima Region Province Lima Province Settled January 18, 1535 Government  - Mayor Luis Castañeda Lossio Area  - City 804. ...


The "terror archives" also revealed Colombia's and Venezuela's greater or lesser degree of cooperation (Luis Posada Carriles was probably at the meeting that ordered Orlando Letelier's car bombing). In Colombia, it has been alleged that a paramilitary organization known as Alianza Americana Anticomunista may have cooperated with Operation Condor. Brazil signed the agreement later (June 1976), and refused to engage in actions out of Latin America. The terror archives were found in December 22, 1992 by Dr. Martín Almada, a lawyer and human-rights activist and judge José Fernandez in a police station in a suburb of Asunción (Lambaré), capital of Paraguay. ... Arrest photograph of Luis Posada Carriles Luis Clemente Faustino Posada Carriles (born February 15, 1928) is a Cuban-born Venezuelan anti-Castro terrorist. ... Marcos Orlando Letelier del Solar (April 13, 1932 - September 21, 1976) was a Chilean economist, political figure, diplomat and, later, US-based activist. ... The Alianza Americana Anticomunista (Anticommunist American Alliance aka Triple A) was a state terrorism and paramilitary far-right group mainly operating in Colombia during 1978 and 1979. ...


Mexico, together with Costa Rica, Canada, France, the U.K., Spain and Sweden received many leftist intellectuals and common folk fleeing from the terror regimes. Operation Condor officially ended with the ousting of the Argentine dictatorship in 1983, although the killings continued. “UK” redirects here. ...


Notable cases and prosecution

Argentina

Main article: Dirty War

The Argentine Dirty War was carried on simultaneously with Operation Condor, the two overlapping between themselves. Indeed, the SIDE cooperated with the Chilean DINA in numerous cases of desaparecidos. Apart of the 1974 assassination of General Carlos Prats in Buenos Aires, Uruguayan former MPs Zelmar Michelini, Héctor Gutiérrez and the ex-president of Bolivia, Juan José Torres were assassinated in the Argentine capital. Poster by the Madres de la Plaza de Mayo NGO with photos of disappeared. This article especially refers to the Argentine dirty war; however, the term has been used in other contexts, for example in Morocco; see also lead years. ... Secretaría de Inteligencia (Intelligence Secretariat, S.I) is the premier intelligence agency of the Argentine Republic and head of its National Intelligence System. ... Disappear redirects here. ... General Prats, as vice-president General Carlos Prats González (1915 - Chilean political figure, and General Augusto Pinochets predecessor as Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army. ... Zelmar Michelini (Montevideo, May 20, 1924 - Buenos Aires, 1976) was an Uruguayan reporter and politician, murdered in Buenos Aires in 1976 in the frame of Operation Condor. ... Juan Jose Torres Gonzales (1921— 1976) was a Bolivian socialist politician and military leader. ...


The SIDE also assisted Bolivian general Luis Garcia Meza Tejada's Cocaine Coup in Bolivia, with the help of Gladio operative Stefano Delle Chiaie and Nazi war criminal Klaus Barbie (see also Operation Charly). The Madres de la Plaza de Mayo, a group of mothers who had lost their children to the dictatorship, started demonstrating each Sunday on Plaza de Mayo from April 1977, in front of the Casa Rosada in Buenos Aires, the seat of the government, to reclaim their children from the junta. The Mothers continue their struggle for justice to this day. Luis García Meza Tejada (b. ... Stefano Delle Chiaie (born 1934) was a figure on the far right of Italian politics who went on to become a wanted man worldwide. ... Klaus Barbie (October 25, 1913 – September 25, 1991) was a German soldier and Gestapo member. ... Buildings used by the School of the Americas in Panama. ... ... Overview of Plaza de Mayo The Plaza de Mayo (Spanish: May Square) is the main square in downtown Buenos Aires, Argentina; it is flanked by Hipólito Yrigoyen, Balcarce, Rivadavia and Bolívar streets. ... The Casa Rosada La Casa Rosada (Spanish for the Pink House), officially known as the Casa de Gobierno (Government House), is the official seat of the executive branch of the government of Argentina. ... J.L. Urban, statue of Lady Justice at court building in Olomouc, Czech Republic Justice concerns the proper ordering of things and persons within a society. ...


The National Commission for Forced Disappearances (CONADEP), led by writer Ernesto Sabato, was created in 1983. Two years later, the Juicio a las Juntas (Trial of the Juntas) largely succeeded in proving the crimes of the various juntas which had formed the self-styled National Reorganization Process. Most of the top officers who were tried were sentenced to life imprisonment: Jorge Rafael Videla, Emilio Eduardo Massera, Roberto Eduardo Viola, Armando Lambruschini, Raúl Agosti, Rubén Graffigna, Leopoldo Galtieri, Jorge Anaya and Basilio Lami Dozo. However, Raúl Alfonsín's government voted two amnesty laws in order to avoid the escalation of trials against militaries involved in human rights abuses: the 1986 Ley de Punto Final and the 1987 Ley de Obediencia Debida. President Carlos Menem then pardoned the leaders of the junta in 1989–1990. Following persistent activism by the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo and other associations, the amnesty laws were overturned by the Argentine Supreme Court nearly twenty years later, in June 2005. The Comisión Nacional sobre la Desaparición de Personas (National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons, CONADEP) was an Argentine organism created by President Raúl Alfonsín on December 15, 1983, shortly after his inauguration to investigate the fate of the desaparecidos and other human rights violations (see... Ernesto Sábato (born June 24, 1911) is an Argentine writer of Italian and Arbëreshë (Italian Albanian) descent. ... The Juicio a las Juntas (Spanish, Trial of the Juntas) was the judicial trial of the members of the de facto military government that ruled Argentina during the dictatorship of the Proceso de Reorganización Nacional, which lasted from 1976 to 1983. ... Jorge Rafael Videla, first president of the Proceso Proceso de Reorganización Nacional (Spanish, National Reorganization Process, often simply Proceso) was the name given by its leaders to the dictatorial regime that ruled Argentina from 1976 to 1983. ... Life imprisonment is a sentence of imprisonment for a serious crime, nominally for the entire remaining life of the prisoner, but in fact for a period which varies between jurisdictions: many countries have a maximum possible period of time (usually 50 years) a prisoner may be incarcerated, or require the... Jorge Rafael Videla Redondo (born August 21, 1925 in Mercedes, Buenos Aires) was the de facto President of Argentina from 1976 to 1981. ... Emilio Eduardo Massera (born 1925 in Buenos Aires) is an Argentine military. ... Roberto Eduardo Viola Prevedini (October 13, 1924 – September 30, 1994) was a military officer who briefly served as interim president of Argentina from March 29 to December 11, 1981 during a period of military rule. ... Leopoldo Fortunato Galtieri Castelli (July 15, 1926 - January 12, 2003) was an Argentinian general and the de facto President of Argentina from 22 December 1981 to 18 June 1982, during the last military dictatorship. ... Categories: People stubs ... Brigadier General Basilio Arturo Ignacio Lami Dozo (b. ... Raúl Ricardo Alfonsín (born 13 March 1927) is an Argentine politician, who was the President of Argentina from 10 December 1983 to 9 July 1989. ... The term Amnesty law refers to any law that retroactively exempts a select group of people, usually military leaders and government leaders, from criminal liability for crimes committed. ... A poster calling for a demonstration against the passing of the law. ... Ley de Obediencia Debida (Spanish, Law of Due Obedience) was a law passed by the National Congress of Argentina after the end of the military dictatorship of the Proceso de Reorganización Nacional (which started with a coup détat in 1976 and ended in 1983). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Supreme Court of Argentina (in Spanish, Corte Suprema de Justicia de la Nación) is the highest court of law of the Argentine Republic. ...


In Argentina, DINA's civil agent Enrique Arancibia Clavel, prosecuted for crimes against humanity in 2004, was condemned a life-sentence in General Prat's case.[10] In 2003, federal judge Maria Servini de Cubria asked Chile for the extradition of Mariana Callejas, who was Michael Townley's wife (himself a U.S. expatriate and DINA agent), and Cristoph Willikie, a retired colonel from the Chilean army - all three of them are accused of this crime. But Chilean judge Nibaldo Segura from appeal court has refused in July 2005, arguing that they were already been prosecuted in Chile.[3] This article is in need of attention. ... Michael Townley, a U.S. expatriate, first worked for the CIA before working for the DINA, Chilean secret police under Augusto Pinochets dictatorship, where he participated in operation Condor. ...


It has been claimed that Italian terrorist Stefano Delle Chiaie - also an operative of Gladio "stay-behind" secret NATO paramilitary organization - was involved in the murder of General Carlos Prats. Along with fellow extremist Vincenzo Vinciguerra, he testified in Rome in December 1995 before judge María Servini de Cubría that DINA agents Enrique Arancibia Clavel and Michael Townley were directly involved in this assassination.[4] Stefano Delle Chiaie (born 1934) was a figure on the far right of Italian politics who went on to become a wanted man worldwide. ... Operation Gladio Operation Gladio was a clandestine stay-behind operation sponsored by the CIA and NATO to counter communist influence in Italy, as well as in other European countries. ... Vincenzo Vinciguerra was a member of Avanguardia Nazionale (National Vanguard), a far-right terrorist organization founded by Stefano Delle Chiaie and involved in Italys strategy of tension promoted by Gladio networks. ...


Brazil

In Brazil, president Fernando Henrique Cardoso ordered in 2000 the release of some military files concerning Operation Condor.[11] Italian attorney general Giancarlo Capaldo, who is investigating the disappearance of Italian citizens, probably by a mix of Argentine, Chilean, Paraguayan and Brazilian militaries, accused 11 Brazilians of being implicated in it. However, according to the official statement, "they could not confirm nor invalidate that Argentine, Brazilian, Paraguayan and Chilean militaries will be submitted to a trial before December."[12] As of August 2006, nobody in Brazil has been convicted of human rights violations during the 21 years of military dictatorship there. Fernando Henrique Cardoso (born June 18, 1931) was the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil for two terms from January 1, 1995 to January 1, 2003. ... In most common law jurisdictions, the Attorney General is the main legal adviser to the government, and in some jurisdictions may in addition have executive responsibility for law enforcement or responsibility for public prosecutions. ... The military maintained power in Brazil from 1964 until March 1985 because of political struggles within the regime and Brazilian elite. ...


On April 26, 2000, former governor of Rio de Janeiro, Leonel Brizola, alleged that the ex-presidents of Brazil, João Goulart and Juscelino Kubitschek, were assassinated in the frame of Operation Condor and requested the opening of investigations on their death. They were purported to have died respectively of a heart attack and in an accident.[13][14] Leonel Brizola. ... João Belchior Marques Goulart (March 1, 1918—December 6, 1976) was the last left-wing president of Brazil (1961–March 31, 1964) The surname Goulart is of Azorean-Flemish origin. ... Juscelino Kubitschek and his wife Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira (JK) (September 12, 1902-August 22, 1976) was a prominent Brazilian politician who was President of Brazil from 1956 to 1961. ...


Chile

When Augusto Pinochet was arrested in London in 1998, as part of a failed extradition to Spain, which was demanded by magistrate Baltasar Garzón, a bit more information concerning Condor was revealed. One of the lawyers who asked for his extradition talked about an attempt to assassinate Carlos Altamirano, leader of the Chilean Socialist Party: Pinochet would have met Italian terrorist Stefano Delle Chiaie in Madrid in 1975, during Franco's funeral, in order to have him murdered.[15] But as with Bernardo Leighton, who was shot in Rome in 1975 after a meeting the same year in Madrid between Stefano Delle Chiaie, former CIA agent Michael Townley and anti-Castrist Virgilio Paz Romero, the plan ultimately failed. Pinochet is visited by Margaret Thatcher during his house arrest in London, in 1998 Main article: Augusto Pinochet General Augusto Jose Pinochet Ugarte (November 25, 1915–December 10, 2006) was head of the military dictatorship that ruled Chile from 1973 to 1990. ... Extradition is the official process by which one nation or state requests and obtains from another nation or state the surrender of a suspected or convicted criminal. ... Baltasar Garzón (Photo credit: Presidency of Argentina. ... Carlos Altamirano Orrego (December 18, 1922, Santiago de Chile) is a lawyer and one of the most influential politicians of Chilean socialism. ... Politics of Chile President of Chile Political parties in Chile Elections in Chile: Presidential: 1925 - 1927 - 1931 - 1932 - 1938 - 1941 - 1946 - 1952 - 1958 - 1964 - 1970 - 1989 - 1993 - 1999 - 2005 The Socialist Party of Chile (Spanish: Partido Socialista de Chile, PSC) is a political party in Chile, and part of the... Stefano Delle Chiaie (born 1934) was a figure on the far right of Italian politics who went on to become a wanted man worldwide. ... General Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 - November 20, [1] 1975), commonly abbreviated to Francisco Franco (pron. ... Bernardo Leighton (born on August 16, 1909 - died on January 26, 1995) was a Chilean Christian Democrat who has been targeted by Operation Condor. ... Michael Townley, a U.S. expatriate, first worked for the CIA before working for the DINA, Chilean secret police under Augusto Pinochets dictatorship, where he participated in operation Condor. ... Virgilio Paz Romero is an anti-castro Cuban exile, involved in various terrorist acts. ...


Chilean judge Juan Guzmán Tapia would eventually make jurisprudence concerning "permanent kidnapping" crime: since the bodies of the victims could not be found, he deemed that the kidnapping may be said to continue, therefore refusing to grant to the military the benefices of the statute of limitation. This helped indict Chilean militaries who were benefitting from a 1978 self-amnesty decree. Juan Salvador Guzmán Tapia was born on April 22, 1939 in Salvador, in a Chilean diplomat family, which acclaimed Augusto Pinochets coup détat in 1973. ... Philosophers of law ask what is law? and what should it be? Jurisprudence is the theory and philosophy of law. ...


General Carlos Prats

General Carlos Prats and his wife were killed by the Chilean DINA on September 30, 1974, by a car bombing in Buenos Aires, Argentina, where they lived in exile. In Chile, the judge investigating this case, Alejandro Solís, definitively relaxed Pinochet on this particular case, after the Chilean Supreme court rejected in January 2005 a demand to lift the ex-dictator's immunity. The direction of DINA, including chief Manuel Contreras, ex-chief of operation and retired general Raúl Itturiaga Neuman, his brother Roger Itturiaga, and ex-brigadeers Pedro Espinoza Bravo and José Zara, are accused in Chile of this assassination. DINA agent Enrique Arancibia Clavel has been convicted in Argentina for this assassination. General Prats, as vice-president General Carlos Prats González (1915 - Chilean political figure, and General Augusto Pinochets predecessor as Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army. ... is the 273rd day of the year (274th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Supreme Court building in Santiago The Supreme Court of Chile is the highest court in Chile (court of last resort). ... Brigadier Pedro Espinoza Bravo was a Chilean Army officer and member of the DINA, the secret police which operated during the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet (1973-1990). ... Enrique Arranciaba is a former Chilean DINA agent, who resided in unofficial exile in Buenos Aires after the assassination of Chilean Army Chief of Staff René Schneider on October 25, 1970. ...


Bernardo Leighton

Bernardo Leighton and his wife were severely injured on October 5, 1976 by gunshots while in exile in Rome. According to the National Security Archive and Italian attorney general Giovanni Salvi, in charge of former DINA head Manuel Contreras' prosecution, Stefano Delle Chiaie met with Michael Townley and Virgilio Paz Romero in Madrid, in 1975, to prepare, with the help of Franco's secret police, the murder of Bernardo Leighton.[16] Bernardo Leighton (born on August 16, 1909 - died on January 26, 1995) was a Chilean Christian Democrat who has been targeted by Operation Condor. ... is the 278th day of the year (279th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Security Archive is a 501(c)(3) non-profit research and archival institution located within The George Washington University in Washington, D.C. Founded in 1985 by Thomas Blanton, it archives and publishes declassified U.S. government files concerning selected topics of American foreign policy. ... Virgilio Paz Romero is an anti-castro Cuban exile, involved in various terrorist acts. ... General Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 - November 20, [1] 1975), commonly abbreviated to Francisco Franco (pron. ...


Orlando Letelier

Another target was Orlando Letelier, a former minister of the Chilean Allende government who was assassinated by a car bomb explosion in Washington, D.C. on September 21, 1976. His assistant Ronni Moffit, a U.S. citizen, also died in the explosion. Michael Townley, General Manuel Contreras, former head of the DINA; and Brigadier Pedro Espinoza Bravo also formerly of DINA were convicted for the murders. In 1978, Chile accepted to hand over Michael Townley to the USA, in order to reduce the tension about Orlando Letelier's murder. Michael Townley was then freed under witness protection programs. USA is still waiting for Manuel Contreras and Pedro Espinoza to be extradited. Marcos Orlando Letelier del Solar (April 13, 1932 - September 21, 1976) was a Chilean economist, political figure, diplomat and, later, US-based activist. ... Salvador Allende Gossens[1] (July 26, 1908 – September 11, 1973) was President of Chile from November 1970 until his suicide during the coup détat of September 11, 1973. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In an op-ed published 17 December 2004 in the Los Angeles Times, Francisco Letelier, the son of Orlando Letelier, wrote that the assassination of his father was part of Operation Condor, described as "an intelligence-sharing network used by six South American dictators of that era to eliminate dissidents." Augusto Pinochet has been accused of being a participant in Operation Condor, Francisco Letelier declared: "My father's murder was part of Condor." December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ...


Michael Townley has accused Pinochet of being responsible for Orlando Letelier's death. Townley confessed that he had hired five anti-Castro Cuban exiles to booby-trap Letelier's car. According to Jean-Guy Allard, after consultations with the terrorist organization CORU's leadership, including Luis Posada Carriles and Orlando Bosch, those elected to carry out the murder were Cuban-Americans José Dionisio "Bloodbath" Suárez, Virgilio Paz Romero, Alvin Ross Díaz and brothers Guillermo and Ignacio Novo Sampoll.[17][18] According to the Miami Herald, Luis Posada Carriles was at this meeting that decided on Letelier's death and also about the Cubana Flight 455 bombing. Coordination of United Revolutionary Organizations (CORU) has been described by the FBI as an anti-Castro terrorist umbrella organization. It has taken part in operation Condor, organizing Chilean former minister Orlando Leteliers assassination in Washington, D.C. in 1976. ... Arrest photograph of Luis Posada Carriles Luis Clemente Faustino Posada Carriles (born February 15, 1928) is a Cuban-born Venezuelan anti-Castro terrorist. ... Orlando Bosch is a Cuban exile and former CIA-backed terrorist, head of CORU organization, which the FBI has described as an anti-Castro terrorist umbrella organization. He has been accused of having taken part in Operation Condor and of a variety of terrorist attacks. ... The Miami Herald is a daily newspaper owned by Knight Ridder. ... Cubana Flight 455 was a Cubana de Aviación flight departing from Barbados, via Trinidad, to Cuba. ...


Operation Silencio

In 1991, a year before the "terror archives" were found in Paraguay, Eugenio Berríos, a chemist who had worked with DINA agent Michael Townley, was escorted from Chile to Uruguay by Operation Condor agents, in order to escape testifying before a Chilean court in the Letelier case. The terror archives were found in December 22, 1992 by Dr. Martín Almada, a lawyer and human-rights activist and judge José Fernandez in a police station in a suburb of Asunción (Lambaré), capital of Paraguay. ... Eugenio Berríos Sagredo (died in April 1995) was a Chilean biochemist who worked for the DINA intelligence agency. ...


This is known as Operation Silencio, that started in April 1991 in order to impede investigations by Chilean judges, with the spiriting away of Arturo Sanhueza Ross, linked to the murder of MIR leader Jecar Neghme in 1989. According to the Rettig Report, Jecar Neghme's death was carried out by Chilean intelligence agents [19]. In September 1991, Carlos Herrera Jiménez, who killed trade-unionist Tucapel Jiménez, flew away, before Berríos in October 1991.[20] Berríos then used four different passports, Argentinian, Uruguayan, Paraguayan and Brazilian, lifting concerns about Operation Condor still being in place. In 1995, he was found dead in El Pinar, near Montevideo (Uruguay), his murderers having tried to make the identification of his body impossible. Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionaria (MIR) (Movement of the Revolutionary Left) is a Chilean political party. ... The Rettig Report, officially The National Commission for Truth and Reconciliation Report, is a report encompassing human rights abuses resulting in death or disappearance committed in Chile during the years of military rule under Augusto Pinochet, which began on September 11, 1973 and ended on March 11, 1990. ... Department Montevideo Department Altitude 43 m Coordinates 34º 53S 56º 10W Founded 1726 Founder Bruno Mauricio de Zabala Population 1,325,968 (2004) (1st) Demonym Montevideano Phone Code +02 Postal Code 10000 Montevideo (IPA: ) is the capital, largest city, and chief port of Uruguay. ...


In January 2005, Michael Townley, who now lives in the USA under witness protection program, acknowledged to agents of Interpol Chile links between DINA and the detention and torture center Colonia Dignidad,[5] which was founded in 1961 by Paul Schäfer, a Nazi accused of child-abuse and torture, arrested in March 2005 in Buenos Aires. Townley also revealed information about Colonia Dignidad and the Army's Laboratory on Bacteriological War. This last laboratory would have replaced the old DINA's laboratory on Via Naranja de lo Curro street, where Michael Townley worked with the chemical assassin Eugenio Berríos. The toxin that allegedly killed Christian-democrat Eduardo Frei Montalva may have been made in this new lab in Colonia Dignidad, according to the judge investigating the case. Colonia Dignidad (Dignity Colony, now known as Villa Baviera, Bavaria Village), is a settlement located in an isolated area in the Maule Region of southern Chile, near the village of Parral. ... Paul Schäfer Paul Schäfer Schneider (born December 4, 1921) is the founder and former leader of a sect and agricultural commune of German immigrants called Colonia Dignidad (Dignity Colony)—later renamed Villa Baviera—located in central Chile, about 340 km south of Santiago. ... Eduardo Nicanor Frei Montalva (1911–1982) was a Chilean political figure and president of Chile from 1964 to 1970. ...


U.S. Congressman Edward Koch

In February 2004, John Dinges, a reporter, published "The Condor Years: How Pinochet and His Allies Brought Terrorism to Three Continents" (The New Press, 2004). In this book, he reveals how Uruguayan military officials threatened to assassinate US Congressman Edward Koch in mid-1976. In late July 1976, the CIA station chief in Montevideo received information about it, but recommended that the Agency take no action because the Uruguayan officers (among which Colonel José Fons, who was at the November 1975 secret meeting in Santiago, Chile, and Major José Nino Gavazzo, who headed a team of intelligence officers working in Argentina in 1976, where he was responsible for more than 100 Uruguayans´ deaths) had been drinking when the threat was made. In an interview for the book, Koch said that George H.W. Bush, CIA's director at the time, informed him in October 1976 - more than two months afterward, and after Orlando Letelier's murder - that his sponsorship of legislation to cut off US military assistance to Uruguay on human rights grounds had provoked secret police officials to "put a contract out for you". In mid October 1976, Koch wrote to the Justice Departement asking for FBI protection. None was provided for him. In late 1976, Colonel Fons and Major Gavazzo were assigned to prominent diplomatic posts in Washington DC, but the State Department forced the Uruguayan government to withdraw their appointments, with the public explanation that "Fons and Gavazzo could be the objects of unpleasant publicity..." Koch only became aware of the connections between the threats in 2001.[21] John Dinges was special correspondent for Time, Washington Post and ABC Radio in Chile. ... Ed Koch, a Democrat, speaks at the 2004 Republican National Convention in support of the re-election of President George W. Bush. ... George H. W. Bush - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Other cases

The Chilean leader of the MIR, Edgardo Enríquez, was "disappeared" in Argentina, as well as another MIR leader, Jorge Fuentes; Alexei Jaccard, Chilean and Swiss, Ricardo Ramírez and a support network to the Communist party dismantled in Argentina in 1977. Cases of repression against German, Spanish, Peruvians citizens and Jewish people were also reported. The assassination of former Bolivian president Juan José Torres, in Buenos Aires in 1976, was also part of Condor. So was the murder of former Uruguayan deputies Héctor Gutiérrez and Zelmar Michelini, also in Buenos Aires and the same year. The DINA entered into contact even with Croatian terrorists, Italian neofascists and the Shah's SAVAK to locate and assassinate dissidents.[22] Revolutionary Left Movement Revolutionary Left Movement (MIR) (Spanish Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionaria) is a Chilean communist party founded on October 12, 1965. ... Juan Jose Torres Gonzales (1921— 1976) was a Bolivian socialist politician and military leader. ... Héctor Gutiérrez Ruiz (Montevideo, 1934 - Buenos Aires, 1976) was a Uruguayan deputy, member of the National Party. ... Zelmar Michelini (Montevideo, May 20, 1924 - Buenos Aires, 1976) was an Uruguayan reporter and politician, murdered in Buenos Aires in 1976 in the frame of Operation Condor. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


1976 was the year where Operation Condor as at its height. Chilean exilees in Argentina were threatened again, and had to go, once again, into clandestinity or/and exile. Chilean General Carlos Prats had already been assassinated by the Chilean DINA in Buenos Aires in 1974, with the help of former CIA agent Michael Townley. Cuban diplomats were also assassinated in Buenos Aires in the infamous Automotores Orletti torture center, one of the 300 clandestine prisons of the dictatorship, managed by the Grupo de Tareas 18, headed by Aníbal Gordon, previously convicted for armed robbery, and who directly obeyed to the General Commandant of the SIDE, Otto Paladino. Automotores Orletti was the main base of foreign intelligence services involved in Operation Condor. One of the survivors, José Luis Bertazzo, who was detained two months there, identified Chileans, Uruguayans, Paraguayans and Bolivians there, who were interrogated by agents from their own countries. It is there that 19 years-old daughter-in-law of poet Juan Gelman was tortured (along with his son), before being transported to Montevideo, where she delivered a baby which was immediately stolen by Uruguayan militaries.[23] According to John Dinges's Los años del Cóndor, Chilean MIR prisoners in Orletti center told José Luis Bertazzo that they had seen two Cuban diplomats, 22 years-old Jesús Cejas Arias, and 26 years-old Crescencio Galañega, tortured by Gordon's group and interrogated by a man who specially came one day from Miami to interrogate them. The two Cuban diplomats, charged of the protection of Cuban embassador to Argentina, Emilio Aragonés, had been kidnapped on August 9, 1976, in the intersection between calle Arribeños and Virrey del Pino, by 40 armed SIDE agents who blocked all side of the street with their Ford Falcon, the cars used by the security forces during the dictatorship. According to John Dinges, the FBI as well as the CIA were informed of their arrestation. Dinges published in his book a cable sent by FBI agent in Buenos Aires, Robert Scherrer, on September 22, 1976, where he mentionned in passing that Michael Townley, later convicted for the assassination on September 21, 1976 of former Chilean minister Orlando Letelier in Washington D.C., had also taken part to the interrogatories of the two Cubans. Former head of the DINA confirmed to Argentine federal judge María Servini de Cubría on December 22, 1999, in Santiago de Chile, the presence of Michael Townley and Cuban Guillermo Novo Sampoll in the Orletti center, who traveled form Chile to Argentina on August 11, 1976, and "cooperated in the torture and assassination of the two Cuban diplomats." Anti-Castro Cuban terrorist Luis Posada Carriles also boasted in his autobiography, "Los caminos del guerrero", the murder of the two young men.[23] General Prats, as vice-president General Carlos Prats González (1915 - Chilean political figure, and General Augusto Pinochets predecessor as Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army. ... Dina may refer to: A villBold textge in India where the Zafarnama was written A Sanskrit word meaning day An English spelling variation of Dinah, a Hebrew name. ... Michael Townley, a U.S. expatriate, first worked for the CIA before working for the DINA, Chilean secret police under Augusto Pinochets dictatorship, where he participated in operation Condor. ... Theater This page is about the ancient city Side on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. ... Juan Gelman 1930- Argentine poet born in Buenos Aires. ... John Dinges was special correspondent for Time, Washington Post and ABC Radio in Chile. ... Mir (Russian: ; lit. ... The Ford Falcon, Argentina model, a fullsize car built by Ford Motor Company that resembled the 1960s North American Falcons, were built until the early 1990s. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Michael Townley, a U.S. expatriate, first worked for the CIA before working for the DINA, Chilean secret police under Augusto Pinochets dictatorship, where he participated in operation Condor. ... Marcos Orlando Letelier del Solar (April 13, 1932 - September 21, 1976) was a Chilean economist, political figure, diplomat and, later, US-based activist. ... // Castro is a Romance (Spanish, Galician, Portuguese and Italian) word coming from Latin castrum, a fortification (cf: Greek: kastron; Proto-Celtic: *Kassrik; Breton: kaer, *kastro). ... Arrest photograph of Luis Posada Carriles Luis Clemente Faustino Posada Carriles (born February 15, 1928) is a Cuban-born Venezuelan anti-Castro terrorist. ...


U.S. involvement

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Further information: U.S. intervention in Chile

CIA documents show that the CIA had close contact with members of the Chilean secret police, DINA, and its chief Manuel Contreras. Some have alleged that the CIA's one-time payment to Contreras is proof that the U.S. approved of Operation Condor and military repression within Chile. The CIA's official documents state that at one time, some members of the intelligence community recommended making Contreras into a paid contact because of his closeness to Pinochet; the plan was rejected based on Contreras' poor human rights track record, but the single payment was made due to miscommunication.[24] Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... The United States on several occasions sought to influence the policies or government of Chile. ... General Juan Manuel Guillermo Contreras Sepúlveda (born May 4, 1929) was the head of Augusto Pinochets National Intelligence Directorate (DINA) and one of the most powerful men in Chile during Pinochets rule. ...


A 1978 cable from the US ambassador to Paraguay, Robert White, to the Secretary of State Cyrus Vance, was published on March 6, 2001 by the New York Times. The document was released in November 2000 by the Clinton administration under the Chile Declassification Project. In the cable, Ambassador White related a speech with General Alejandro Fretes Davalos, chief of staff of Paraguay's armed forces, who informed him that the South American intelligence chiefs involved in Condor "[kept] in touch with one another through a U.S. communications installation in the Panama Canal Zone which cover[ed] all of Latin America". According to Davalos, this installation was "employed to co-ordinate intelligence information among the southern cone countries". Robert White feared that the US connection to Condor might be publicly revealed, at a time when investigations were carried out in the US concerning the assassination of Chilean former minister Orlando Letelier and his American assistant Ronni Moffit. White thus wrote in his cable that: "It would seem advisable to review this arrangement to insure that its continuation is in US interest." Robert White served as U.S. ambassador under different administrations. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... President Clintons Cabinet, circa 1993 Headed by President of the United States Bill Clinton, the Clinton Administation was the executive branch of the federal government of the United States from 1993 to 2001. ... The Panama Canal Zone (Spanish: ), was a 553 square mile (1,432 km²) territory inside of Panama, consisting of the Panama Canal and an area generally extending 5 miles (8. ... Marcos Orlando Letelier del Solar (April 13, 1932 - September 21, 1976) was a Chilean economist, political figure, diplomat and, later, US-based activist. ...


The "information exchange" (via telex) included torture techniques (i.e. near drowning or playing the sound recordings of victims who were being tortured to their families).[citation needed] Telex can refer to more than one thing: For the communications network, see Telegraphy. ... Torture, according to international law, is any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has...


This demonstrates that the US facilitated communications for Operation Condor, and has been called by J. Patrice McSherry (Long Island Univ.) "another piece of increasingly weighty evidence suggesting that U.S. military and intelligence officials supported and collaborated with Condor as a secret partner or sponsor."[25]


It has been argued that while the US was not a key member, it "provided organizational, intelligence, financial and technological assistance to the operation."[6]


Material declassified in 2004 states that

"The declassified record shows that Secretary Kissinger was briefed on Condor and its 'murder operations' on August 5, 1976, in a 14-page report from Shlaudeman. 'Internationally, the Latin generals look like our guys,' Shlaudeman cautioned. 'We are especially identified with Chile. It cannot do us any good.' Shlaudeman and his two deputies, William Luers and Hewson Ryan, recommended action. Over the course of three weeks, they drafted a cautiously worded demarche, approved by Kissinger, in which he instructed the U.S. ambassadors in the Southern Cone countries to meet with the respective heads of state about Condor. He instructed them to express 'our deep concern' about 'rumors' of 'plans for the assassination of subversives, politicians and prominent figures both within the national borders of certain Southern Cone countries and abroad.'"[7]

Ultimately, the demarche was never delivered. Kornbluh and Dinges suggest that Kissinger's order was not sent as the result of a cable sent by Assistant Secretary Harry Shlaudeman to his deputy in D.C which states "You can simply instruct the Ambassadors to take no further action, noting that there have been no reports in some weeks indicating an intention to activate the Condor scheme."[26]McSherry, adds, "According to [U.S. Ambassador to Paraguay Robert] White, instructions from a secretary of state cannot be ignored unless there is a countermanding order received via a secret (CIA) backchannel." [27] Kornbluh and Dinges conclude that "The paper trail is clear: the State Department and the CIA had enough intelligence to take concrete steps to thwart Condor assassination planning. Those steps were initiated but never implemented." Shlaudeman's deputy, Hewson Ryan, would later acknowledge in an oral history interview that the State Department was "remiss" in its handling of the case. "We knew fairly early on that the governments of the Southern Cone countries were planning, or at least talking about, some assassinations abroad in the summer of 1976. … Whether if we had gone in, we might have prevented this, I don't know," he stated in reference to the Letelier-Moffitt bombing. "But we didn't."


Henry Kissinger

Henry Kissinger, Secretary of State in the Nixon and Ford administrations, was closely involved diplomatically with the Southern Cone governments at the time and well-aware of the Condor plan. According to L'Humanité, the first cooperation agreements were signed between the CIA and anti-Castro groups, fascist movements such as the Triple A set up in Argentina by José López Rega, "personal secretary" of Juan Perón and Isabel Martínez de Perón, and Rodolfo Almirón (arrested in Spain in 2006).[28] Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American diplomat, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... LHumanité (Humanity), formerly the daily newspaper of the French Communist Party (PCF), was founded in 1904 by Jean Jaurès, a leader of the SFIO socialist party. ... Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... The Argentine Anticommunist Alliance (Spanish: , usually known as Triple A or AAA) was a far-right death squad active in Argentina during the mid-1970s, particularly active under Isabel Peróns rule (1974-1976). ... José López Rega in the mid-1970s. ... Juan Domingo Perón (October 8, 1895 – July 1, 1974) was an Argentine soldier and politician, elected three times as President of Argentina and serving from 1946 to 1955 and from 1973 to 1974. ... María Estela Martínez de Perón (born on February 4, 1931) better known as Isabel Martínez de Perón was the third wife of Argentine President Juan Perón and served as President of Argentina in her own right from July 1, 1974 to March 24, 1976. ... Rodolfo Almirón Sena (1(935-Present) is an Argentine and former police officer who was one of the leader of an extreme right-wing death squad called Triple A, that operated throughout the 1970s. ...


On May 31, 2001, French judge Roger Le Loire requested a summons served on Henry Kissinger while he was staying at the Hôtel Ritz in Paris. Loire wanted to question Kissinger as a witness for U.S. alleged involvement concerning Operation Condor and for possible US knowledge concerning the "disappearances" of 5 French nationals under the Chilean junta. As a result, Kissinger left Paris that evening, and Loire's inquiries were directed to the U.S. State Department.[29] is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American diplomat, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... The Hôtel Ritz is a hotel located at 15 Place Vendôme, in the heart of Paris, France. ... It has been suggested that List of visitor attractions in Paris be merged into this article or section. ...


In July 2001, the Chilean high court granted investigating judge Juan Guzmán the right to question Kissinger about the 1973 killing of American journalist Charles Horman, whose execution at the hands of the Chilean military following the coup was dramatized in the 1982 Costa-Gavras film, Missing. The judge’s questions were relayed to Kissinger via diplomatic routes but went unanswered. [30] Juan Salvador Guzmán Tapia was born on April 22, 1939 in Salvador, in a Chilean diplomat family, which acclaimed Augusto Pinochets coup détat in 1973. ... Charles Horman (May 15, 1942 – September 20, 1973), an American journalist, was one of the victims of the coup détat led by General Augusto Pinochet in Chile on September 11, 1973 which deposed the democratically-elected socialist president, Salvador Allende. ... Constantinos Gavras (born February 12, 1933, Loutra-Iraias, Greece), better known as Costa-Gavras, is a Greek-French filmmaker best known for films with overt political themes. ... Missing is a 1982 film directed by Costa-Gavras, starring Jack Lemmon, Sissy Spacek, Melanie Mayron, John Shea and Charles Cioffi. ...


In August 2001, Argentine Judge Rodolfo Canicoba sent a letter rogatory to the US State Department, in accordance with the Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty (MLAT), requesting a deposition by Kissinger to aid the judge's investigation of Operation Condor.[31] A Letter Rogatory or Letter of Request is a formal request from a court to a foreign court for some type of judicial assistance. ... The Mutual Legal Assistance Treaty is an agreement between the two foreign countries, for the purpose of gathering and exchanging information in an effort to enforce criminal laws. ...


On September 10, 2001, a civil suit was filed in a Washington, D.C., federal court by the family of Gen. René Schneider, former Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army, asserting that Kissinger gave the order for the elimination of Schneider because he refused to endorse plans for a military coup. Schneider was killed by coup-plotters loyal to General Roberto Viaux in a botched kidnapping attempt, but U.S. involvement with the plot is disputed, as declassified transcripts show that Nixon and Kissinger had ordered the coup "turned off" a week prior to the killing, fearing that Viaux had no chance. As a part of the suit, Schneider’s two sons are attempting to sue Kissinger and then-CIA director Richard Helms for $3 million.[32] [33] [34] is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Generals C. Prats and R. Schneider (right) General René Schneider Chereau (1913-1970) was the Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army at the time of the 1970 Chilean presidential election, when he was assassinated during a kidnapping attempt. ... General Roberto Viaux Marambio (born 1917- dead 2005) was the primary planner of the failed coup détat attempt in Chile on October 22, 1970, aimed at preventing Socialist Salvador Allendes election. ... Richard Helms, Director of Central Intelligence, 1966-1973 Richard McGarrah Helms (March 30, 1913 – October 23, 2002) was the Director of Central Intelligence (DCI) from 1966 to 1973. ...



On September 11, 2001, the 28th anniversary of the Pinochet coup, Chilean human rights lawyers filed a criminal case against Kissinger along with Augusto Pinochet, former Bolivian general and president Hugo Banzer, former Argentine general and dictator Jorge Rafael Videla, and former Paraguayan president Alfredo Stroessner for alleged involvement in Operation Condor. The case was brought on behalf of some fifteen victims of Operation Condor, ten of whom were Chilean.[citation needed] is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Captain General Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915 – December 10, 2006) was President of Chile from 1974 to 1990. ... Hugo Banzer Suárez (May 10, 1926 – May 5, 2002) was a conservative politician, military general, and President of Bolivia. ... Jorge Rafael Videla Redondo (born August 21, 1925 in Mercedes, Buenos Aires) was the de facto President of Argentina from 1976 to 1981. ... Alfredo Stroessner Matiauda, whose name is also spelled Strössner or Strößner, (November 3, 1912, Encarnación - August 16, 2006, Brasília) served as President of Paraguay from 1954 to 1989. ...


In late 2001, the Brazilian government canceled an invitation for Kissinger to speak in São Paulo because it could no longer guarantee his immunity from judicial action.[citation needed] This article is about the city. ...


On February 16, 2007, a request for extradition of Kissinger was filed at the Supreme Court of Uruguay on behalf of Bernardo Arnone, a political activist who was kidnapped, tortured and disappeared by the dictatorial regime in 1976.[35] February 16 is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The "French connection"

French journalist Marie-Monique Robin has found in the archives of the Quai d'Orsay, the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, the original document proving that a 1959 agreement between Paris and Buenos Aires instaured a "permanent French military mission," formed of militaries who had fought in the Algerian War, and which was located in the offices of the chief of staff of the Argentine Army. It was continued until 1981, date of the election of socialist François Mitterrand.[36] She showed how Valéry Giscard d'Estaing's government secretly collaborated with Videla's junta in Argentine and with Augusto Pinochet's regime in Chile.[37]. The first Argentine officers, among whom Alcides Lopez Aufranc, went to Paris to assist to courses during two years at the Ecole de Guerre military school in 1957, two years before the Cuban Revolution and when no Argentine guerrilla existed.[38] "In practice, declared Robin to Página/12, the arrival of the French in Argentina led to a massive extension of intelligence services and of the use of torture as the primary weapon of the anti-subversive war in the concept of modern warfare." The anniquilation decrees signed by Isabel Peron had been inspired by French texts. During the Battle of Algiers, the police forces were put under the authority of the Army, and in particular of the paratroopers, who generalized interrogation sessions, systematically using torture and then disappearances. 30 000 persons disappeared in Algeria. Reynaldo Bignone, named President of the Argentinian junta in July 1982, declared in her film: "The March 1976 order of battle is a copy of the Algerian battle."[36] Marie-Monique Robin (1960-) is a French journalist, who was awarded the Albert Londres prize in 1995 for Voleurs dyeux, on organ theft. ... Quai dOrsay is a Parisian quay situated on the Ile de la Cité. Its name is commonly associated with the French Ministry of External Affairs, whose building is situated on the quay. ... Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj Jacques Massu Maurice Challe Said Boualam Pierre Lagaillarde Raoul... The emblem of the French Socialist Party The Socialist Party (Parti Socialiste or PS), founded in 1969, is the main opposition party in France. ...   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) was President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ... Valéry Marie René Giscard dEstaing (born 2 February 1926) is a French center-right politician who was President of the French Republic from 1974 until 1981. ... Jorge Rafael Videla, first president of the Proceso Proceso de Reorganización Nacional (Spanish, National Reorganization Process, often simply Proceso) was the name given by its leaders to the dictatorial regime that ruled Argentina from 1976 to 1983. ... Captain General Augusto José Ramón Pinochet Ugarte[1] (November 25, 1915 – December 10, 2006) was President of Chile from 1974 to 1990. ... Building of the École Militaire Other side of the École Militaire Building The École Militaire (French for military school) is a vast complex of buildings housing various military teaching facilities located in Paris, France southeast of the Champ-de-Mars. ... The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batistas regime on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements in the country. ... Página/12 is a left-wing newspaper based in Buenos Aires, Argentina founded in May 25, 1987 by journalist Jorge Lanata. ... Torture, according to international law, is any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has... This article is about the computer software framework. ... President Perón giving a speech Isabel Martínez de Perón was born Isabel Martínez on February 4, 1931, in La Rioja, Argentina. ... An American USMC Paratrooper using a MC1-B series parachute Paratroopers are soldiers trained in parachuting and generally operate as part of an airborne force. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Reynaldo Benito Antonio Bignone Ramayón (born January 21, 1928) is a former Argentine general and the de facto president of the country from July 1, 1982 to December 10, 1983. ...


Green deputies Noël Mamère, Martine Billard and Yves Cochet deposed on September 10, 2003 a request for the constitution of a Parliamentary Commission on the "role of France in the support of military regimes in Latin America from 1973 to 1984" before the Foreign Affairs Commission of the National Assembly, presided by Edouard Balladur. Apart of Le Monde, newspapers remained silent about this request.[39] However, deputy Roland Blum, in charge of the Commission, refused to hear Marie-Monique Robin, and published in December 2003 a 12 pages report qualified by Robin as the summum of bad faith. It claimed that no agreement had been signed, despite the agreement found by Robin in the Quai d'Orsay[40][41] Noël Mamère (born December 25, 1948) is a French politician of the French Green Party (Les Verts). ... Députée Martine Billard attending the protest of the 7th of May 2006 against the DADVSI law project. ... Yves Cochet is a French politician. ... Categories: Stub | 1929 births | Prime ministers of France | Alumni of Sciences Po ... Le Monde is also the name of a song by the Thievery Corporation. ... Roland Blum (Les Pennes-Mirabeau, 12 July 1945-) is a French conservative politician, member of the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP). ... Quai dOrsay is a Parisian quay situated on the Ile de la Cité. Its name is commonly associated with the French Ministry of External Affairs, whose building is situated on the quay. ...


When Minister of Foreign Affairs Dominique de Villepin traveled to Chile in February 2004, he claimed that no cooperation between France and the military regimes had occurred.[42] This does not cite any references or sources. ...


Reporter Marie-Monique Robin thus declared to L'Humanité newspaper: "French have systematized a military technique in urban environment which would be copied and pasted to Latin American dictatorships."[7]. The methods employed during the 1957 Battle of Algiers were systematized and exported to the War School in Buenos Aires.[36] Roger Trinquier's famous book on counter-insurgency had a very strong influence in South America. She declared being shocked to learn that the DST French intelligence agency communicated to the DINA the name of the refugees who returned to Chile (Operation Retorno). All of these Chileans have been killed. "Of course, this puts in cause the French government, and Giscard d'Estaing, then President of the Republic. I was very shocked by the duplicity of the French diplomatic position which, on one hand, received with open arms the political refugees, and, on the other hand, collaborated with the dictatorships."[7] LHumanité (Humanity), formerly the daily newspaper of the French Communist Party (PCF), was founded in 1904 by Jean Jaurès, a leader of the SFIO socialist party. ... DVD cover The Battle of Algiers (in Italian, La Battaglia di Algeri) is a 1966 black-and-white film by Gillo Pontecorvo based on the Algerian War of Independence from 1954 until 1962 against the French occupation. ... Roger Trinquier (March 20, 1908 - 1986) was a French army officer with an immense impact on the development of Counter-insurgency theory. ... Counter-insurgency is the combating of insurgency, by the government (or allies) of the territory in which the insurgency takes place. ... The Direction de la Surveillance du Territoire (DST; Directorate of Territorial Surveillance) is a directorate of the French National Police operating as a domestic intelligence agency. ... Valéry Marie René Giscard dEstaing (born 2 February 1926) is a French center-right politician who was President of the French Republic from 1974 until 1981. ...


Marie-Monique Robin also demonstrated ties between the French far right and Argentina since the 1930s, in particular through the Catholic fundamentalist organization Cité catholique, created by Jean Ousset, a former secretary of Charles Maurras, the founder of the royalist Action française movement. La Cité edited a review, Le Verbe, which influenced militaries during the Algerian War, notably by justifying the use of torture. At the end of the 1950s, the Cité catholique installed itself in Argentina and organized there cells in the Army. It greatly expanded itself during the government of General Juan Carlos Onganía, in particular in 1969.[36] The key figure of the Cité catholique was priest Georges Grasset, who became Videla's personal confessor and had been the spiritual guide of the Organisation de l'armée secrète (OAS) pro-French Algeria terrorist movement founded in Franquist Spain. This Catholic fundamentalist current in the Argentine Army explains, according to Robin, the importance and length of the French-Argentine cooperation. In Buenos Aires, Georges Grasset maintained links with Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, founder of Society of St. Pius X in 1970 and excommunicated in 1988. The Society of Pius-X has four monasteries in Argentina, the largest one in La Reja. There, a French priest declared to Marie-Monique Robin: "To save the soul of a Communist priest, one must kill him." There, she met Luis Roldan, former Under Secretary of Cult under Carlos Menem, President of Argentina from 1989 to 1999, who was presented by Dominique Lagneau, the priest in charge of the monastery, as "Mr. Cité catholique in Argentina". Bruno Genta and Juan Carlos Goyeneche represent this ideology.[36] A 1950s Low Mass in Bohermeen, Ireland in the presence of a bishop and several priests and with the altar arranged for Eucharistic devotions to follow A traditionalist Catholic is a Roman Catholic who believes that there should be a restoration of the liturgical forms, public and private devotions, and... La Cité Catholique is a Catholic fundamentalist group created in 1946 by Jean Ousset, private secretary of Charles Maurras, who himself had founded the monarchist Action française in 1899. ... Jean Ousset was a French ideologist of National Catholicism. ... Charles Maurras (April 20, 1868 Martigues Bouches-du-Rhône France – November 16, 1952) was a French author, poet, and critic. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Juan Carlos Onganía Carballo (1914-1995) was a military president of Argentina from 29 June 1966 to 8 June 1970. ... The Organisation de larmée secrète (OAS; Secret Army Organization) was a short-lived French right-wing terrorist group formed in January 1961 to resist the granting of independence to the French colony of Algeria (Algérie française). ... The Spanish Civil War officially ended on 1 April 1939, the day Francisco Franco announced the end of hostilities. ... The Most Reverend Dr. Marcel-François Lefebvre (November 29, 1905–March 25, 1991), better known as Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, was a French Roman Catholic bishop. ... The Society of St. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Jordán Bruno Genta, (1909-1974) was an Argentine writer and educator, widely considered the ideologue of the Argentine extreme right-wing. ...


Argentine Admiral Luis Maria Mendia, who had theorized the practice of "death flights", already used during the Algerian War (1954-62) by General Marcel Bigeard, testified in January 2007, before the Argentine judges, that a French intelligence "agent," Bertrand de Perseval, had participated in the abduction of the two French nuns, Léonie Duquet and Alice Domont. Perseval, who lives today in Thailand, denied any links with the abduction, but did admit being a former member of the OAS, and having escaped for Argentina after the March 1962 Evian Accords putting an end to the Algerian War (1954-62). Referring to Marie Monique Robin's film documentary titled The Death Squads - the French School (Les escadrons de la mort - l'école française), Luis Maria Mendia asked before the Argentine Court that former French president, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, former French premier Pierre Messmer, former French embassador to Buenos Aires François de la Gorce, and all officials in place in the French embassy in Buenos Aires between 1976 and 1983 be convoked before the court.[43] Besides this "French connection," he has also charged former head of state Isabel Peron and former ministers Carlos Ruckauf and Antonio Cafiero, whom had signed the "anti-subversion decrees" before Videla's 1976 coup d'état. According to ESMA survivor Graciela Daleo, this is another tactic which pretends that these crimes were legitimate as the 1987 Obediencia Debida Act claimed them to be and that they also obeyed to Isabel Peron's "anti-subversion decrees" (which, if true, would give them a formal appearance of legality, despite torture being forbidden by the Argentine Constitution)[44] Alfredo Astiz also referred before the courts to the "French connection".[45] Luis Maria Mendia (1925-) was the Argentine former chief of naval operations in 1976-77, with the grade of vice-Admiral. ... Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj Jacques Massu Maurice Challe Said Boualam Pierre Lagaillarde Raoul... Marcel Bigeard (born 14 February 1916) is a French military officer who fought in World War II, Indochina and Algeria. ... Diquet and Alice Domon at the ESMA illegal detention centre, 1977. ... The Organisation de larmée secrète (OAS; Secret Army Organization) was a short-lived French right-wing terrorist group formed in January 1961 to resist the granting of independence to the French colony of Algeria (Algérie française). ... -1... Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj Jacques Massu Maurice Challe Said Boualam Pierre Lagaillarde Raoul... Valéry Marie René Giscard dEstaing (born 2 February 1926) is a French center-right politician who was President of the French Republic from 1974 until 1981. ... On May 29, 1974 Jacques Chirac (left) replaced Pierre Messmer (right) as prime minister on the steps of the Hôtel Matignon. ... President Perón giving a speech Isabel Martínez de Perón was born Isabel Martínez on February 4, 1931, in La Rioja, Argentina. ... Carlos Ruckauf (born 1944) is a Argentina. ... Antonio Francisco Cafiero (born 12 September 1922 in Buenos Aires) is an Argentine Justicialist Party politician. ... A concentration camp is a large detention centre created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ... Image:AstizArg. ...


Legal actions

Chilean judge Juan Guzman, who had inculpated Pinochet at his return to Chile after his arrest in London, started suing some 30 torturers, including former head of the DINA Manuel Contreras, for the disappearance of 20 Chilean victims of the Condor plan.[28] Juan Salvador Guzmán Tapia was born on April 22, 1939 in Salvador, in a Chilean diplomat family, which acclaimed Augusto Pinochets coup détat in 1973. ... General Juan Manuel Guillermo Contreras Sepúlveda (born May 4, 1929) was the head of Augusto Pinochets National Intelligence Directorate (DINA) and one of the most powerful men in Chile during Pinochets rule. ...


In Argentina, the CONADEP human rights commission led by writer Ernesto Sabato investigated human rights abuses during the "Dirty War", while the 1985 Trial of the Juntas judged the highest responsibles of the state terrorist acts. However, the amnesty laws (Ley de Obediencia Debida and Ley de Punto Final) put an end to the trials, until their overturn by the Argentine Supreme Court a few years ago. Criminals such as Alfredo Astiz, sentenced in absentia in France for the disappearance of two French nuns, Alice Domont and Léonie Duquet, will now have to answer for their involvement in Condor. The CONADEP (National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons) was created by Argentine President Raúl Alfonsín on December 15, 1983, shortly after his inauguration to investigate the fate of the desaparecidos and other human rights violations performed between 1976 and 1983. ... Ernesto Sábato (born June 24, 1911) is an Argentine writer of Italian and Arbëreshë (Italian Albanian) descent. ... The Juicio a las Juntas (Spanish, Trial of the Juntas) was the judicial trial of the members of the de facto military government that ruled Argentina during the dictatorship of the Proceso de Reorganización Nacional, which lasted from 1976 to 1983. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Ley de Obediencia Debida (Spanish, Law of Due Obedience) was a law passed by the National Congress of Argentina after the end of the military dictatorship of the Proceso de Reorganización Nacional (which started with a coup détat in 1976 and ended in 1983). ... A poster calling for a demonstration against the passing of the law. ... The Supreme Court of Argentina (in Spanish, Corte Suprema de Justicia de la Nación) is the highest court of law of the Argentine Republic. ... Image:AstizArg. ... Diquet and Alice Domon at the ESMA illegal detention centre, 1977. ...


Chilean Enrique Arancibia Clavel was condemned in Argentina for the assassination of Carlos Prats and of his wife. Former Uruguayan president Juan María Bordaberry, his minister of Foreign Affairs and six military officers, responsible for the disappearance in Argentina in l976 of Uruguayan opponents to the regime, have recently been arrested. Enrique Arranciaba is a former Chilean DINA agent, who resided in unofficial exile in Buenos Aires after the assassination of Chilean Army Chief of Staff René Schneider on October 25, 1970. ... Juan María Bordaberry Arocena is a Uruguayan statesman, who served as President from 1972 to 1973, when he dissolved the General Assembly and continued to rule as dictator until 1976, when disagreements with the military led to his deposition. ...


On 3 August, 2007, General Raúl Iturriaga, former head of DINA, was captured in the Pacific costal town of Viña del Mar [46]. He had previously been a fugitive, on the run from a five-year jail term. He had been sentenced for the kidnapping of Luis Dagoberto San Martin, a 21 years-old opponent of Pinochet. Martín was captured in 1974 and taken to a DINA detention centre, where he "disappeared." Iturriaga was also wanted in Argentina for the assassination of General Prats [46]. General Raúl Eduardo Iturriaga Neumann (Linares, Chile, 1938) is a former deputy director of the DINA, the Chilean secret police under the Pinochet regime. ... Coast of Viña del Mar Cerro Castillo Viña del Mar (Spanish for Vineyard of the Sea), also known locally as La Ciudad Jardín (Spanish for The Garden City), is a thriving coastal city in central Chile, in the Valparaíso Region and province. ...


Nevertheless, according to French newspaper L'Humanité, "in most of those countries, lawsuits launched against the authors of crimes of "lese-humanity" from the 1970s to 1990 have owe more to flaws in the amnesty laws than to a real will of the governments in power, which, on the contrary, wave the flag of "national reconciliation". It is sad to say that two of the pillars of the Condor Operation, Alfredo Stroessner and Augusto Pinochet, never paid for their crimes and died without ever answering charges about the "disappeared" - who continue to haunt the memory of people who had been crushed by fascist brutality."[28]. LHumanité (Humanity), formerly the daily newspaper of the French Communist Party (PCF), was founded in 1904 by Jean Jaurès, a leader of the SFIO socialist party. ... Alfredo Stroessner Matiauda, whose name is also spelled Strössner or Strößner, (November 3, 1912, Encarnación - August 16, 2006, Brasília) served as President of Paraguay from 1954 to 1989. ...


See also

  • History of Argentina
  • History of Bolivia
  • History of Brazil
  • History of Chile
  • History of Paraguay
  • History of Peru
  • History of Uruguay
  • Dirty War
  • Amnesty Law
  • Films depicting Latin American military dictatorships

This article is about the history of Argentina. ... This is the history of Bolivia. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Map of Chile This is the history of Chile. ... This is the history of Paraguay. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This is about the history of Uruguay. ... Poster by the Madres de la Plaza de Mayo NGO with photos of disappeared. This article especially refers to the Argentine dirty war; however, the term has been used in other contexts, for example in Morocco; see also lead years. ... The term Amnesty law refers to any law that retroactively exempts a select group of people, usually military leaders and government leaders, from criminal liability for crimes committed. ... This is a list of movies that, in one way or another, are closely related to the military dictatorships in Latin America that appeared during the context of the Cold War. ...

South American intelligence agencies

Dina may refer to: A villBold textge in India where the Zafarnama was written A Sanskrit word meaning day An English spelling variation of Dinah, a Hebrew name. ... The Dirección de los Servicios de Inteligencia y Prevención (Directorate of Intelligence and Prevention Services, DISIP) is the national intelligence agency of Venezuela. ... The National Intelligence Service (Serviço Nacional de Informações, or SNI) of Brazil was an intelligence agency formed by the Castelo Branco government in 1964. ... Secretaría de Inteligencia (Intelligence Secretariat, S.I) is the premier intelligence agency of the Argentine Republic and head of its National Intelligence System. ...

Intelligence agents and terrorists involved in Operation Condor

Stefano Delle Chiaie (born 1934) was a figure on the far right of Italian politics who went on to become a wanted man worldwide. ... Operation Gladio was a clandestine stay-behind operation sponsored by the CIA and NATO to counter communist influence after World War II in Italy, as well as in other European countries. ... Michael Townley, a U.S. expatriate, first worked for the CIA before working for the DINA, Chilean secret police under Augusto Pinochets dictatorship, where he participated in operation Condor. ... Marcos Orlando Letelier del Solar (April 13, 1932 - September 21, 1976) was a Chilean economist, political figure, diplomat and, later, US-based activist. ... Arrest photograph of Luis Posada Carriles Luis Clemente Faustino Posada Carriles (born February 15, 1928) is a Cuban-born Venezuelan anti-Castro terrorist. ... The Dirección de los Servicios de Inteligencia y Prevención (Directorate of Intelligence and Prevention Services, DISIP) is the national intelligence agency of Venezuela. ... Virgilio Paz Romero is an anti-castro Cuban exile, involved in various terrorist acts. ... The Alianza Anticomunista Argentina (Argentine Anticommunist Alliance, usually known as Triple A or AAA) was a far-right death squad active in Argentina during the mid-1970s, linked to the military junta led by Jorge Rafael Videla. ... SISMI logo Servizio per le Informazioni e la Sicurezza Militare (Military Intelligence and Security Service, SISMI) is the military intelligence agency of Italy. ...

Prominent Victims of Operation Condor

A non-exhaustive list registering famous victims of Operation Condor follows:

  • Martín Almada, educator in Paraguay, arrested in 1974 and tortured for three years
  • Víctor Olea Alegría, member of the Socialist Party, arrested on September 11, 1974 and "disappeared" (head of DINA Manuel Contreras was convicted in 2002 for this crime)
  • General Carlos Prats, who immediately preceded Pinochet at the head of the Chilean army, assassinated in Buenos Aires in 1974
  • Bernardo Leighton, Christian-Democrat who narrowly escaped murder in Rome in 1975 organized by Italian terrorist Stefano Delle Chiaie
  • Carlos Altamirano, leader of the Chilean Socialist Party, targeted for murder by Pinochet in 1975
  • Attempted assassination against Emilio Aragonés, the Cuban ambassador in Buenos Aires, in 1975, organized by leader of the CORU, Orlando Bosch
  • Volodia Teitelboim, member of the Communist Party of Chile, targeted for murder alongside Carlos Altamirano, in Mexico in 1976
  • "Disappearance" of two Cuban diplomats in Argentina, Crecencio Galañega Hernández and Jesús Cejas Arias, whom transited through the detention center, disguised as an automobile center, Orletti, in Buenos Aires (August 9, 1976 - see Lista de centros clandestinos de detención (Argentina)); both were questionned by the SIDE and the DINA, under knowledge of the FBI and the CIA[48]
  • Pascal Allende, nephew of Salvador Allende and president of the MIR, escaped assassination attempt in Costa Rica in March 1976
  • Orlando Letelier, murdered in 1976 in Washington D.C. with his assistant Ronnie Moffit
  • US Congressman Edward Koch, who became aware in 2001 of relations between 1970s threats on his life and Operation Condor
  • Christian-Democrat and president of Chile from 1964 to 1970 Eduardo Frei Montalva, who may have been poisoned in the early 1980s according to current investigations
  • former Bolivian president Juan José Torres, assassinated in Buenos Aires in 1976
  • Héctor Gutiérrez Ruiz, former Uruguayan deputy, assassinated in Buenos Aires in 1976
  • Zelmar Michelini, former Uruguayan deputy, assassinated in Buenos Aires in 1976
  • Jorge Zaffaroni and Maria Emilia Islas de Zaffaroni, maybe members of the Tupamaros, "disappeared" in Buenos Aires on September 29, 1976, kidnapped by the Batallón de Inteligencia 601, who handed them out to the Uruguayan OCOAS (Organismo Coordinador de Operaciones Anti-Subversivas)[49]
  • Poet Juan Gelman's son and daughter-in-law (whose baby was stolen by the Uruguayan militaries)

Martín Almada is a lawyer, writer and educationalist from Paraguay. ... Víctor Olea Alegría (b. ... The Socialist Party of Chile (Spanish: Partido Socialista de Chile or PS) is a political party in Chile, and part of the ruling Coalition of Parties for Democracy coalition. ... General Prats, as vice-president General Carlos Prats González (1915 - Chilean political figure, and General Augusto Pinochets predecessor as Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army. ... Bernardo Leighton (born on August 16, 1909 - died on January 26, 1995) was a Chilean Christian Democrat who has been targeted by Operation Condor. ... Stefano Delle Chiaie (born 1934) was a figure on the far right of Italian politics who went on to become a wanted man worldwide. ... Carlos Altamirano Orrego (December 18, 1922, Santiago de Chile) is a lawyer and one of the most influential politicians of Chilean socialism. ... Politics of Chile President of Chile Political parties in Chile Elections in Chile: Presidential: 1925 - 1927 - 1931 - 1932 - 1938 - 1941 - 1946 - 1952 - 1958 - 1964 - 1970 - 1989 - 1993 - 1999 - 2005 The Socialist Party of Chile (Spanish: Partido Socialista de Chile, PSC) is a political party in Chile, and part of the... Coordination of United Revolutionary Organizations (CORU) has been described by the FBI as an anti-Castro terrorist umbrella organization.[1] It has taken part in operation Condor, organizing Chilean former minister Orlando Leteliers assassination in Washington, D.C. in 1976. ... Orlando Bosch is a Cuban exile and former CIA-backed terrorist, head of CORU organization, which the FBI has described as an anti-Castro terrorist umbrella organization. He has been accused of having taken part in Operation Condor and of a variety of terrorist attacks. ... Volodia Teitelboim Volosky is a Chilean-Jewish lawyer, politician and literary figure, born in the city of Chillan on 17th of March, 1916. ... The Communist Party of Chile YOU MOTHERFUCKING COMMUNISTS GO TO HELL! (Spanish: Partido Comunista de Chile) is a Chilean political party that advocates communism. ... Chilean Marxist revolutionary, nephew of Pres. ... Revolutionary Left Movement Revolutionary Left Movement (MIR) (Spanish Movimiento de Izquierda Revolucionaria) is a Chilean communist party founded on October 12, 1965. ... Marcos Orlando Letelier del Solar (April 13, 1932 - September 21, 1976) was a Chilean economist, political figure, diplomat and, later, US-based activist. ... Ed Koch, a Democrat, speaks at the 2004 Republican National Convention in support of the re-election of President George W. Bush. ... Eduardo Nicanor Frei Montalva (1911–1982) was a Chilean political figure and president of Chile from 1964 to 1970. ... Juan Jose Torres Gonzales (1921— 1976) was a Bolivian socialist politician and military leader. ... Héctor Gutiérrez Ruiz (Montevideo, 1934 - Buenos Aires, 1976) was a Uruguayan deputy, member of the National Party. ... Zelmar Michelini (Montevideo, May 20, 1924 - Buenos Aires, 1976) was an Uruguayan reporter and politician, murdered in Buenos Aires in 1976 in the frame of Operation Condor. ... Tupamaros, also known as the MLN (Movimiento de Liberación Nacional or National Liberation Army), was an urban guerrilla organization in Uruguay in the 1960s and 1970s. ... The Batallón de Inteligencia 601 (601 Intelligence Battalion) was a special military intelligence service of the Argentine Army active in the Dirty War and Operation Condor. ... Juan Gelman 1930- Argentine poet born in Buenos Aires. ...

Archives and reports

The National Security Archive is an independent organization located within the George Washington University. ... Nearly sixty countries around the world have implemented some form of freedom of information legislation, which sets rules on governmental secrecy. ... The terror archives were found in December 22, 1992 by Dr. Martín Almada, a lawyer and human-rights activist and judge José Fernandez in a police station in a suburb of Asunción (Lambaré), capital of Paraguay. ... The Rettig Report, officially The National Commission for Truth and Reconciliation Report, is a report encompassing human rights abuses resulting in death or disappearance committed in Chile during the years of military rule under Augusto Pinochet, which began on September 11, 1973 and ended on March 11, 1990. ... Monsignor Valech delivers the report to President Lagos The Valech Report (officially The National Commission on Political Imprisonment and Torture Report) was a study published on November 29, 2004 that detailed abuses committed in Chile between 1973 and 1990 by agents of Augusto Pinochets military regime. ...

Detention and torture centers

Colonia Dignidad (Dignity Colony, now known as Villa Baviera, Bavaria Village), is a settlement located in an isolated area in the Maule Region of southern Chile, near the village of Parral. ... Esmeralda (BE-43) Esmeralda (BE-43) is a steel-hulled four-masted barquentine tall ship of the Chilean Navy. ... The Estadio Nacional de Chile is the national stadium of Chile. ... Villa Grimaldi was a torture and detention center used by the DINA (Direccion de Inteligencia Nacional), Chilean secret police, under Augusto Pinochets dictatorship. ...

Other operations and strategies related to Condor

Operation Colombo design a disinformation plan by the DINA ,chileans secret police, in july 1976, to cover up the murder of 119 leftist opponents. ... Generals Sergio Arellano Stark and Augusto Pinochet a few hours before the departure of the Caravan of Death (September 1973) The Caravan of Death was a Chilean Army squad that, following the Chilean coup of 1973, flew by helicopter from south to north of Chile between September 30 and October...

Fictional references

Don Winslow is an author currently living in the United States, most recognized for his crime and mystery novels. ... The Power of the Dog is a crime/thriller novel by Don Winslow, based on the DEAs involvement with the War on Drugs. ... DC Comics is an American comic book and related media company. ... Fire is a fictional superheroine published by DC Comics. ...

Bibliography

  • Stella Calloni, Los años del lobo and Operación Cóndor: Pacto Criminal, Editorial Ciencias Sociales', La Habana, 2006.
  • John Dinges, "The Condor Years: How Pinochet and His Allies Brought Terrorism to Three Continents" (The New Press, 2004)
  • Peter Kornbluh, The Pinochet File: A Declassified Dossier on Atrocity and Accountablity (New Press).
  • Marie-Monique Robin, Escadrons de la mort, l'école française ("Death Squads, the French School"). Book and film documentary (French, transl. in Spanish, Sudamericana, 2002).
  • Nilson, Cezar Mariano; Operación Cóndor. Terrorismo de Estado en el cono Sur. Lholé-Lumen; Buenos Aires, 1998.
    • Paredes, Alejandro. La Operación Cóndor y la guerra fría. . Universum. [online]. 2004, vol.19, no.1, p.122-137. ISSN 0718-2376.
  • Gutiérrez Contreras, J.C. y Villegas Díaz, Myrna. Derechos Humanos y Desaparecidos en Dictaduras Militares, KO'AGA ROÑE'ETA se.vii (1999) - Previamente publicado en "Derecho penal: Implicaciones Internacionales", Publicación del IX Congreso Universitario de Derecho Penal, Universidad de Salamanca. Edit. Colex, Madrid, Marzo de 1999
  • Informe de la Comisión Nacional sobre prisión política y tortura. Santiago de Chile, Ministerio del Interior – Comisión Nacional sobre Prisión Política y Tortura, 2005.

John Dinges was special correspondent for Time, Washington Post and ABC Radio in Chile. ... Peter Kornbluh is director of the National Security Archives Chile Documentation Project. ... The New Press is a not-for-profit, United States-based publishing house that operates in the public interest. ... Marie-Monique Robin (1960-) is a French journalist, who was awarded the Albert Londres prize in 1995 for Voleurs dyeux, on organ theft. ...

Footnotes and references

  1. ^ Centro de Documentación y Archivo para la Defensa de los Derechos Humanos. Retrieved on 2007-06-25]].
  2. ^ J. Patrice McSherry (2002). "Tracking the Origins of a State Terror Network: Operation Condor". Latin American Perspectives 29 (1): 36-60. 
  3. ^ "2006: el ocaso de los “cóndores mayores”", La Nación, 2007-12-13. Retrieved on 2007-06-25. 
  4. ^ "Predatory States: Operation Condor and Covert War in Latin America" J. Patrice McSherry ISBN 978-0742536876
  5. ^ Condor legacy haunts South America, BBC, June 8, 2005 (English)
  6. ^ a b c Abramovici, Pierre. "OPERATION CONDOR EXPLAINED - Latin America: the 30 years’ dirty war", Le Monde diplomatique, May 2001. Retrieved on 2006-12-15. (English)  (free access in French and in Portuguese)
  7. ^ a b c L’exportation de la torture, interview with Marie-Monique Robin in L'Humanité, August 30, 2003 (French)
  8. ^ Martín Almada, "Paraguay: The Forgotten Prison, the Exiled Country"
  9. ^ Peru: Socio de Condor. Retrieved on 2006-12-15.
  10. ^ Gotkine, Elliott. "Vital rights ruling in Argentina", BBC, 24 August, 2004. Retrieved on 2006-12-15. (English) 
  11. ^ "Brazil looks into Operation Condor", BBC, 18 May, 2000. Retrieved on 2006-12-15. (English) 
  12. ^ Radiobras Brazilian state website (Portuguese)
  13. ^ Brasil examina su pasado represivo en la Operación Cóndor, El Mostrador, 11 May 2000
  14. ^ Operación Cóndor: presión de Brizola sobre la Argentina, El Clarín, 6 May 2000
  15. ^ Las Relaciones Secretas entre Pinochet, Franco y la P2 - Conspiracion para matar, Equipo Nizkor, February 4, 1999 (Spanish)
  16. ^ Chile and the United States: Declassified Documents relating to the Military Coup, 1970-1976 (English). National Security Archive. Retrieved on 2006-12-15.
  17. ^ Landau, Saul. "Terrorism Then and Now", CounterPunch, 20-21 August, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-12-15. (English) 
  18. ^ Allard, Jean-Guy. "WHILE CHILE DETAINS CONTRERAS... Posada and his accomplices, active collaborators of Pinochet’s fascist police", Granma, 26 March, 2003. Retrieved on 2006-12-15. (English) 
  19. ^ Neghme Cristi Jecar Antonio, Memoria Viva, (Spanish)
  20. ^ Sanhueza, Jorge Molina. "El coronel que le pena al ejército", La Nación, 25 September 2005. Retrieved on 2006-12-15. (Spanish) 
  21. ^ Ed Koch Threatened with Assasination in 1976 (English). National Security Archive (18 February 2004). Retrieved on 2006-12-15.
  22. ^ Los crímenes de la Operación Cóndor, La Tercera, 2001. (Spanish)
  23. ^ a b Automotores Orletti el taller asesino del Cóndor, Juventud Rebelde, January 3 2006 (mirrored on El Correo.eu.org (Spanish)/(French)
  24. ^ CIA Activities in Chile (English). CIA (18 September 2000). Retrieved on 2006-12-15.
  25. ^ Operation Condor: Cable Suggests U.S. Role (English). National Security Archive (6 March 2001). Retrieved on 2006-12-15.
  26. ^ Peter Kornbluh; John Dinges (10 June 2004). Kornbluh / Dinges Letter to Foreign Affairs (English). The National Security Archive.
  27. ^ J. Patrice McSherry (Spring 2005). The Undead Ghost of Operation Condor (English). Logos: a journal of modern society & culture. Logosonline. Retrieved on 26 June 2007.
  28. ^ a b c Latin America in the 1970s: "Operation Condor", an International Organization for Kidnapping Opponents, L'Humanité in English, December 2, 2006, transl. January 1, 2007
  29. ^ Henry Kissinger rattrapé au Ritz, à Paris, par les fantômes du plan Condor, Le Monde, May 29, 2001 (French) (mirrored here)
  30. ^ [ http://www.guardian.co.uk/pinochet/Story/0,11993,735920,00.html Kissinger may face extradition to Chile], The Guardian, June 12, 2002
  31. ^ 2002, "Argentina", Human Rights Watch World Report 2002, New York, Washington, London, Brussels: Human Rights Watch [link accessed 2006-12-15]
  32. ^ [ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/americas/1536547.stm Kissinger accused over Chile plot], BBC News, September 11, 2001
  33. ^ [ http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,3604,550375,00.html Kissinger sued over Chile death ], The Guardian, September 12, 2001
  34. ^ [ http://www.usdoj.gov/osg/briefs/2005/0responses/2005-0743.resp.html Schneider v. Kissinger ], U.S. Department of Justice, June 28, 2005
  35. ^ Piden extraditar a Kissinger por Operación Condor, in: La Jornada, 2007-02-16 (in Spanish)[1]
  36. ^ a b c d e Argentine - Escadrons de la mort : l’école française, interview with Marie-Monique Robin published by RISAL, October 22, 2004 available in French & Spanish (“Los métodos de Argel se aplicaron aquí”, Página/12, October 13, 2004
  37. ^ Conclusion of Marie-Monique Robin's Escadrons de la mort, l'école française (French)
  38. ^
  39. ^ MM. Giscard d'Estaing et Messmer pourraient être entendus sur l'aide aux dictatures sud-américaines, Le Monde, September 25, 2003 (French)
  40. ^ « Série B. Amérique 1952-1963. Sous-série : Argentine, n° 74. Cotes : 18.6.1. mars 52-août 63 ».
  41. ^ RAPPORT FAIT AU NOM DE LA COMMISSION DES AFFAIRES ÉTRANGÈRES SUR LA PROPOSITION DE RÉSOLUTION (n° 1060), tendant à la création d'une commission d'enquête sur le rôle de la France dans le soutien aux régimes militaires d'Amérique latine entre 1973 et 1984, PAR M. ROLAND BLUM, French National Assembly (French)
  42. ^ Argentine : M. de Villepin défend les firmes françaises, Le Monde, February 5, 2003 (French)
  43. ^ Disparitions : un ancien agent français mis en cause, Le Figaro, February 6, 2007 (French)
  44. ^ “Impartí órdenes que fueron cumplidas”, Página/12, February 2, 2007 (Spanish)
  45. ^ Astiz llevó sus chicanas a los tribunales, Página/12, January 25, 2007 (Spanish)
  46. ^ a b Claudia Lagos and Patrick J. McDonneln Pinochet-era general is caught, Los Angeles Times, August 3, 2007 (English)
  47. ^ Declassified documents available on the National Security Archive website
  48. ^ Document dated September 22, 1976, sent by Robert Scherrer from the FBI to the US embassy in Buenos Aires, with a copy of a SIDE document concerning the interrogation. In his memoirs, Cuban Luis Posada Carriles qualifies these murders as "successes" in the "struggle against communism". See Proyecto Desaparecidos: Notas: Operación Cóndor Archives, (Spanish), October 31, 2006 (Retrieved on December 12, 2006)
  49. ^ SIDE cable, National Security Archive
  50. ^  Rucka, Greg, Defilippis, Nunzio, Weir, Christina (w),  Scott, Steve (p),  Massengill, Nathan (i).  Checkmate v2 #11-12 March, 2007  DC Comics

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External links

  • Operation Condor on Nizkor's website
  • Predatory States: Operation Condor and Covert War in Latin America, by J. Patrice McSherry (Rowman & Littlefield, 2005) [8]
  • The Condor Years - How Pinochet and His Allies Brought Terrorism to Three Continents
  • Ed Koch Threatened with Assassination in 1976
  • Plan Condor on Disinfopedia
  • Nacimiento del Operativo Cóndor, article in Spanish by Dr Martín Almada on how the enquiry of his case led to the discover of the Lambaré files.
  • Operation Condor - John Dinges John Dinges is a reporter, author of several books about Operation Condor. He has worked as a correspondent for the Washington Post in South America and is the former director of NPR.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Operation Condor (1905 words)
Operation Condor is the code name for the collection, exchange and storage of intelligence concerning leftists, communists and Marxists which was recently established between the cooperating services in South America in order to eliminate Marxist terrorists and their activities in the area.
Chile is the center for Operation Condor, and in addition it includes Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay.
This is obviously the same Operation Condor that bears on the Pinochet case.
Operation Condor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3242 words)
Operation Condor (Spanish: Operación Cóndor, Portuguese: Operação Condor) was a campaign of assassination, counter-terrorism, and intelligence operations implemented by right-wing military dictatorships that -from circa 1950 to 1980s- dominated the Southern Cone in Latin America.
In light of the Cold War, Operation Condor was given at least tacit approval by the United States, due to fear of Marxist revolution in the region.
This is known as operation Silencio, that started in April 1991 in order to impede investigations by chilean judges, with the spiriting away of Arturo Sanhueza Ross, linked to the murder of MIR leader Jecar Neghme.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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