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Encyclopedia > Operation Bojinka

Operation Bojinka (also known as Project Bojinka, Bojinka Plot, Bojinga, from Arabic: بجنكة – slang in many dialects for explosion and pronounced Bo-JIN-ka, except in Egyptian where it is Bo-GIN-ka) was a planned large-scale attack on airliners in 1995, and was a precursor to the September 11 attacks. Arabic (العربية) is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ...


The term can refer to the "airline bombing plot" alone, or that combined with the "Pope assassination plot" and the "CIA plane crash plot". The first refers to a plot to destroy 11 airliners on January 21 and 22, 1995, the second refers to a plan to kill Pope John Paul II on January 15, 1995, and the third refers a plan to crash a plane into the CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia and other buildings. Operation Bojinka was prevented on January 6 and 7, 1995, but some lessons learned were apparently used by the planners of the September 11 attacks. This article will cover all three plans. Operation Bojinka (also known as Project Bojinka, Bojinka Plot, Bojinga, from Arabic: بجنكة – slang in many dialects for explosion and pronounced Bo-JIN-ka, except in Egyptian where it is Bo-GIN-ka) was a planned large-scale attack on airliners in 1995, and was a precursor to the September... Operation Bojinka (also known as Project Bojinka, Bojinka Plot, Bojinga, from Arabic: بجنكة – slang in many dialects for explosion and pronounced Bo-JIN-ka, except in Egyptian where it is Bo-GIN-ka) was a planned large-scale attack on airliners in 1995, and was a precursor to the September... Operation Bojinka (also known as Project Bojinka, Bojinka Plot, Bojinga, from Arabic: بجنكة – slang in many dialects for explosion and pronounced Bo-JIN-ka, except in Egyptian where it is Bo-GIN-ka) was a planned large-scale attack on airliners in 1995, and was a precursor to the September... January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... The Servant of God Pope John Paul II (Latin: ), born Karol Józef Wojtyła [1] (May 18, 1920–April 2, 2005), reigned as pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City for almost 27 years, from 16 October 1978 until his death in 2005. ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is one of the American foreign intelligence agencies, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Langley is a community in the census-designated place of McLean in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... January 7 is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The World Trade Center on fire The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated terrorist attacks against the United States on September 11, 2001. ...


The money handed down to the plotters originated from Al-Qaida, an international Islamic militant organization which was then based in Sudan. Philippine authorities say that Operation Bojinka was developed by alleged Al-Qaida operatives Ramzi Yousef and Khalid Shaikh Mohammed while they were in Manila, Philippines in 1994 and early 1995. Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Ramzi Ahmed Yousef or Ramzi Mohammed Yousef (also transliterated as Ramzi Yusuf, Ramzi Youssef, and other ways), birth name possibly Abdul Basit Karim. ... Khalid Shaikh Mohammed (Arabic: خالد شيخ محمد; also transliterated as Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, Khalid Shaikh Mohammad, and other ways) (March 1, 1964 or April 14, 1965 – present) was an important figure in Osama bin Ladens al-Qaeda organization, where he masterminded numerous plans and came to head the group... Manila (Maynila in Filipino) is the capital city of the Philippines. ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Several media outlets, including TIME Asia [1] (http://www.time.com/time/asia/features/malay_terror/hambali4.html), wrongly claim that the word Bojinka means "loud bang" or "explosion" in Serbo-Croatian. Endnote 7 of Chapter 5 of the 9/11 Commission Report states that Khalid Shaikh Mohammed claims that "bojinka" is "a nonsense word he adopted after hearing it on the front lines in Afghanistan." "BOHICA" is common military slang for 'Bend Over Here It Comes Again' which refers to an incoming enemy attack, often bombs. 8:17 am, August 6, 1945, Japanese time. ... A satellite composite image of Asia Asia is the central and eastern part of the continent of Eurasia, defined by subtracting the European peninsula from Eurasia. ... Serbo-Croatian (srpskohrvatski or hrvatskosrpski) is a name for a language of the Western group of the South Slavic languages. ... The cover of the final 9/11 report, which can be purchased in bookstores across the United States and around the world The 9/11 Commission Report, officially titled The Final Report of the National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, is the authoritative report on the events... Khalid Shaikh Mohammed (Arabic: خالد شيخ محمد; also transliterated as Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, Khalid Shaikh Mohammad, and other ways) (March 1, 1964 or April 14, 1965 – present) was an important figure in Osama bin Ladens al-Qaeda organization, where he masterminded numerous plans and came to head the group...


Not all media or text that refers to Operation Bojinka will call it by that name.

Contents

Financing

The money that funded Operation Bojinka came from Osama bin Laden and Hambali, and from front organizations operated by Mohammed Jamal Khalifa. Osama bin Laden Usāmah bin Muhammad bin `Awad bin Lādin (born March 10, 1957) (Arabic: ), commonly known as Osama bin Laden (Arabic: ), is the figurehead of al-Qaeda, an Islamist movement that has been involved in attacks against civilians and military targets around the world. ... Riduan Isamuddin Riduan Isamuddin (also transliterated as Riduan Isamudin, Riduan Isomuddin, and Riduan Isomudin, better known by the nom de guerre Hambali, born as Encep Nurjaman, born April 4, 1966) was the leader of the Indonesian terrorist organization Jemaah Islamiyah (JI), which allegedly has a partership with Al Qaeda. ... Mohammed Jamal Khalifa is a Saudi Arabian businessman from Jeddah who is married to one of Osama bin Ladens sisters. ...


Wali Khan Amin Shah, an Afghan, was the financier of the plot. He funded the plot by laundering money through his girlfriend and other Manila women, several of whom were bar hostesses and one of whom was an employee at a Kentucky Fried Chicken restaurant. They were bribed with gifts and holiday trips so that they could open bank accounts to stash funds. Wali Khan Amin Shah (He had many aliases, including Osama Turkestani, Osama Asmuray, and Grabi Ibrahim Hahsen) was an Al-Qaida member that allegedly controlled the purse strings for the foiled Operation Bojinka terrorist attack plot. ... KFC, previously known as Kentucky Fried Chicken, is a division of Yum! Brands, Inc. ...


The transfers were small, equivalent to about 12,000 to 24,000 Philippine pesos (500 to 1000 U.S. dollars), and would be handed over each night at a Wendy's or a karaoke bar. The funds went to "Adam Sali", an alias used by Ramzi Yousef. The money came through a Filipino bank account owned by Syrian Omar Abu Omar, who worked at International Relations and Information Centre, an Islamic organization run by Osama bin Laden's brother in law, Mohammed Jamal Khalifa. [1] The Philippine peso (Filipino: piso) is the official currency of the Philippines. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... Wendys is a chain of fast-food restaurants founded by the late Dave Thomas and owned by the United States corporation, Wendys International, Inc. ... A Karaoke machine Karaoke (Japanese: カラオケ) (空 kara empty, oke orchestra) is a form of entertainment where an amateur singer accompanies recorded music. ... Omar Mahmoud Othman Omar, aka Omar Abu Omar, aka Abu Qutadah was born in 1959 of Palestinian origin and a Jordanian national. ... This organization was run by Mohammed Jamal Khalifa, who is married to one of Osama bin Ladens sisters. ... Islam  listen? (Arabic: al-islām) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and the worlds second largest religion. ... Osama bin Laden Usāmah bin Muhammad bin `Awad bin Lādin (born March 10, 1957) (Arabic: ), commonly known as Osama bin Laden (Arabic: ), is the figurehead of al-Qaeda, an Islamist movement that has been involved in attacks against civilians and military targets around the world. ... Mohammed Jamal Khalifa is a Saudi Arabian businessman from Jeddah who is married to one of Osama bin Ladens sisters. ...


A company called Konsojaya also provided financial assistance to the Manila cell by laundering money to it. Konsojaya was a front company that was started by the head of the group Jemaah Islamiyah, an Indonesian named Riduan Isamuddin, also known as Hambali. Wali Khan Amin Shah was one of the board of directors of the company. The Konsojaya Trading Company was a shell company cofounded by Jemaah Islamiyah leader Riduan Isamuddin, better known as Hambali, and his Chinese Malaysian wife, Noralwizah Lee Abdullah on June 1994. ... Jemaah Islamiyah, sometimes rendered Jemaah Islamiah, is a militant Islamic separatist movement, suspected of killing hundreds of civilians, dedicated to the establishment of a fundamentalist Islamic state in Southeast Asia, in particular Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Malaysia, and the south of Thailand and the Philippines. ... Riduan Isamuddin Riduan Isamuddin (also transliterated as Riduan Isamudin, Riduan Isomuddin, and Riduan Isomudin, better known by the nom de guerre Hambali, born as Encep Nurjaman, born April 4, 1966) was the leader of the Indonesian terrorist organization Jemaah Islamiyah (JI), which allegedly has a partnership with Al Qaeda. ... Riduan Isamuddin Riduan Isamuddin (also transliterated as Riduan Isamudin, Riduan Isomuddin, and Riduan Isomudin, better known by the nom de guerre Hambali, born as Encep Nurjaman, born April 4, 1966) was the leader of the Indonesian terrorist organization Jemaah Islamiyah (JI), which allegedly has a partership with Al Qaeda. ...


Planning of Operation Bojinka

As soon as Yousef arrived in Manila along with other Arab Afghans that were making cells in Manila, he started to work on making bombs. Yousef had shown up in Singapore with Khan earlier in fall 1994. The two got their Philippine visas in Singapore. It was likely that Al-Qaida sent him to Manila to plot and implement an attack against the United States. 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... An entry visa valid in all Schengen treaty countries A visa (short for the Latin carta visa, lit. ...


His first operational test of his bomb was inside a mall in Cebu City. The bomb detonated several hours after Yousef put it in a generator room. It caused minor damage, but it proved to Yousef that his bomb was workable. Cebu City is the capital of the province of Cebu in the Philippines and is the second most important metropolitan center in the country. ...


He left Manila for several days, but was met by Al Qaida emissaries upon his return to Metro Manila. They asked him to attack United States President Bill Clinton, who was due to arrive in the Philippines on November 12, 1994 as part of a five-day tour of Asia. He thought of several ways to kill the president, including placing a bomb on Clinton's motorcade route, firing a Stinger missile at Air Force One or the presidential limousine, and killing him with a chemical weapon called phosgene. He abandoned the idea, as it would be too hard to kill the President. However, he then incorporated his plan to kill the Pope into Operation Bojinka. Manila, Philippines Metro Manila (Kalakhang Maynila in Filipino), also simply called Manila outside the metropolis, is the metropolitan area that contains the City of Manila, the capital of the Philippines. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... Order: 42nd President Vice President: Al Gore Term of office: January 20, 1993 – January 20, 2001 Preceded by: George H. W. Bush Succeeded by: George W. Bush Date of birth: August 19, 1946 Place of birth: Hope, Arkansas First Lady: Hillary Rodham Clinton Political party: Democratic William Jefferson Clinton (born... November 12 is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 49 days remaining. ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... A satellite composite image of Asia Asia is the central and eastern part of the continent of Eurasia, defined by subtracting the European peninsula from Eurasia. ... Two soldiers preparing to fire a shoulder-mounted Stinger missile launcher Light to carry and easy to operate, the FIM-92 Stinger is a passive infrared homing/seek surface-to-air missile, shoulder-fired by a single operator and designed to attack aircraft at a range of up to 15... Air Force One is the air traffic control callsign of any U.S. Air Force aircraft carrying the President of the United States. ... A limousine (or limo) is a long luxury car, traditionally black in color. ... Phosgene (also known as carbonyl chloride, COCl2) is a highly toxic gas or refrigerated liquid that was used as a chemical weapon in World War I. It has no color, but is detectable in air by its odor, which resembles moldy hay. ...


In 1994, Yousef and Khalid Sheik Mohammed started testing airport security. Yousef booked a flight between Kai Tak International Airport in Hong Kong and Chiang Kai Shek International Airport near Taipei. Mohammed booked a flight between Ninoy Aquino International Airport near Manila and Kimpo International Airport near Seoul. Hong Kong International Airport, popularly known as Kai Tak International Airport (Chinese 啟德國際機場 Pinyin: Qǐdé, WG: Chi-te, Enlighten & Virtuous) was the international airport of Hong Kong until July 6, 1998. ... A view of the Chiang-Kai Shek International Airport Chiang Kai-shek International Airport (中正國際航空站, pinyin: Zhōngzhèng Gúojī Hángkōngzhàn) is located in Taiwan, Republic of China and is one of two airports that serve Taipei. ... City nickname: the City of Azaleas Capital District Xinyi Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 16 of 25 271. ... The Ninoy Aquino International Airport or NAIA ( IATA airport code: MNL, ICAO airport code: RPLL) is the international airport that serves Manila, in the Philippines, and its surrounding metropolitan area. ... Manila (Maynila in Filipino) is the capital city of the Philippines. ... Gimpo Airport was the main international airport for Seoul, and therefore for South Korea, until 2001, when Incheon International Airport took over. ... Seoul is the capital of South Korea and was, until 1945, the capital of all of Korea. ...


The two had already converted fourteen bottles of contact lens solution into bottles containing nitroglycerin, which was readily available in the Philippines. Yousef taped a metal rod to the arch of his of foot in place of the detonators. Yousef and Mohammed wore jewelry and clothing with metal to confuse airport security. They packed condoms in their bags to support their alibi that they were meeting women. [7] Nitroglycerin, also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, and glyceryl trinitrate, is a chemical compound, a heavy, colorless, poisonous, oily, explosive liquid obtained by nitrating glycerol. ... A condom is a device, usually made of latex, that covers a mans penis during sexual intercourse to avoid pregnancy and/or sexually transmitted diseases (STD) such as gonorrhea, syphilis and HIV. They are also known as prophylactics, as well as a number of colloquial or slang terms, such...


On December 8, Yousef moved into the Doña Josefa Apartments under the alias Najy Awaita Haddad and purported himself to be a Moroccan. Edith Guerrera, the manager, laughed with the receptionist after the two men asked for new registration forms. "Perhaps they have forgotten their names," she said as the first ones were torn up. Yousef had accidentally put his "real name" on the first form. He didn't want to get discovered too early. [1] [12] December 8 is the 342nd day (343rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Yousef had booked Room 603 in advance. He had made an Php 80,000 (Philippine Peso) deposit, and added Php 40,000 more up front before taking the elevator to Room 603. [12]


A conspirator named Abdul Hakim Murad came to Manila with Yousef and stayed at the same apartment. This article is concerned with the Pakistani terrorist. ...


The apartments are located in the Malate district, 200 meters away from the embassy of the Vatican City in the Philippines, and 500 meters down the street from Manila Police Station No. 9 on Quirino Avenue. One of the windows at Suite 603 looks down on the path that the Papal motorcade was to take. Middle Easterners frequently rent units there to hang out at nightclubs in the Malate district, which are often nonexistent in their home countries. [1] A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


People were suspicious of the men in Room 603. The men renting the apartment were very secretive. According to Guerrera, "They gave me the impression that they were here to study," said Mrs Guerrera. "They looked like students. They double locked the door when they were inside or out. They didn't ask the room boy to clear up the room." The men, who had chemical burns on their hands, were carrying boxes and never hired other people to carry them up. The boxes contained chemicals bought from suppliers in Manila and Quezon City in Metro Manila. Yousef would use these to make his bombs. [12] [9] Manila (Maynila in Filipino) is the capital city of the Philippines. ... Quezon City P is the former capital and the most populous city in the Philippines. ... Manila, Philippines Metro Manila (Kalakhang Maynila in Filipino), also simply called Manila outside the metropolis, is the metropolitan area that contains the City of Manila, the capital of the Philippines. ...


Mohammed purported himself to be a Saudi or Qatari plywood exporter named Abdul Majid. Yousef and Mohammed had already started planning Operation Bojinka. [9] Plywood was the first type of engineered wood to be invented. ...


According to Abdul Hakim Murad, Yousef got an idea for crashing a plane into the CIA from Murad while at the apartments. According to Murad, Yousef replied, "OK, we will think about it," before heading off with Khalid Shaikh to Puerto Galera for scuba diving. This article is concerned with the Pakistani terrorist. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is one of the American foreign intelligence agencies, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Puerto Galera is a municipality of the province of Oriental Mindoro in the Philippines. ...


At the time, Khalid Sheik Mohammed was staying at a lavish apartment across the street from a person that would become the President of the Philippines. He often went trips elsewhere to promote Konsojaya. [9] The Konsojaya Trading Company was a shell company cofounded by Jemaah Islamiyah leader Riduan Isamuddin, better known as Hambali, and his Chinese Malaysian wife, Noralwizah Lee Abdullah on June 1994. ...


On December 1, Shah placed a bomb under a seat in the Greenbelt Theatre in Manila to test what would happen if a bomb exploded under an airline seat. The bomb went off, injuring several patrons. [12] December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On December 11, 1994, Yousef built another bomb, which had one tenth of the power that his final bombs were planned to have, in the lavatory of the aircraft and left it under his seat, 27F, after he got off the plane from a flight that arrived in Cebu. Yousef had boarded the flight under an assumed name. The aircraft was Philippine Airlines Flight 434 using that aircraft on a Manila to Narita route. Yousef had set the timer for four hours after he got off the aircraft. The bomb exploded while the aircraft was over Minami Daito Island, near Okinawa, Japan. A Japanese businessman named Ikegami was killed after the bomb detonated. The Boeing 747-200 safely made an emergency landing. None of the aircraft's other 272 passengers or any members of the crew were killed, although 10 passengers in front of Ikegami were injured. Yousef then planned which flights to attack for Phase I. December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... Cebu is an island province of the Philippines located in the Central Visayas region. ... Philippine Airlines or PAL is the national airline of the Philippines. ... Philippine Airlines Flight 434 was the route designator of a flight that flew on a Ninoy Aquino International Airport near Manila, Philippines - Mactan-Cebu International Airport, Cebu - New Tokyo International Airport (Now Narita International Airport), Narita, Japan near Tokyo route. ... Manila (Maynila in Filipino) is the capital city of the Philippines. ... Narita (Japanese: 成田市; -shi) is a city located in Chiba, Japan. ... This article is about the prefecture. ... The Boeing 747, which is also known as the jumbo jet, is the largest passenger airliner in service. ...


Phase I

The details of Phase I were found in the evidence discovered in the investigation into Room 603 in the Doña Josefa (for more information, see Section: The evidence in Room 603) Operation Bojinka (also known as Project Bojinka, Bojinka Plot, Bojinga, from Arabic: بجنكة – slang in many dialects for explosion and pronounced Bo-JIN-ka, except in Egyptian where it is Bo-GIN-ka) was a planned large-scale attack on airliners in 1995, and was a precursor to the September...


If Phase I of Operation Bojinka was pulled off, it would have been the most devastating militant Islamist attack in history in terms of casualties.


Pope assassination plot

The first plan was a plan to kill Pope John Paul II when he visited the Philippines. On January 15, 1995, a suicide bomber would dress up as a priest while John Paul II was in his motorcade on his way to visiting the Federation of Asian Bishops' Conference at the San Carlos Seminary, which is located along Edsa, Guadalupe, Makati City. The assassin would stick a bomb inside one of his sleeves of the robe. He would then use the disguise to get closer to the Pope, and detonate the bomb when Pope John Paul II would approach to kiss him. The planned assassination of the Pope was intended to divert attention from the next part of the phase. About 20 men had been trained by Yousef to carry out this act prior to January 1995. The Servant of God Pope John Paul II (Latin: ), born Karol Józef Wojtyła [1] (May 18, 1920–April 2, 2005), reigned as pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City for almost 27 years, from 16 October 1978 until his death in 2005. ... January 15 is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Roman Catholic priest LCDR Allen R. Kuss (USN) aboard USS Enterprise A priest or priestess is a holy man or woman who takes an officiating role in worship of any religion, with the distinguishing characteristic of offering sacrifices. ... A satellite composite image of Asia Asia is the central and eastern part of the continent of Eurasia, defined by subtracting the European peninsula from Eurasia. ... A bishop is an ordained member of the Christian clergy who holds a specific position of authority in any of a number of Christian churches. ... Makati City is one of the most important cities in the Philippines in terms of finance and commerce. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ...


Airline bombing plot

The next plan would have involved at least five Al-Qaeda operatives, including Yousef, Khan, Shah and two more unknown operatives. Starting on January 21, 1995 and ending on January 22, 1995, they would set the bombs on 11 United States-bound airliners that had stopovers all around East Asia and Southeast Asia. All of the flights had two legs. The bombs would be planted inside life jackets under seats on the first leg, when each bomber would disembark. He would then board one or two more flights and repeat. After all of the bombers planted bombs on all of the flights, each man would then catch flights to Lahore, Pakistan. The men never needed U.S. visas, as they only would have stayed on the planes on their first legs in Asia. Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... East Asia can be defined in either cultural or geographic terms. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... A satellite composite image of Asia Asia is the central and eastern part of the continent of Eurasia, defined by subtracting the European peninsula from Eurasia. ... A lifejacket is an article of protective clothing that is designed to keep the wearer floating above the surface of the water. ... Lahore (لاةور) is a major city in Pakistan that is the capital of the province of Punjab. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: United States Wikinews has news related to this article: United States United States government Official website of the United States government - Gateway to governmental sites White House - Official site of the US President Senate. ... An entry visa valid in all Schengen treaty countries A visa (short for the Latin carta visa, lit. ... A satellite composite image of Asia Asia is the central and eastern part of the continent of Eurasia, defined by subtracting the European peninsula from Eurasia. ...


United States airlines had been chosen instead of Asian airlines to maximize the shock toward Americans. The flights targeted were listed under operatives with codenames, such as "Zyed", "Majbos" or "Obaid". Obaid, who was really Abdul Hakim Murad, was to hit United flight 80, and then he was to go back to Singapore under another United flight which he would bomb. [1] [12] [13] This article is concerned with the Pakistani terrorist. ...


Zyed was to hit Northwest Flight 30, a United Flight going from Taipei to Honolulu, and a United Flight going from Bangkok to Taipei to San Francisco [1] [16]


The bombs would have been timed before the operatives stepped off the planes. The aircraft would have blown up over the Pacific Ocean and the South China Sea almost simultaneously. If this plan worked, several thousand would have perished, and air travel would have been shut down worldwide for days, if not weeks. The U.S. government estimated the prospective death toll to be about 4,000 if the plot had been executed. The South China Sea, showing surrounding countries and neighbouring seas and oceans The South China Sea is a marginal sea, part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from Singapore to the Strait of Taiwan of around 3,500,000 km². It is the largest sea body after the five...


The bomb

The "Mark II" "microbombs" had Casio digital watches as the timers, stabilizers that looked like cotton wool balls, and an undetectable nitroglycerin as the explosive. Other ingredients included 5 milliliters of glycerin, 15 ml of nitrate, 22.5 ml of sulfuric acid, and minute concentrations of nitrobenzene, silver azide (silver trinitride), and liquid acetone. Two 9-volt batteries in each bomb were used as a power source. The batteries would be connected to light bulb filaments that would detonate the bomb. The batteries were taken from children's toys. The watch was a database watch that had no arms. Murad and Yousef wired an SCR as the switch to trigger the filaments to detonate the bomb. There was an external socket hidden when the wires were pushed under the watch base as the bomber would wear it. The alteration was so small that the watch could still be worn in a normal manner. [1] [13] [17] This article is about explosive devices. ... Casio, Inc. ... Nitroglycerin, also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, and glyceryl trinitrate, is a chemical compound, a heavy, colorless, poisonous, oily, explosive liquid obtained by nitrating glycerol. ... Glycerin, also known as glycerine and glycerol, and less commonly as 1,2,3-propanetriol, 1,2,3-trihydroxypropane, glyceritol, and glycyl alcohol is a colorless, odorless, hygroscopic, and sweet tasting viscous liquid. ... Nitrates are the salts of nitric acid. ... Sulfuric acid (British English: sulphuric acid), H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... Chemical structure of nitrobenzene Nitrobenzene, also known as nitrobenzol or oil of mirbane, is a poisonous organic compound with an almond odor and chemical formula C6H5NO2. ... In chemistry, acetone (also known as dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and beta-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ... Four double-A batteries In science and technology, a battery is a device that stores energy and makes it available in an electrical form. ... A silicon controlled rectifier is a 4 layer solid state device that controls current flow. ...


Yousef got batteries past airport security during his December 11 test bombing of Philippine Airlines Flight 434 by hiding them in hollowed-out heels of his shoes. Yousef smuggled the nitroglycerin on board by putting it inside a contact lens solution bottle. December 11 is the 345th day (346th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Philippine Airlines Flight 434 was the route designator of a flight that flew on a Ninoy Aquino International Airport near Manila, Philippines - Mactan-Cebu International Airport, Cebu - New Tokyo International Airport (Now Narita International Airport), Narita, Japan near Tokyo route. ... A soft contact lens A contact lens (also known as contact, for short) is a corrective or cosmetic lens placed on the cornea of the eye atop the iris. ...


The density of the explosive cocktail would be about 1.3. Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per unit of volume. ...


Airports planned to be affected

Hong Kong International Airport, popularly known as Kai Tak International Airport (Chinese 啟德國際機場 Pinyin: Qǐdé, WG: Chi-te, Enlighten & Virtuous) was the international airport of Hong Kong until July 6, 1998. ... Narita International Airport (Japanese: 成田国際空港 Narita Kokusai Kūkō) (IATA:NRT, ICAO:RJAA) is an international airport in the eastern portion of Narita, Chiba, Japan. ... Narita (Japanese: 成田市; -shi) is a city located in Chiba, Japan. ... Chiba Prefecture (千葉県 Chiba-ken) is located in the Greater Tokyo Area of Honshu Island, Japan. ... Long a symbol of Tokyo, the Nijubashi Bridge at the Imperial Palace. ... The Ninoy Aquino International Airport or NAIA ( IATA airport code: MNL, ICAO airport code: RPLL) is the international airport that serves Manila, in the Philippines, and its surrounding metropolitan area. ... Pasay City is one of the cities and municipalities that comprise Metro Manila in the Philippines. ... Parañaque City (pop. ... Manila, Philippines Metro Manila (Kalakhang Maynila in Filipino), also simply called Manila outside the metropolis, is the metropolitan area that contains the City of Manila, the capital of the Philippines. ... Manila (Maynila in Filipino) is the capital city of the Philippines. ... A view of the Chiang-Kai Shek International Airport Chiang Kai-shek International Airport (中正國際航空站, pinyin: Zhōngzhèng Gúojī Hángkōngzhàn) is located in Taiwan, Republic of China and is one of two airports that serve Taipei. ... Taoyuan is names of places in China which are following: Taoyuan (桃园市、桃園市,pinyin:táo yuán shì) is a city located in Taiwan, see Taoyuan City Taoyuan (桃园县、桃園縣,pinyin:táo yuán xiàn) is a county in Taiwan, see Taoyuan County (Taiwan) Taoyuan (桃源县、桃源縣,pinyin:táo yuán xiàn) is... National motto: None Official name (Traditional Chinese: 中華民國; Simplified Chinese: 中华民国; Wade-Giles: Chung-hua Min-kuo, Tongyong Pinyin: JhongHuá MínGuó, Hanyu Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó, Taiwanese: Tiong-hoâ Bîn-kok) Official language Mandarin Chinese Capital and largest city Taipei President Chen Shui-bian Premier Frank Hsieh Area  - Total  - % water Ranked... City nickname: the City of Azaleas Capital District Xinyi Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 16 of 25 271. ... Singapore Changi Airport (Chinese: 新加坡樟宜机场; Malay: Lapangan Terbang Changi Singapura; Tamil: சிங்கப்பூர் சாங்கி விமானநிலையம்) (IATA:SIN, ICAO:WSSS) in the city and State of Singapore is one of the largest aviation facilities in Asia. ... Gimpo Airport (formerly known as Kimpo International Airport) served as the main international airport for Seoul and South Korea when it was replaced by Incheon International Airport in 2001. ... Gimpo An alias for Alan Goodrick. ... Seoul is the capital of South Korea and was, until 1945, the capital of all of Korea. ... Terminal 1, Arrivals hall Bangkok International Airport (or also Don Muang International Airport) (Thai ท่าอากาศยานกรุงเทพ, also Don Mueang, Thai ท่าอากาศยานดอนเมือง) is an airport in Bangkok, Thailand. ... Bangkok from the Chao Phraya River at sunset, July 2004 Bangkok, (in Thai กรุงเทพฯ, กรุงเทพมหานคร, or Krung Thep, Krung Thep Mahanakhon), population 8,538,610 (1990), is the capital and largest city of Thailand. ... Honolulu International Airport is the principal aviation gateway of the City & County of Honolulu and the State of Hawaii and identified as one of the busiest airports in the United States. ... Location in the state of Hawaii Founded County City & County of Honolulu Mayor Mufi Hannemann Area  - Total  - Water Population  - City (2000)  - Density  - Metropolitan 371,657 1,674. ... John F. Kennedy International Airport (formerly Idlewild Airport and New York International Airport) is the main international airport in New York City, and is one of the largest airports in the world. ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the state of New York and the entire United States. ... This article is the most common use of LAX. For other uses, see LAX (disambiguation). ... Griffith Observatory and the Downtown Los Angeles skyline. ... For the airport of Portland, Maine, see Portland International Jetport Portland International Airport (IATA airport code:PDX, ICAO airport code: KPDX) is the largest airport in Oregon. ... Portland skyline. ... FAA diagram of SFO SFO redirects here. ... San Francisco skyline. ...

Flights planned to be affected

  • [1], [2], [16] - Information still not complete - need OAG of 1995*
  • United Airlines Flight 80: Singapore - Hong Kong, which turned to United Airlines Flight 806: Hong Kong - San Francisco
  • Northwest Airlines Flight 30: Manila - Seoul - Los Angeles
  • Delta Air Lines Flight 59: Portland, OR - Seoul - Taipei - Bangkok (Bomber would board in Seoul and disembark at Taipei, bomb would explode on the way to Thailand)
  • Northwest Airlines Flight 6: Manila - Tokyo - Honolulu
  • United Airlines Flight 808: San Francisco - Seoul - Manila, which would turn around and fly another flight back Manila - Seoul - San Francisco (The bomber would board at Seoul and disembark at Manila, the bomb would activate after departure from Manila)
  • A United Airlines Flight: Los Angeles - Hong Kong - Singapore, would then go on Singapore - Hong Kong - Los Angeles (The bomb would explode after takeoff from Singapore on the way to Hong Kong)
  • A United Airlines Flight: Taipei - Tokyo - San Francisco
  • A United Airlines Flight: Seoul - Taipei, would then fly Taipei-Honolulu (The bomber would board at Seoul and get off at Taipei, the bomb would explode on the way to Honolulu)
  • A United Airlines Flight: San Francisco - Taipei - Bangkok, the flight would then turn around and go back to Taipei and San Francisco (The bomb was set to explode after takeoff from Bangkok)
  • A Northwest Airlines Flight: Portland - Tokyo - Hong Kong, would turn around and go back to Tokyo and Portland
  • A United Airlines Flight: Los Angeles - Tokyo - Hong Kong, the flight was set to go back to Tokyo and Los Angeles

United Airlines Boeing 777 taking off at Schiphol, Amsterdam. ... Northwest Airlines (IATA: NW, ICAO: NWA, and Callsign: Northwest) (NASDAQ: NWAC) is an airline headquartered in Eagan, Minnesota, with three major hubs in the United States: Minneapolis-Saint Paul International Airport, Detroit Metropolitan Wayne County Airport, and Memphis International Airport. ... Delta Air Lines (NYSE: DAL) (IATA: DL, ICAO: DAL, and Callsign: Delta) is a major U.S. airline headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia, operating a large domestic and international network that spans North America, South America, Europe, and Asia. ...

Phase II, CIA plane crash plot

Abdul Hakim Murad confessed details of Phase II in his torture and interrogation with Manila police after his capture. (for more information, see Section:Murad's Confession) The Iron Maiden of Nuremberg was a famous torture device Torture is the infliction of severe physical or psychological pain as an expression of cruelty, a means of intimidation, deterrent or punishment, or as a tool for the extraction of information or confessions. ... Operation Bojinka (also known as Project Bojinka, Bojinka Plot, Bojinga, from Arabic: بجنكة – slang in many dialects for explosion and pronounced Bo-JIN-ka, except in Egyptian where it is Bo-GIN-ka) was a planned large-scale attack on airliners in 1995, and was a precursor to the September...


Phase two would have involved Abdul Hakim Murad either renting, buying, or hijacking a small airplane, preferably a Cessna. The airplane would be filled with explosives. He would then crash it into the CIA headquarters in Langley, Virginia. Murad had been trained as a pilot in North Carolina, and was slated to be a suicide pilot. Murad probably created this version of the plan. This article is concerned with the Pakistani terrorist. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Cessna Aircraft Company, located in Wichita, Kansas, is a manufacturer of general aviation aircraft, from small two-seat, single-engine airplanes to business jets. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is one of the American foreign intelligence agencies, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Langley is a community in the census-designated place of McLean in Fairfax County, Virginia, United States. ... State nickname: Tar Heel State Other U.S. States Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Governor Michael Easley Official languages English Area 139,509 km² (28th)  - Land 126,256 km²  - Water 13,227 km² (9. ...


There were alternate plans to hijack a 12th commercial airliner and use that instead of the small aircraft, probably due to the Manila cell's growing frustration with explosives. Testing explosives in a house or apartment is dangerous, and it can easily give away a militant plot. Khalid Sheik Mohammed probably made the alternate plan.


A report from the Philippines to the United States on January 20, 1995 stated, "What the subject has in his mind is that he will board any American commercial aircraft pretending to be an ordinary passenger. Then he will hijack [the] said aircraft, control its cockpit and dive it at the CIA headquarters." January 20 is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Another plot the men were cooking up would have involved hijacking of more airplanes. The Sears Tower (Chicago, Illinois), The Pentagon (Arlington, Virginia), the Washington Capitol (Washington, DC), the White House (Washington, DC), the Transamerica Tower (San Francisco, California), and the World Trade Center (New York, New York) would be the likely targets. A view of the Sears Tower from the Chicago River. ... Chicago (officially named the City of Chicago) is the third largest city in the United States and the largest inland city in the country, with an official population of 2,896,016, as of the 2000 census. ... The Pentagon, looking east with the Potomac River and Washington Monument in the distance. ... Arlington County is a county located in the U.S. state of Virginia (which calls itself a commonwealth), directly across the Potomac River from Washington, DC. By an act of Congress July 9, 1846, the area south of the Potomac was returned to Virginia effective in 1847 As of 2000... State nickname: Old Dominion Other U.S. States Capital Richmond Largest city Virginia Beach Governor Mark R. Warner Official languages English Area 110,862 km² (35th)  - Land 102,642 km²  - Water 8,220 km² (7. ... United States Capitol The United States Capitol is the building which serves as home for the legislative branch of the United States government. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... The southern side of the White House The White House is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the United States. ... The Transamerica Pyramid. ... San Francisco skyline. ... State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger Official languages English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ... The twin towers, photographed from the west The World Trade Center in New York City was a complex of seven buildings around a central plaza, near the south end of Manhattan in the downtown financial district. ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the state of New York and the entire United States. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ...


In his confession with Filipino investigators, Abdul Hakim Murad said that the Manila cell could not recruit enough people to implement other hijackings prior to the foiling of Operation Bojinka.


Discovery and Termination of Operation Bojinka

All times mentioned are in Manila, Philippines time. Manila (Maynila in Filipino) is the capital city of the Philippines. ...


The plot was abandoned after an apartment fire occurred during the night in Manila, Philippines on Friday, January 6, 1995. For other meanings of the word, see Manila (disambiguation). ... Friday is the day of the week between Thursday and Saturday. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The fire occurred before the Pope, John Paul II, was scheduled to visit the Philippines on January 12. Also, a typhoon had hit Manila not that long ago before the fire. The incident took place at six-story Doña Josefa apartments The Servant of God Pope John Paul II (Latin: ), born Karol Józef Wojtyła [1] (May 18, 1920–April 2, 2005), reigned as pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City for almost 27 years, from 16 October 1978 until his death in 2005. ... January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... This article is about weather phenomena. ...


Initially, the story told by Philippine authorities was that the fire was started when Abdul Hakim Murad started a chemical fire in the kitchen sink in Suite 603 in the 6th floor of the Doña Josefa apartment by pouring water on a substance. The smoke came when water was poured on to douse the fire. The fire was spotted at about 11 P.M. after residents complained about an odor. Edith Guerrera, the owner of the apartments, called the fire brigade, but the fire went out unassisted. Yousef and Murad had told the firefighters to stay away, before they fled. [3] Police, including 55-year old watch commander Aida D. Fariscal, who decided to investigate the situation, first found four hot plates in their packing crates, what looked like cotton batting soaked in a beige solution, and loops of green, red, blue, and yellow electrical wiring. The telephone rang, and the police ran downstairs thinking that it was a trap. [6] They left the apartment to seek a search warrant. Fariscal had been suspicious of the men in room 603 due to a chain of bombings that happened in the Philippines prior to January 6. Odor receptors on the antennae of a Luna moth An odor (American English) or odour (Commonwealth English) is the object of perception of the sense of olfaction. ... Aida D. Fariscal (1940? - ) is a former policewoman and watch commander in the Manila Police Department in the Philippines. ... A magnetic stirrer consists of a small bar magnet, which is normally wrapped in plastics like Teflon and a stand or plate containing an electromagnet. ... Cotton is a soft fiber that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant, a shrub native to the tropical and subtropical regions of both the Old World and the New World. ... Dissolving table salt in water In chemistry, a solution is one or more substance (the solute) dissolved in another substance (the solvent) forming a homogenous mixture. ...


According to police records, the policemen had to ask eleven judges before they found one that would sign the search warrant. [9]


More recently (as of 2002), the story told by the authorities was that the police deliberately set a fire to rouse the men out of their apartment. [8] 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


After police discovered the evidence, they arrested a man who called himself Ahmed Saeed. Saeed claimed that he was a commercial pilot that was on the way to the precinct house to explain the firecrackers that he said went off. Saeed tried to run away, but he was arrested after he tripped over a tree root. He was hauled to the precinct in a taxi van with the help of two other people. Saeed offered 110,740 Philippine pesos ($2,000 U.S. dollars) to the policemen if they let him go, but the officers refused to let him go, despite the fact that Manila policemen did not make that much money in a year at the time. [6] At the precinct, Saeed signed a statement saying that he was innocent and that he was a tourist visiting his friend in his chemical import/export business. Saeed then mumbled about "two Satans that must be destroyed: the Pope and America." [1] Aviators are people who fly aircraft either for pleasure or for a job. ... See Firecracker (album) for information on the Lisa Loeb album. ... A taxicab (sometimes called taxi, cab, or hack) is a vehicle for hire which conveys passengers between locations of their choice. ... The Philippine peso (Filipino: piso) is the official currency of the Philippines. ... The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: United States Wikinews has news related to this article: United States United States government Official website of the United States government - Gateway to governmental sites White House - Official site of the US President Senate. ...


The evidence in Room 603

When the officers returned to Suite 603 at 2:30 a.m. on January 7, they found street maps of Manila with routes plotting the papal motorcade, a rosary, a photograph of the pontiff, bibles, crucifixes, papal confessions, and clothes similar to those worn by a priest, including robes and collars. A phone message from a tailor reminding the occupant that the cassock was ready to be tried on suggested to the senior inspector that an assassination attempt was going to be placed on the Pope. A search warrant was granted by 4 A.M on January 7. [1] [12] January 7 is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Our Lady of Lourdes - Mary appearing at Lourdes with Rosary Beads The Rosary (its name comes from the Latin rosarium, meaning crown of roses), is an important and traditional devotion of the Roman Catholic Church, combining prayer and meditation in sequences of ten Hail Marys, each sequence being called a... A Bible handwritten in Latin, on display in Malmesbury Abbey, Wiltshire, England. ... A small, handheld crufix. ... Roman Catholic priest LCDR Allen R. Kuss (USN) aboard USS Enterprise A priest or priestess is a holy man or woman who takes an officiating role in worship of any religion, with the distinguishing characteristic of offering sacrifices. ... The cassock, an item of clerical clothing, is a long, sheath-like, close-fitting, ankle-length robe worn by clergy members of some Christian denominations. ... January 7 is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


More chemicals, such as gallons of sulfuric, picric, and nitric acid, pure glycerin, acetone, sodium trichlorate, nitrobenzoyl, ammonia, silver nitrates, methanamine, and ANFO were found. Several cans of gasoline and two large Welch's grape juice bottles containing nitroglycerin were found. Some of those chemicals were concocted into a smoking mixture of explosives in the kitchen sink. Equipment such as thermometers, graduated cylinders, large cooking kettles, funnels, fuses, filters, soldering irons, beakers, mortars, pestles, different electronic fusing systems, timers, switches, circuit breakers, and a box of Rough Rider lubricated condoms were found. A finished remote control brass pipe bomb and another pipe bomb that was about to be packed were found. A chemistry textbook and a chemical dictionary were found. A TIME magazine with the cover story on international terrorism was found. [1] [12] [9] Sulfuric acid (British English: sulphuric acid), H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... Picric acid is the common term for the chemical compound 2,4,6-trinitrophenol; the material is a yellow crystalline solid. ... The chemical compound nitric acid (HNO3), otherwise known as aqua fortis, is a colorless, corrosive liquid, a toxic acid which can cause severe burns. ... ... In chemistry, acetone (also known as dimethyl ketone, 2-propanone, propan-2-one and beta-ketopropane) is the simplest representative of the ketones. ... Ammonia is a chemical compound with the formula NH3. ... Silver nitrate is a chemical compound with chemical formula AgNO3. ... ANFO stands for Ammonium Nitrate / Fuel Oil. ... Petrol (gasoline in the United States and Canada) is a petroleum-derived liquid mixture consisting primarily of hydrocarbons, used as fuel in internal combustion engines. ... Welchs is the brand name of Welch Foods Inc. ... Species Vitis acerifolia Vitis aestivalis Vitis amurensis Vitis arizonica Vitis x bourquina Vitis californica Vitis x champinii Vitis cinerea Vitis x doaniana Vitis girdiana Vitis labrusca Vitis x labruscana Vitis monticola Vitis mustangensis Vitis x novae-angliae Vitis palmata Vitis riparia Vitis rotundifolia Vitis rupestris Vitis shuttleworthii Vitis tiliifolia Vitis... Juice is the liquid naturally contained in plants. ... Nitroglycerin, also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, and glyceryl trinitrate, is a chemical compound, a heavy, colorless, poisonous, oily, explosive liquid obtained by nitrating glycerol. ... A thermometer is a device used to measure temperatures or temperature changes. ... Illustration of a graduated cylinder Picture of a graduated cylinder. ... A funnel is a conically shaped pipe, employed as a device to channel liquid or fine-grained substances into containers with a small opening. ... The word fuse (spelled fuze in some contexts) has several meanings: To fuse is to combine in a process of fusion. ... The term filter may refer to: A device to separate mixtures. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metal Group, Period, Block 8 (VIIIB), 4, d Density, Hardness 7874 kg/m3, 4. ... Illustration of a Beaker A beaker is a type of laboratory glassware which consists of a cylindrical cup with a notch on the top to allow for the pouring of liquids. ... A mortar and pestle are two tools used with each other to grind and mix substances. ... Mortar and pestle A mortar and pestle are two tools used with each other to grind and mix substances. ... A timer is a specialized type of clock. ... Electrical switches. ... A circuit breaker is a piece of equipment which is designed to protect an electrical apparatus from damage caused by overload or short circuit. ... A condom is a device, usually made of latex, that covers a mans penis during sexual intercourse to avoid pregnancy and/or sexually transmitted diseases (STD) such as gonorrhea, syphilis and HIV. They are also known as prophylactics, as well as a number of colloquial or slang terms, such... Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc. ... Textbooks are defined as a manual of instruction, a standard book in any branch of study. They are further defined by both the age of the person who is to study the text and the classification of the subject matter itself. ... Manual of Specialised Lexicography, Henning Bergenholtz/Sven Tarp (eds. ... 8:17 am, August 6, 1945, Japanese time. ... Terrorism is a controversial term with multiple definitions. ...


Also found was a pharmacy receipt and a bottle of contact lens solution. A soft contact lens A contact lens (also known as contact, for short) is a corrective or cosmetic lens placed on the cornea of the eye atop the iris. ... Dissolving table salt in water In chemistry, a solution is one or more substance (the solute) dissolved in another substance (the solvent) forming a homogenous mixture. ...


The most damning piece of evidence found so far was a manual written in Arabic on how to build a liquid bomb. The formula went like this: Arabic (العربية) is a Semitic language, closely related to Hebrew and Aramaic. ... This article is about explosive devices. ...

  • Step 1: "Put 0.5g of sodium hydroxide with 30 ml of warm water. Add to them 3g of picric acid . . ."
  • Step 6: "By using an eye dropper, very slowly add sulfuric acid to the liquid until its color is changed to orange, then to brown . . ."
  • Step 11: "Leave the mixture for 12 to 14 hours to allow the acetone peroxide to precipitate, then wash on filter paper until PH level=7 . . ."
  • Final step: "Put them in a dark place to dry." [1]

A finished time bomb was placed in a cupboard under the sink. Other Casio watches were found in the apartment. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as caustic poop soda or lye in North America, is a caustic metallic base used in industry (mostly as a strong chemical base) in the manufacture of paper, textiles, and detergents. ... Water (from the Old English word wæter) is a colourless, tasteless, and odourless substance that is essential to all known forms of life and is known also as the most universal solvent. ... Picric acid is the common term for the chemical compound 2,4,6-trinitrophenol; the material is a yellow crystalline solid. ... Sulfuric acid (British English: sulphuric acid), H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... Acetone peroxide is a high explosive that can be made from common household items: drain cleaner (sulfuric acid), hydrogen peroxide, and acetone. ... pH is a measure of the activity of hydrogen ions (H+) in a solution and, therefore, its acidity or alkalinity. ... Many modern sinks are made of stainless steel Older sinks are usually made of porcelain. ... Casio, Inc. ...


Stacks of 12 false passports, including false Norwegian, Afghan, Saudi, Pakistani and other faked passports "issued" by other countries were also found in the apartment. Investigators found a business card from Mohammed Jamal Khalifa. Saeed was found to possess five telephone numbers from Khalifa. They found phone numbers from Rose Masquera, Mohammed's girlfriend. [1] The title page of European Union passports bears the name European Union, then the name of the issuing country, in the languages of all EU countries. ... Mohammed Jamal Khalifa is a Saudi Arabian businessman from Jeddah who is married to one of Osama bin Ladens sisters. ...


Yousef's Computer

Yousef's pet project was discovered on four floppy diskettes and an off-white Toshiba laptop personal computer inside his apartment, two weeks before the plot would have been implemented. Several encrypted files on the C: Drive contained flight schedules, calculations of detonation times, and other items. [14] The first string of text in one of the files states, "All people who support the U.S. government are our targets in our future plans and that is because all those people are responsible for their government's actions and they support the U.S. foreign policy and are satisfied with it. We will hit all U.S. nuclear targets. If the U.S. government keeps supporting Israel, then we will continue to carry out operations inside and outside the United States to include ..." and the text ends. A floppy disk is a data storage device that is composed of a circular piece of thin, flexible (i. ... White is a color (more accurately it contains all the colors of the spectrum and is sometimes described as an achromatic color—black is the absence of color) that has high brightness but zero hue. ... Tōshiba (東芝) is a high technology electrical and electronics manufacturing firm, headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. ... Laptop with touchpad. ... The designation C: (sometimes C: ) is the drive letter that refers to the main partition (or portion of an hard drive) on an MS-DOS or Windows personal computer. ...


A file named "Bojinka" lists the eleven flights between Asia and the United States, which were grouped under five codenames. Strings were found, such as "SETTING: 9:30 PM to 10:30 PM. TIMER: 23HR. BOJINKA: 20:30-21:30 NRT Date 5" (for United flight 80), and "SETTING: 8:30-9:00. TIMER: 10HR. BOJINKA: 19:30-20:00 NRT Date 4" (for Northwest Flight 30). [1] Narita International Airport (Japanese: 成田国際空港 Narita Kokusai Kūkō) (IATA:NRT, ICAO:RJAA) is an international airport in the eastern portion of Narita, Chiba, Japan. ... Narita International Airport (Japanese: 成田国際空港 Narita Kokusai Kūkō) (IATA:NRT, ICAO:RJAA) is an international airport in the eastern portion of Narita, Chiba, Japan. ...


The laptop had names of dozens of associates, including some photographs of a few of them and including contact information for Mohammed Jamal Khalifa. They contained records of information about five-star hotels, dealings with a London trading corporation, a meat market owner in Malaysia, and an Islamic center in Tucson, Arizona. Information about how money moved through an Abu Dhabi banking firm was found. Mohammed Jamal Khalifa is a Saudi Arabian businessman from Jeddah who is married to one of Osama bin Ladens sisters. ... The Clock Tower of the Palace of Westminster which contains Big Ben A red double-decker bus crosses Piccadilly Circus. ... Islam  listen? (Arabic: al-islām) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and the worlds second largest religion. ... Congress Street, the main thoroughfare in downtown Tucson, Arizona. ... Abu Dhabi or Abu Zaby (Arabic language: أبوظبي) is the largest of the seven emirates that comprise the United Arab Emirates and was also the largest of the former Trucial States. ...


A communication signed "Khalid Shaikh + Bojinka" was also found on Yousef's computer that threatened to attack targets "in response to the financial, political and military assistance given to the Jewish state in the occupied land of Palestine by the American Government." The letter also said that the bombers claimed to have "ability to make and use chemicals and poisonous gas... for use against vital institutions and populations and the sources of drinking water." [12] [1] The word Jew (Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Palestine (Latin: Syria Palæstina; Hebrew: פלשתינה Palestina, ארץ־ישראל Eretz Yisrael; Arabic: فلسطين Filasṭīn) is the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the banks of the Jordan River, plus various adjoining lands to the east. ... The government of the United States, established by the United States Constitution, is a federal republic of 50 states, a few territories and some protectorates. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... The skull and crossbones symbol traditionally used to label a poisonous substance. ...


The letter also threatened to assassinate Fidel Ramos, the President of the Philippines at the time, as well as attack aircraft if the United States did not meet the group's demands. The letter said that the group claiming responsibility was the "Fifth Division of the Liberation Army". [1] PRESIDENT OF THE PHILIPPINES Fidel V. Ramos Fidel Valdez Ramos (born March 18, 1928), military hero of the 1986 People Power Revolution that toppled the dictatorship of Ferdinand Marcos, became the 12th President of the Republic of the Philippines on June 30, 1992. ...


The evidence found at the Doña Josefa filled three police vans. [9]


Murad's Confession

Sometime after police arrested Saeed, he had called Ramzi Yousef's cellular phone. Cellular redirects here. ...


Saeed turned out to be Abdul Hakim Murad, who was sent to the apartment to retrieve the computer after the fire. Murad was sent to Camp Crame, a military installation that was on the outskirts of Manila. Murad at first taunted investigators. For sixty-seven days, he endured a torture process that Filipino investigators called "tactical interrogation", or "TI". This article is concerned with the Pakistani terrorist. ... Camp Crame is the national headquarters of the Philippine National Police (PNP) and is located in Quezon City. ... The Iron Maiden of Nuremberg was a famous torture device Torture is the infliction of severe physical or psychological pain as an expression of cruelty, a means of intimidation, deterrent or punishment, or as a tool for the extraction of information or confessions. ...


According to journalists Marites Vitug and Glenda Gloria, who both wrote the book Under the Crescent Moon, agents hit him with a chair and long piece of wood when Murad didn't talk. They forced water into his mouth, and crushed lighted cigarettes onto his genitals. Murad's ribs were completely cracked. Agents were surprised that he survived. According to an investigator, he finally confessed out of fear of Jews after an agent masqueraded as the Mossad and told him that he was being sent to Israel. Typical Western wooden chair A chair is a piece of furniture consisting of a seat, legs, back, and sometimes arm rests, for use by one person. ... A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood is a organic material found as the primary content of the stems of woody plants, especially trees, but also shrubs. ... Water (from the Old English word wæter) is a colourless, tasteless, and odourless substance that is essential to all known forms of life and is known also as the most universal solvent. ... The mouth, also known as the buccal cavity or the oral cavity, is the opening through which an animal or human takes in food. ... A cigarette will burn to ash on one end. ... The penis (plural penises or penes) or phallus is the external male copulatory organ, and, in mammals, the external male organ of urination. ... Official seal of the Mossad Ha-Mossad le-Modiin ule-Tafkidim Meyuhadim (Hebrew: המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים, Institute for Intelligence and Special Tasks) is an Israeli intelligence agency, commonly referred to as Mossad. ...


Murad admitted in his interrogations, "This is my -- the best thing. I enjoy it," and "because the United States is the first country in this world making trouble for our, for Muslims and for our people." A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ...


He talked about the bombs. "Nobody can think that it's . . . explosive," he said, referring to the watches Ramzi Yousef planned to put on the airliners. He said that the nitroglycerin "which even you'll put in the X-ray, you will never, nobody can" detect it. Ramzi Ahmed Yousef or Ramzi Mohammed Yousef (also transliterated as Ramzi Yusuf, Ramzi Youssef, and other ways), birth name possibly Abdul Basit Karim. ... Nitroglycerin, also known as nitroglycerine, trinitroglycerin, and glyceryl trinitrate, is a chemical compound, a heavy, colorless, poisonous, oily, explosive liquid obtained by nitrating glycerol. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz...


Murad confessed that he was on a quest to be a martyr. He confessed to being the hijacker as part of Phase II of his plan. Murad would later be extradited to the United States on April 12, 1995. His testimony would help convict Yousef. The quest is a plot device frequently found in mythology and literature. ... == I AM A BUNNY XD == ... April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Manhunt

Wali Khan Amin Shah was arrested at an apartment complex at Singalong Street on January 11 after police saw that a pager called by Yousef was registered in the name of Shah's girlfriend. Shah escaped from custody about 77 hours later. Shah was found to be a conspirator after authorities saw photos of him scanned on the laptop that contained information about the plot, as well as cell phone numbers that led investigators to the apartment. Yousef and Khalid Shaikh Mohammed were able to escape from the Philippines to Pakistan. [1] [12] January 11 is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


After receiving Murad's phone call, Yousef made plans to leave and flew to Singapore about five hours after Murad's arrest. [12] One day after Bojinka was discovered, Yousef made his way to Pakistan. [9] Mohammed went to Pakistan days or weeks afterwards. [9] [12]


The Philippines forwarded details on the Bojinka plot to the United States in April 1995. Konsojaya was heard via wiretaps to be frequently in contact with Mohammed Jamal Khalifa's charitable organization until the plot was discovered. April is the fourth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four with the length of 30 days. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Telephone tapping or Wire tapping/ Wiretapping (in US) describes the monitoring of telephone conversations by a third party, often by covert means. ...


Yousef would later be arrested in a hotel room in Islamabad, Pakistan on February 7, 1995 after a 23-day manhunt. Yousef later boasted to FBI agent Brian Parr about his plan. Wali Khan Amin Shah, the financier, got picked up in Malaysia in December of 1995. His identity was revealed after he was fingerprinted. Khan also got extradited to the United States. Faisal Mosque, located in Islamabad, the capital city of Pakistan, was built in 1986. ... February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a Federal police force which is the principal investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... Wali Khan Amin Shah (He had many aliases, including Osama Turkestani, Osama Asmuray, and Grabi Ibrahim Hahsen) was an Al-Qaida member that allegedly controlled the purse strings for the foiled Operation Bojinka terrorist attack plot. ... December is the twelfth and last month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ...


All three conspirators got life sentences for participating in the plot. Yousef also got 240 years along with his life sentence for the 1993 World Trade Center attacks. Yousef got sentenced on January 8, 1998, and Murad got sentenced on May 16, 1998. Shah has been cooperating with the government since August 1998. Life imprisonment is a term used for a particular kind of sentence of imprisonment. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... The twin towers, photographed from the west The World Trade Center in New York City was a complex of seven buildings around a central plaza, near the south end of Manhattan in the downtown financial district. ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (137th in leap years). ... 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Note: as an adjective (stressed on the second syllable instead of the first), august means honorable. ... 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...


Mohammed Jamal Khalifa, a Saudi businessman from Jeddah that is married to one of Osama bin Laden's sisters, was in the Philippines earlier in 1994, probably conspiring with Abu Sayyaf. He was arrested in 1994 in Mountain View, California for conspiring in the 1993 World Trade Center bombing. He was financing the Bojinka plot, according to the content that the Filipino investigators forwarded to the United States. The INS deported Khalifa to Jordan in May 1995. He was acquitted by the Jordanian court and is now in Saudi Arabia. Mohammed Jamal Khalifa is a Saudi Arabian businessman from Jeddah who is married to one of Osama bin Ladens sisters. ... Jeddah from space, September 1995 Jeddah (also Jedda, Jiddah, or Juddah) is a city in in western Saudi Arabia, on the Red Sea. ... Osama bin Laden Usāmah bin Muhammad bin `Awad bin Lādin (born March 10, 1957) (Arabic: ), commonly known as Osama bin Laden (Arabic: ), is the figurehead of al-Qaeda, an Islamist movement that has been involved in attacks against civilians and military targets around the world. ... The Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG), or simply Abu Sayyaf, also known as Al Harakat Al Islamiyya, is a separatist group of islamist terrorists based in and around the southern islands of the Philippines, primarily Jolo, Basilan, and Mindanao. ... 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... For the community near Martinez, California, see Mountain View, Contra Costa County, California. ... The acronym INS can refer to: Indian Navy Ship Immigration and Naturalization Service The Irish Naval Service Inertial navigation system Inelastic neutron scattering The International Numbering System number adopted by the Codex Alimentarius Commission Insurgency Half-Life 2 Modification [1] This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists... This article is about the month of May. ... 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The end result

U.S. investigators would apparently not find the connection with Khalid Sheik Mohammed to Al Qaida until several years later.


Khalid Shaikh Mohammed decided that explosives were too risky to use in his next plot. He decided to take Phase II and make it into a new attack. The leadership of the organization Al-Qaida, which he belonged to, loved the idea of using airplanes in attacks. The plot would become known as the September 11, 2001 attacks. Khalid Sheikh Mohammed would be arrested in Rawalpindi, Pakistan in 2003. Khalid Shaikh Mohammed (Arabic: خالد شيخ محمد; also transliterated as Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, Khalid Shaikh Mohammad, and other ways) (March 1, 1964 or April 14, 1965 – present) was an important figure in Osama bin Ladens al-Qaeda organization, where he masterminded numerous plans and came to head the group... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated Islamist terrorist attacks carried out in the United States on Tuesday, September 11, 2001. ... Rawalpindi is a city near Islamabad, Pakistan. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Yousef filed a motion for a new trial in 2001. The United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit argued the case on May 3, 2002, and decided the case on April 3, 2003. It was decided that Yousef and his partners are to remain incarcerated. [10] 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 3 is the 123rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (124th in leap years). ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 3 is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 272 days remaining. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Opinions on Operation Bojinka in relation to September 11

People who feel that the United States Government should have discovered September 11 feel that the discovery of Operation Bojinka should have raised early warning flags that would have prevented September 11, pointing to Phase II. Some from this side of the argument also feel that the U.S. government should have connected the dots. The government of the United States, established by the United States Constitution, is a federal republic of 50 states, a few territories and some protectorates. ...


Those that feel that the U.S. Government could not have discovered the September 11 plot argue that the Bojinka plot was mainly about Phase I.


Operation Bojinka's handling by the authorities to some observers demonstrates the ineffectiveness of torture in interrogations. Several security experts (http://www.schneier.com/crypto-gram-0407.html) share the opinion of the people who believe that torture is not effective in getting information. In this case, despite the links of the terrorist to Al Qaeda and to the plans for the September 11th attacks, none of this was discovered by the ample torture applied to the suspects. Even the information that is claimed to have been recovered via torture in this case was already obvious from evidence gathered from the scene.


Bibliography

  1. - Brzezinski, Matthew (2002). Operation Bojinka's Bombshell. Retrieved from http://propagandamatrix.com/operation_bojinkas_bombshell.html
  2. - Sharma, Rajeev (2001). Past acts point to Osama bin Laden. Retrieved from http://meadev.nic.in/OPn/2001sept/13trb.htm
  3. - Baker, Peter, Doug Struck, Howard Schneider, and Karl Vick (2001). Bin Laden Followers Reach Across Globe. Obtained from http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2001/wpost092301b.html
  4. - (1998) 'Proud terrorist' gets life for Trade Center bombing (http://www.cnn.com/US/9801/08/yousef.update/) CNN
  5. - Hirschkorn, Phil (2001). Convicted bomb conspirator linked to plots (http://search.cnn.com/cnn/redir?source=cnn&errorFlag=0&requestId=80129&clickedItemRank=8&userQuery=Bojinka&clickedItemURN=http%3A%2F%2Fcnn.com%2F2001%2FUS%2F09%2F18%2Finv.yousef.background%2Findex.html), CNN
  6. - Ressa, Maria (2003) Philippines: U.S. missed 9/11 clues years ago (http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/asiapcf/southeast/07/26/khalid.confession/index.html) CNN
  7. - Ressa, Maria (2002) September 11: The Asian blueprint (http://edition.cnn.com/2002/WORLD/asiapcf/southeast/03/11/gen.phil.terror.blueprint/?related). CNN
  8. - McDermott, Terry (2002). The Plot (http://www.latimes.com/news/specials/911/la-na-plot-1sep01.story). Los Angeles Times
  9. - 1996 Plane terror suspects convicted on all accounts (http://www.cnn.com/US/9609/05/terror.plot/index.html). CNN
  10. - (2003). United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit - August Term 2001. Obtained from http://news.findlaw.com/hdocs/docs/terrorism/usyousef40403opn.pdf
  11. - Bokhari, Farhan, Victoria Burnett, Charles Clover, Mark Huband and Roel Landingin (2003). The CEO of al-Qaeda. Obtained from http://www.cooperativeresearch.org/timeline/2003/financialtimes021503.html
  12. - Transcript of an interview with Abdul Hakim Murad, obtained on January 22, 2004 (GMT) from http://www.thesmokinggun.com/fall/murad1.html
  13. Jenkins, Brian (May 13, 1996). Terrorism Trial begins in New York (http://www.cnn.com/US/9605/12/terror.plot/). CNN.
  14. - Dueling Globalizations. Ontained from http://www.findarticles.com/cf_dls/m1181/1999_Fall/56750484/p3/article.jhtml?term=
  15. - Suicide-pilot plan uncovered six years ago in Philippines (http://taipeitimes.com/News/us/archives/2001/09/14/102905), AP and Reuters
  16. - Dorsch, Carole C., Superterrorism: Assassins, Mobsters, and Weapons of Mass Destruction, Glenn E. Schweitzer; Plenum Trade, 1998 (through Questia)
  17. - Lance, Peter, A Thousand Years for Revenge

2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Osama bin Laden Usāmah bin Muhammad bin `Awad bin Lādin (born March 10, 1957) (Arabic: ), commonly known as Osama bin Laden (Arabic: ), is the figurehead of al-Qaeda, an Islamist movement that has been involved in attacks against civilians and military targets around the world. ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Osama bin Laden Usāmah bin Muhammad bin `Awad bin Lādin (born March 10, 1957) (Arabic: ), commonly known as Osama bin Laden (Arabic: ), is the figurehead of al-Qaeda, an Islamist movement that has been involved in attacks against civilians and military targets around the world. ... 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... CNN or Cable News Network is a cable television network that was founded in 1980 by Ted Turner & Reese Schonfeld [1] [2] (although he currently is not recognized in CNNs official history). ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... CNN or Cable News Network is a cable television network that was founded in 1980 by Ted Turner & Reese Schonfeld [1] [2] (although he currently is not recognized in CNNs official history). ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... CNN or Cable News Network is a cable television network that was founded in 1980 by Ted Turner & Reese Schonfeld [1] [2] (although he currently is not recognized in CNNs official history). ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... CNN or Cable News Network is a cable television network that was founded in 1980 by Ted Turner & Reese Schonfeld [1] [2] (although he currently is not recognized in CNNs official history). ... 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Los Angeles Times (also LA Times) is a daily newspaper published in Los Angeles, California and distributed throughout the western United States. ... 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... CNN or Cable News Network is a cable television network that was founded in 1980 by Ted Turner & Reese Schonfeld [1] [2] (although he currently is not recognized in CNNs official history). ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chief Executive Officer (CEO) is the job of having the ultimate executive responsibility or authority within an organization or corporation. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... This article is concerned with the Pakistani terrorist. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For alternate meanings of GMT, see GMT (disambiguation). ... CNN or Cable News Network is a cable television network that was founded in 1980 by Ted Turner & Reese Schonfeld [1] [2] (although he currently is not recognized in CNNs official history). ... Associated Press logo This article concerns the news service. ... Reuters is a company supplying global financial markets and news media with a range of information products and transactional solutions, including real-time and historical market data, research and analytics, financial trading platforms, investment data and analytics plus news in text, video, graphics and photographs. ... 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... Questia is a website that has a subscription service to read books online. ...

Other external links

  1. Project Bojinka and Other Hijack High-jinks. Retrieved January 21, 2004 from http://www.the7thfire.com/Politics%20and%20History/Bojinka.html
  2. Rotten.com Article about Ramzi Youssef (http://www.rotten.com/library/bio/crime/terrorists/ramzi-yousef/)
  3. The dog that didn't bark (http://www.okcbombing.org/News%20Articles/bojinka_dog_bark.htm)
  4. Ignorance is a lie article (http://www.konformist.com/911/911lies.htm)
  5. Information about Khalid Sheik Mohammed (http://meadev.nic.in/ind-ter/for-med/latimes6june2002.htm)
  6. Newsmax Article on Bojinka and Ressam (http://www.newsmax.com/archives/articles/2001/2/20/160738.shtml) (NewsMax.com)
  7. FuckedWorld article on "John Doe II" (http://fuckedworld.egoplex.com/johndoearticle-khalifa.shtml)
  8. Information on the attack against the pope (http://www.govexec.com/dailyfed/1001/102201nj1.htm)
  9. Interview with writer of article "Operation Bojinka bombshell" (http://discuss.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/zforum/01/magazine_brzezinski010202.htm)
  10. Terrorismfiles.org info about Ramzi Yousef (http://terrorismfiles.org/individuals/ramzi_yousef.html)
  11. http://www.ci-ce-ct.com/article/showquestion.asp?faq=3&fldAuto=1286
  12. http://www.rotten.com/library/bio/crime/terrorists/mohammed-jamal-khalifa/

  Results from FactBites:
 
Oplan Bojinka - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4961 words)
Oplan Bojinka (also known as Operation Bojinka, Project Bojinka, Bojinka Plot, Bojinga, from Arabic: بجنكة – slang in many dialects for explosion and pronounced Bo-JIN-ka, except in Egyptian where it is Bo-GIN-ka) was a planned large-scale attack on airliners in 1995, and was a precursor to the September 11 attacks.
Operation Bojinka was prevented on January 6 and 7, 1995, but some lessons learned were apparently used by the planners of the September 11 attacks.
Philippine authorities say that Operation Bojinka was developed by Ramzi Yousef and Khalid Shaikh Mohammed while they were in Manila, Philippines in 1994 and early 1995.
9-11 Review (371 words)
Operation Bojinka was a planned series of terrorist attack schedules for January of 1995.
Operation Bojinka was abandoned in the wake of an apartment fire in Manila on January 6, 1995, which led to the discovery by police of evidence of the plot.
Operation Bojinka (also known as Project Bojinka, Bojinka Plot, Bojinga, from Arabic: slang in many dialects for explosion and pronounced Bo-JIN-ka, except in Egyptian where it is Bo-GIN-ka) was a planned large-scale attack on airliners in 1995, and was a precursor to the September 11 attacks.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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