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Encyclopedia > Operation Atilla

Atilla was the code name given to the Turkish military invasion of the island of Cyprus in July 1974, in response to a Greek-inspired coup d'état which sought to unite the island with Greece. 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1974 calendar). ... A coup détat (pronounced ), or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment that mostly replaces just the top power figures. ...

Contents


Rationale

The neutrality of this section is disputed.
Please see discussion on the talk page.

The plan for the operation have been drawn following the Johnson's letter crisis in 1963. Unable to intervene with the island in 1963, following the threat of President Johnson that US may not interfere in time of a Soviet hostility if Turkey went ahead to intervene in Cyprus as a reaction to the manslaughter in December 1963, Turkish president Ismet Inonu was outraged. Even though the island and EOKA was heavily bombarded by Turkish Fighter Jets, it became clear to Turkish politicans as early as 1963 that an intervention in Cyprus will be a necessity to prevent a turkish minority genocide and enosis as with in the example of Crete. Following the events of 1963, all prime ministers in Turkey have provided funding to the planning of the invasion. Image File history File links Stop_hand. ... Ismet Inonu 1884-1973 Mustafa Ismet Inönü (1884 - December 25, 1973) was a soldier, statesman and the second President of Turkey. ... Crete (Greek Κρήτη Kriti; called Candia in the Venetian period and Turkish: Girit) is the largest of the Greek islands and the fifth largest in the Mediterranean Sea. ...


When EOKA-B led by Nicos Sampson overthrew the government in Cyprus July 15,1974, Turkish prime minister Bulent Ecevit flew to London to convince United Kingdom for a joint operation to remove Sampson from power. Unimpressed with the British unwillingness to take responsibility of its guarantor position, Bulent Ecevit coded the authorization of the operation with the words "Ayse may take a vacation now" to the Ministry of Defence in Turkey during his visit to London. Bülent Ecevit (born on May 28, 1925) is a Turkish politician and was also a writer and journalist. ...


Invasion

The first 12 hours of the operation was extremely difficult since only a handful of paratroopers were landed and the access to island from Turkey was cut at night time. Following a long and difficult night, Turkish Air Force resumed guarding troops on the island with the dawn, and soon the armed forces arrived in the island.


On 20 July 1974, the initial invasion (Atilla I) captured the port city of Kyrenia, and by the 22 July a road access to the Cypriot capital city of Nicosia. This secured the northern (Turkish) sector. After UN talks about the withdrawal of the Turkish Army failed, the second stage of the operation (Atilla II) started on 14 August 1974 and extended Turkish control out to cover the north-eastern third of the island, stretching from Kokkina/Erenköy in the west to Cape Apostolos Andreas in the east, then south to Louroujina/Akincilar. This latter move was justified by the Turkish forces on the grounds that as the Turkish Cypriots had ownership of 31% of the island before 1963{fact} and were forced off into enclaves of just 4% of the land in the wake of the intercommunal violence.{fact} Taking control of over 30% of the north was seen as redressing those land losses. As this move forced the eviction of Greek Cypriots to the southern sector of Cyprus, it has been seen as ethnic cleansing by the government of the Republic of Cyprus. Today, only a few enclaved Greek Cypriots remain in the north. July 20 is the 201st day (202nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 164 days remaining. ... Kyrenia Harbour on a summer night Kyrenia Castle at Night Kyrenia (Greek: Keryneia (Κερύνεια),Turkish: Girne) is a town in the northern part of Cyprus. ... July 22 is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... Nicosia, Cyprus For the Italian town, see Nicosia, Sicily Nicosia, known locally as Lefkosia (Greek: Λευκωσία , also colloquially Khora, Χώρα or Turkish: LefkoÅŸa ), is the capital and largest city of Cyprus. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... Branch of Turkish Armed Forces, at a short notice, Turkish Army (officially known as Turkish Land Forces) (Turkish: Türk Kara Kuvvetleri) can deploy 90,000 to 100,000 men strength Army Corps to conduct joint operations. ... August 14 is the 226th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (227th in leap years), with 139 days remaining. ... Kokkina (Greek: Κόκκινα = Reds, Turkish: Erenköy) is an exclave of the de facto Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. ... Map of North-East Cyprus showing Cape Apostolos Andreas (red star) Cape Apostolos Andreas (Cape Saint Andrew) is the north-easternmost point (promontory) of the Mediterranean island of Cyprus (35°41. ... map of Cyprus showing the Louroujina Salient of the TRNC TRNC flag The Louroujina Salient marks the southernmost extent of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ...


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Thanks in part to the initial invasion, the attempted coup d'etat against the Greek Cypriot President Makarios collapsed eight days later, and provided the catalyst for the removal of power of the military junta then controlling Greece. Still, Turkish forces did not withdraw, and ended up consolidating their hold on Northern Cyprus, stating that any withdrawal would end up putting the Turkish Cypriot populace in danger. This failure of the Turkish forces to withdraw after the coup failed is regarded internationally as a violation of the Treaty of Guarantee. Makarios was the adopted name of Mikhalis Khristodoulou Mouskos (August 13, 1913 - August 3, 1977). ... In modern usage, junta (pronounced as in Spanish HUN-ta or HOON-ta) typically refers to a military dictatorship, especially in Latin America, which is officially run by a committee of high-ranking military officers. ... The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus(TRNC) {NOTE: the name is not accepted by UN} , in Turkish Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti, is a self-proclaimed state occupying the northern third of the island of Cyprus in the eastern Mediterranean. ...


The result of the invasion was that the island was partitioned into a Turkish-controlled north (which in 1983, unilaterally declared its independence), and the remaining two-thirds under the control of the Greek Cypriots. Regardless of the legalities, the Turks argue that the partition has prevented a resumption of the inter-communal violence. 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A member of the Caspian (or eastern) branch of the Caucasian languages. ...


The Turkish invasion and subsequent partition of Cyprus resulted in the following:

  • Greek View: Almost 37% of the territory of the Republic of Cyprus - that is, the northern part of the island, where 70% of its natural resources are concentrated - is under Turkish occupation. Turkish View: 37% of the island was liberated from the Greek Cyriots as compensation for the lands taken from Turkish Cypriots between 1963 - 1974
  • Greek View: Almost all Greek Cypriots have been displaced from the occupied northern sector where they had constituted 80% of the inhabitants. Turkish View: Due to fears as to how they would be treated by the Turkish Forces given their treatment of Turkish Cypriots, Greek Cypriots in the North decided to move South.
  • Greek View: Greek and Turkish Cypriots, who for 400 years had lived together intermingled throughout the island, were now artificially separated. Turkish View: As Turkish Cypriots were harrased and forced into enclaves amounting to only 3% of Cyprus between 1963 - 1974, the partition enabled the Turkish Cypriots to have far more freedom of movement.
  • Combined View: The ascertainment of the fate of the missing persons is still pending.
  • Greek View: By the end of 1974 about 12,000 people were enclaved in their occupied villages living under conditions of oppression, harassment and deprivation. Now very few remain. Turkish View: Greek Cypriots who remained in the North were welcome to remain, but the population exchange agreements in 1975 'persuaded' the Greek Cypriots to move south - at the 'request' of the Greek Cypriot Administration.
  • Greek View: 35,000 Turkish soldiers, armed with the latest weapons, are stationed in the occupied area, making it, according to the UN Secretary-General, "one of the most militarized regions of the world" (S994/680/7.6.1994.par.28). Turkish View: The Turkish Armed Forces in the North are there as a protective power, ensuring that a return to Greek and Greek Cypriot armed terrorism does not recur.
  • Greek View: Over 115,000 Turks have been brought over from Turkey to colonize the occupied area thus changing the demography of the island and controlling the political situation. Turkish View: Immigration is encouraged to offset the numerial superiority of the Greek Cypriots.
  • Greek View: The "Green line" artificially divides the island and prevents Greek Cypriots from claiming their property in the north. Turkish View: The "Green line" artificially divides the island and prevents Turkish Cypriots from claiming their property in the south.
  • Greek View: In an effort to consolidate the de facto situation, the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus was unilaterally declared in 1983 in the occupied area, a pseudostate recognized only by Turkey and entirely dependent on it. Turkish View: As the partnership 1960 Republic of Cyprus ceased to exist from December 1963 on, and that Turkish Cypriots would never enjoy equal rights, the TRNC was founded as a statement of an inalienable right to self-determination.
  • Greek View: According to Turkish Cypriot newspapers, over one third of Turkish Cypriots emigrated from the occupied area between 1974-1995 because of the economic and social deprivation which prevails there. As a result the Turkish Cypriots who remain are today outnumbered by the Turkish troops together with the settlers from Turkey.[citation needed] Turkish View: The embargo imposed by the Greek Cyriots has had the effect of forcing Turkish Cypriots to emigrate in order to seek a better life.
  • Greek View: The illegal regime in the occupied area is deliberately and methodically trying to eradicate every trace of the Greek cultural and historical heritage[citation needed]. All Greek place names have been replaced by Turkish ones. Churches, monuments, cemeteries and archaeological sites have been destroyed[citation needed], desecrated[citation needed] or looted[citation needed]. Priceless religious and archaeological treasures, part of the world's cultural heritage, are being stolen[citation needed] and smuggled abroad[citation needed], and illegal excavations[citation needed] and dealings in antiquities are taking place. [citation needed] Turkish View: Greek Cypriots have tried to eradicate all vestiages of Turkish culture in Cyprus since 1963.

Political status de facto: Independent de jure: Recognized only by Turkey Official language Turkish Capital LefkoÅŸa (Nicosia) , Founder Rauf DenktaÅŸ President Mehmet Ali Talat Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer House Speaker Fatma EkenoÄŸlu Area  - Total  - % water 3,355 km² 2. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Operation Atilla - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (802 words)
Atilla was the code name given to the Turkish military invasion of the island of Cyprus in July 1974, in response to a Greek-inspired coup d'état which sought to unite the island with Greece.
It is because of this that the invasion is known by the Turks as the '1974 Cyprus Peace Operation (tr: Kıbrıs Barış Harekâtı)'.
On 20 July 1974, the initial invasion (Atilla I) captured the port city of Kyrenia, and by the 22 July a road access to the Cypriot capital city of Nicosia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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