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Encyclopedia > Operation Allied Force
An USAF F-15E takes off from Aviano, Italy
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An USAF F-15E takes off from Aviano, Italy

Operation Allied Force aka Kosovo-NATO War was NATO's military operation against Federal Republic of Yugoslavia that lasted from 24 March to 11 June 1999 and is considered a major part of Kosovo War. It was only the second major combat operation in NATO's history, following the September 1995 Operation Deliberate Force in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Image File history File links Aviano_f-15. ... Image File history File links Aviano_f-15. ... See F-15 Eagle for main F-15 page. ... Aviano, 46°04′ N 12°35′ E, is a town and comune of Pordenone province at the foot of the Dolomites mountain range in northern Italy. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation[1] (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ... Official language Serbian written in Cyrillic alphabet1 Capital Belgrade2 President3 Svetozar Marović Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 105th 102,350 km² 0. ... March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (84th in Leap years). ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (163rd in leap years), with 203 days remaining. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Operation Deliberate Force” was a sustained air campaign conducted by NATO to undermine the military capability of Bosnian Serb who threatened or attacked UN designated safe areas in Bosnia. ...

Yugoslav wars
SloveniaCroatiaBosnia (NATO bombing) – Kosovo (NATO bombing) – Macedonia

Contents

The Yugoslav wars were a series of violent conflicts in the territory of the former Yugoslavia that took place between 1991 and 2001. ... Combatants Army of the Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Predominantly Bosniak) Army of Republika Srpska, Yugoslav Peoples Army, various paramilitary units from Serbia and Montenegro (Serbian) Croatian Defence Council, Croatian Army (Croatian) Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim... “Operation Deliberate Force” was a sustained air campaign conducted by NATO to undermine the military capability of Bosnian Serb who threatened or attacked UN designated safe areas in Bosnia. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ...


Goals

NATO's proclaimed goal was to protect the Kosovo Albanian people from what it regarded as aggression by the military of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Serbian paramilitary police forces and irregular militias allied to the Serbian government. The Yugoslav Government claimed that it was protecting the minority Serbian population of Kosovo against attacks by what it had classified as a Terrorist Organisation: the Kosovo Liberation Army. The United States in 2001 classified the KLA/NLA as a terrorist organization.[1] Official language Serbian written in Cyrillic alphabet1 Capital Belgrade2 President3 Svetozar Marović Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 105th 102,350 km² 0. ... Motto: none Anthem: Bože Pravde Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Official language(s) Serbian1 Government Republic  - President Boris Tadić  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Formation and independence    - Formation of Serbia 814   - Formation of the Serbian Empire 1345   - Independence from the Ottoman Empire July 13, 1878   - Serbia and Montenegro union... Ushtria Çlirimtare e Kosovës. ...


Strategy

Ostruznica highway bridge hit during Operation Allied Force
Ostruznica highway bridge hit during Operation Allied Force

Operation Allied Force relied almost exclusively on the use of a large-scale air campaign to destroy Yugoslav targets from high altitudes. Ground units were not used, although their use was threatened near the end of the conflict. This approach was adopted to minimise the risk to the NATO forces and attracted considerable public criticism due to its relative ineffectiveness against mobile ground targets such as tanks and troop formations. Strategic targets such as bridges and factories were also bombed, particularly in the later stages of the conflict. Long-range cruise missiles were used to hit a number of heavily defended targets such as strategic installations in Belgrade and Pristina. Civilian installations such as power plants,water processing plants and the state-owned broadcaster were also intentionally targeted. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1164x922, 293 KB) Ostruznica highway bridge hit during Operation Allied Force. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1164x922, 293 KB) Ostruznica highway bridge hit during Operation Allied Force. ... A Tomahawk cruise missile A cruise missile is a guided missile which uses a lifting wing and most often a jet propulsion system to allow sustained flight. ... Belgrade (Serbian: Београд/Beograd ) is the capital and largest city of Republic of Serbia. ... Prishtinë/Prishtina (Albanian indefinite/definite form) or Priština (Приштина) (Serbian) is the capital city of Kosovo, a landlocked province of Serbia located at 42°65′ N 21°17′ E. It is estimated that the current population of Prishtina is as high as 500,000. ...


At the start of May, a NATO aircraft attacked an Albanian refugee convoy, believing it was a Serbian military convoy, killing more than 50 people. NATO admitted its mistake 5 days later, but the Serbs accused NATO of deliberately attacking the refugees. On May 7, NATO bombs hit the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade, killing three Chinese journalists and outraging Chinese public opinion. NATO claimed they were firing at Yugoslav positions. The United States and NATO later apologized for the bombing, saying that it occurred because of an outdated map provided by the CIA. This was challenged by a joint report from The Observer (UK) and Politiken (Denmark) newspapers which claimed that NATO intentionally bombed the embassy because it was being used as a relay station for Yugoslav army radio signals. The bombing strained relations between China and NATO countries and provoked angry demonstrations outside Western embassies in Beijing. According to one news source, unnamed high ranking NATO sources confirmed in 2005 that the attack was in fact deliberate: "The NATO sources told Defense & Foreign Affairs that the attack was based on intelligence that then Serbian leader Slobodan Milosevic was to have been in the Embassy at the time of the attack. The attack, then, was deliberately planned as a "decapitation" attack, intended to kill Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic."
Conspiracy theories abound over whether this may have been intentional too. There are indications that the Chinese Embassy housed a radar which was used to spot American planes and so subsequently became a military target. Look up May in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Politiken is a Danish daily broadsheet newspaper, published by JP/Politikens Hus, one of Denmarks leading media companies. ... Slobodan Milošević. ...


Forces employed by NATO

Aviation

The main element of the operation was the air forces of NATO, principally drawn from the United States Air Force and the RAF. The British Royal Air Force operated the Harrier GR7 and Tornado fighter jets as-well as an array of support aircraft. The Canadian Airforce deployed CF-18s which were responsible for 10% of all bombs dropped. The fighters were armed with guided missiles, including the Paveway series, and were also armed with unguided 'dumb' bombs. The war saw the first time that the German Luftwaffe actively participated in combat operations since the end of the Second World War and the American B-2 Spirit stealth bomber also saw its first combat. Spanish F-18 fighter jets were also used in the bombings. The United States Air Force (or USAF) is the aerospace branch of the United States armed forces and one of the seven uniformed services. ... RAF is an three letter acronym for: Royal Air Force -- the Air Force of the United Kingdom (see also Air Ministry) Red Army Faction (Rote Armee Fraktion) -- a German terror organisation Rigas Autobusu Fabrika -- a factory making buses in Riga, Latvia Rapid Action Force in India Računarski Fakultet RAF... RAF Harrier GR7 The Harrier GR5, GR7, GR7A, GR9 and GR9A are all Royal Air Force variants of the BAE Systems/Boeing Harrier II. The Aircraft was solely designed and built by British Aerospace, though the US eventually purchased them, as well (In US service, they go by the designation... 12 Sqn Tornado GR1 The RAF Tornado GR1 was the first generation version of the Panavia Tornado strike aircraft of the Royal Air Force. ... A Paveway III seeker head, at the RAF Museum in Hendon, London. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or (German: air force, literally Air Arm or Air Weapon, IPA: [luftvafə]) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The B-2 Spirit, made by Northrop Grumman, is an American multi-role stealth bomber able to drop conventional and nuclear weapons. ...


Naval

NATO naval forces operated in the Adriatic.The British Royal Navy sent a substantial task force including the aicraft carrier HMS Invincible, operating Sea Harrier FA2 fighter jets. The RN also deployed a number of destroyers and frigates and the Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) provided support vessels, including the aviation training/primary casualty receiving ship RFA Argus. It was the first time that the RN used cruise missiles in combat, operated from the nuclear fleet submarine HMS Splendid. The Adriatic Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea separating the Apennine peninsula (Italy) from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges. ... The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the senior service of the British armed services, being the oldest of its three branches. ... The sixth and current HMS Invincible (R05) is a light aircraft carrier, the lead ship of three in her class. ... Sea Harrier FA2 The BAe Sea Harrier is a naval VTOL/STOVL jet fighter/attack aircraft, a development of the Hawker Siddeley Harrier. ... USS Lassen, an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer In naval terminology, a destroyer (French: contre-torpilleur, German: Zerstörer, Spanish: destructor, Italian: cacciatorpediniere) is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet or battle group and defend them against smaller, short-range attackers... Frigate is a name which has been used for several distinct types of warships at different times. ... The Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) is the service that keeps the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom running around the world. ... RFA Argus (A135) is an aviation training ship with a secondary role of primary casualty receiving ship in the Royal Fleet Auxiliary. ... A Tomahawk cruise missile A cruise missile is a guided missile which uses a lifting wing and most often a jet propulsion system to allow sustained flight. ... The HMS Splendid (S106) was a nuclear powered submarine of the Swiftsure class. ...


The United States Navy provided a substantial naval task force that included the aircraft carrier USS Theodore Roosevelt and the amphibious assault ship USS Kearsarge. The French Navy provided the aircraft carrier FS Foch and a number of escorts. The United States Navy (USN) is the branch of the United States armed forces responsible for conducting naval operations. ... USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) is the fourth Nimitz-class supercarrier. ... USS Kearsarge (LHD-3), the third Wasp-class amphibious assault ship, was the fifth ship of the United States Navy to be named (the fourth actually commissioned) in honor of the sloop Kearsarge, of American Civil War fame. ... The French Navy (Marine Nationale) is the maritime arm of the French military and the largest Western European navy in terms of personnel. ... The Foch (R 99) was the sister-ship of the Clémenceau. ...


Army

US ground forces included a battalion from the 82nd Airborne Division, 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment. The unit was deployed in March 1999 to Albania in support of the bombing campaign where the Battalion secured the Tirana, Albania airfield; secured Apache attack helicopter refueling sites; established a forward operating base to prepare for MLRS (Multiple Launch Rocket System) strikes and offensive ground operations; and a small team deployed forward with a Q-36 radar system to the Albania/Kosovo border where they acquisitioned targets for allied/NATO air strikes. Immediately after the bombing campaign the battalion was refitted back at Tirana airfield and issued orders to move into Kosovo as the Initial Entry Force in support of Operation Joint Guardian. The 82nd Airborne Division of the United States Army was formed originally as the 82nd Infantry Division on August 25, 1917, at Camp Gordon, Georgia. ... Kosovo (Albanian: Kosovë/Kosova, Serbian: Косово и Метохија/Kosovo i Metohija) is one of two autonomous provinces in Serbia (the other being Vojvodina, in northern Serbia). ...


Military effects

Military casualties on the NATO side were remarkably light; according to official reports the alliance suffered no fatalities as a result of combat operations. However, on May 5th, an American military AH-64 Apache helicopter crashed during a nighttime mission outside Tirana. The Yugoslavs claimed it was shot down since it exploded in the air but NATO claimed it crashed due to a technical malfunction. The chopper crashed on Albanian/Kosovo border. The two american pilots of the helicopter Army Chief Warrant Officers David Gibbs and Kevin Reichert died in that crash. There were other casualties after the war, mostly due to landmines. After the war, the alliance reported the loss of three helicopters, 32 unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) and five aircraft — all of them American, including the first stealth plane (a F-117 Fighter Bomber) shot down by enemy fire. The Yugoslav armed forces claimed to have shot down seven helicopters, 30 UAVs, 61 planes and 238 cruise missiles. However, these figures were not verified independently. NATO never confirmed or denied their casualties. As far as the civilian casualties go, estimates range between 2500-5000 people. That includes Serbian & Albanian civilians killed by NATO bombs. The AH-64 Apache is the United States Armys principal attack helicopter, the successor to the AH-1 Cobra. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A warrant officer (WO) or a chief warrant officer (CWO) is a member of a military organization, with a rank subordinate to other commissioned officers and senior to noncommissioned officers. ... Unmanned Aerial Vehicle over Iraq. ... The Lockheed F-117A Nighthawk is the worlds first operational aircraft completely designed around stealth technology. ...


Outcome

This war could have been avoided if NATO only agreed not to have a referendum on the future of Kosovo in 3 years. Since 95% of Kosovo population is albanian, the outcome was evident. Milosevic and Yugoslavian people rejected NATO's rediculous demands and the war broke out. The war began on 24 March and lasted until 11 June. When NATO agreed Kosovo will be supervised politically by United Nations and a strong diplomatic initiative from Russia, the Yugoslav government agreed to withdraw its forces from Kosovo and the bombing was suspended on 10 June. The war was declared over on June 11. On 11 June Russian paratroopers seized Slatina airport to become a first peacekeeper force in war zone.[2] The Russian arrival has thrown the delicate timetable for occupying Kosovo into chaos. March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (84th in Leap years). ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (163rd in leap years), with 203 days remaining. ... June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... June 11 is the 162nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (163rd in leap years), with 203 days remaining. ...


As British troops were still massed on the Macedonian border, planning to enter Kosovo at 5am that day, the Serbs were hailing the Russian arrival as proof that this was a UN and not a NATO operation. On 12 June the US Army's elite 82nd Airborne, 2-505th Parachute Infantry Regiment spearheaded into war-torn Kosovo as part of Operation Joint Guardian. June 12 is the 163rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (164th in leap years), with 202 days remaining. ... The 82nd Airborne Division of the United States Army was formed originally as the 82nd Infantry Division on August 25, 1917, at Camp Gordon, Georgia. ... Operation Joint Guardian was an military operation that occured inside the region of Kosovo, located inside the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ...


Operation Allied Force inflicted less damage on the Yugoslav military than originally thought, due to the use of ingenious camouflage and misdirection techniques to disguise military targets. While NATO believed it had destroyed about 200 Serbian tanks during the conflict, only 12 were subsequently confirmed destroyed. It was only in the later stages of the campaign that strategic targets such as bridges and buildings were attacked in any systematic way, causing significant disruption and economic damage. This stage of the campaign led to a number of controversial incidents, such as the bombing of the People's Republic of China embassy in Belgrade where three Chinese reporters were killed and twenty others injured, NATO claimed they used old maps of Belgrade. Then there was an attack on Serbia's principal TV stations and the bombing of chemical factories which resulted in major pollution incidents and loss of jobs.


Yugoslav President Slobodan Milošević survived the conflict and declared its outcome a major victory for Yugoslavia and Serbia. He was, however, indicted for war crimes by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia along with a number of other senior Serbian and Yugoslav political and military figures. This led to Yugoslavia as a whole being treated as a pariah by much of the international community, as he was subject to arrest if he left Yugoslavia. The country's economy was badly affected by the conflict and a year later, popular disillusionment with the Milošević regime led to his overthrow in October 2000. Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević Slobodan Sloba MiloÅ¡ević (IPA Serbian Cyrillic: Слободан Милошевић) (20 August 1941 – 11 March 2006) was President of Serbia and of Yugoslavia. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, more commonly referred to as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), is a body of the United Nations (UN) established to...


The campaign failed in its proclaimed objective, in that thousands were killed during the conflict and hundreds of thousands more fled from the province to other parts of the country and to the surrounding countries. Most of the Albanian refugees returned home within a few weeks or months. However, most of the non-Albanian population again fled to other parts of Serbia or to protected enclaves within Kosovo. Albanian guerilla activity spread into other parts of Serbia and to neighbouring Macedonia, but subsided in 2001. The non-Albanian population has since diminished further following fresh outbreaks of intercommunal conflict and harassment, and veterans of the officially disbanded KLA are threatening with renewed violence if their demand for secession is not fulfilled. The KLA insignia The Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA or UÇK; Albanian: Ushtria Çlirimtare e Kosovës) was a group of Albanian militants which operated in Kosovo during the late 1990s. ...


In December 2002 HM Queen Elizabeth II approved the awarding of the Battle Honour "Kosovo" to squadrons of the RAF that participated in the conflict. These were: Nos 1, 7, 8, 9, 14, 23, 31, 51, 101, and 216 squadrons. Squadrons that are boldened are authorised to have the battle honour emblazoned on their Colours. For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor) (born 21 April 1926) is the Queen of 16 independent sovereign states known as the Commonwealth Realms. ... A battle honour is an official acknowledgement to recognize a military units achievements in specific wars or operations. ... Once upon a time, there was a place called Mount Olympus, which was far up in the sky on a mountain. ... No. ... No. ... No. ... No. ... No. ... No. ... No. ... No. ... No. ... A colour is a name for certain kinds of flags. ...


Present Situation

A NATO-led peacekeeping force, KFOR, under U.N. wing continues to maintain a precarious peace in Kosovo. Although another large-scale conflict between Serbian and Albanian Kosovans looks unlikely in the near future, the region continues to suffer the effects of poverty, widespread organized crime and ethnic tensions. Unfortunately ethnic hate was not defeated and it remains strong in Kosovo. Pocket badge of the KFOR Ukrainian soldier on foot patrolling in Serbian village near Brezovica KFOR vehicle of the French Army The Kosovo Force (KFOR) is a NATO-led international force responsible for establishing and maintaining security in Kosovo. ...


See also

The Headquarters Allied Command Europe Rapid Reaction Corps, (HQ ARRC or ARRC) was created in 1992 in Bielefeld based on the former British I Corps (or I (BR) Corps ). It was originally created as the rapid reaction corps sized land force of the Reaction Forces Concept that emerged after the... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... The NATO bombing of Yugoslavia took place during the Kosovo War. ...

External links

  • Nato declares the end to war
  • US Air Strike on China's Embassy in Belgrade in 1999 was Deliberate Defense & Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy, December 29, 2005
  • NATO Kosovo War Casualties
  • Over 10 british soldiers die in Kosovo
  • Chinese Embassy Bombing was Deliberate
  • Russia wins race to Pristina
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Category:Kosovo War

  Results from FactBites:
 
Operation Allied Force - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1726 words)
Operation Allied Force aka Kosovo-NATO War was NATO's military operation against Federal Republic of Yugoslavia that lasted from 24 March to 11 June 1999 and is considered a major part of Kosovo War.
The main element of the operation was the air forces of NATO, principally drawn from the United States Air Force and the RAF.
Operation Allied Force inflicted less damage on the Yugoslav military than originally thought, due to the use of ingenious camouflage and misdirection techniques to disguise military targets.
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Operation Allied Force (3756 words)
Operation Allied Force was NATO's military operation against Yugoslavia that lasted from 24 March to 10 June 1999 and is considered a part of Kosovo War.
Operation plan OPLAN 10601 "Allied Force" covered altogether five phases, which went from the transfer over a possible application outside of and within the air space of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia up to redeployment.
The fundamental factor in the conclusion of ALLIED FORCE was NATO's unity and resolve.
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