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Encyclopedia > Operation Ajax
Soldiers surround the Parliament building in Tehran on August 19, 1953.
Soldiers surround the Parliament building in Tehran on August 19, 1953.

Operation Ajax (1953) (officially TP-AJAX) was a covert operation by the United Kingdom and the United States to remove the democratically elected nationalist[1] cabinet of Iranian Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh from power, to support the Pahlavi dynasty and consolidate the power of Mohammed Reza Pahlavi. Photo is from CHN Archives of Irans Cultural Heritage Organization. ... Photo is from CHN Archives of Irans Cultural Heritage Organization. ... For other uses, see Tehran (disambiguation). ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Covert operations are military or political The tac. ... Dr. Mohammad Mossadegh Mohammed Mossadegh ( )(Persian: ‎ ​, also Mosaddegh or Mosaddeq) (19 May 1882 - 5 March 1967) was the democratically elected[1] prime minister of Iran from 1951 to 1953. ... The Pahlavi dynasty(سلسله پهلوی) of Iran began with the crowning of Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925 and ended with the Iranian Revolution of 1979, and the subsequent collapse of the ancient tradition of Iranian monarchy. ... His Majesty Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi (اعلیحضرت محمدرضا شاه پهلوی; October 26, 1919 – July 27, 1980) also knows as Aryamehr, was the last Shah of Iran, ruling from 1941 until...

Contents

Origins

The idea of overthrowing Mossadegh was conceived by the British. They originally asked President Truman for assistance, but he refused. When Eisenhower became president in 1953, the British proposed the idea once again, and this time, the Americans agreed to help. The CIA was actively involved in promoting US interests abroad by overthrowing regimes that were deemed unfriendly. ... For the victim of Mt. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ...


Rationale for the intervention included Mossadegh’s socialist political views and his nationalization, without compensation, of the oil industry which was previously operated by the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (which later changed its name to The British Petroleum Company) under contracts disputed by the nationalists as unfair. Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) was founded in 1909, as the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, following the discovery of a large oil field in Masjed Soleiman, Iran. ... BP (formerly British Petroleum and briefly known as BP Amoco) (NYSE: BP) is a petroleum company headquartered in London, and one of the top four oil companies in the world (along with Shell, ExxonMobil, and Total). ...


Disputed oil contracts

A particular point of contention was the refusal of the Anglo-Iranian Oil company to allow an audit of the accounts to determine whether the Iranian government received the royalties it was due. Intransigence on the part of the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company led the nationalist government to escalate its demands, requiring an equal share in the oil revenues. The final crisis was precipitated when the oil company ceased operations in Iran rather than accepting the Iranian government's demands.


The newly state-owned oil companies saw a dramatic drop in productivity and, consequently, exports; this resulted in the Abadan Crisis, a situation that was further aggravated by its export markets being closed. Even so royalties to the Iranian government were significantly higher than before nationalization. Without its own distribution network it was denied access to markets by an international blockade intended to coerce Mossadegh into reprivatization. The Abadan Crisis occurred from 1951 to 1954, after Iran nationalized the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, and expelled Western companies from oil refineries in the city of Abadan. ...


Cold war

For the U.S., an important factor to consider was Iran’s border with the Soviet Union. A pro-American Iran under the Shah would give the U.S. a double strategic advantage in the ensuing Cold War, as a NATO alliance was already in effect with the government of Turkey, also bordering the USSR. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation[1] (NATO), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, the Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for collective security established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on 4 April 1949. ...


In addition, the appropriation of the companies resulted in Western allegations that Mossadegh was a Communist and suspicions that Iran was in danger of falling under the influences of the neighboring Soviet Union. But Mossadegh refused to back down under international pressure. This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


Planning

In planning the operation, the CIA organized a guerrilla force in case the communist Tudeh Party seized power as a result of the chaos created by Operation Ajax. According to formerly “Top Secret” documents released by the National Security Archive, Undersecretary of State Walter Bedell Smith reported that the CIA had reached an agreement with Qashqai tribal leaders in southern Iran to establish a clandestine safe haven from which U.S.-funded guerrillas and intelligence agents could operate. The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... The Tudeh Party of Iran (f. ... The National Security Archive is an independent organization located within the George Washington University. ... Walter Bedell Smith as U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union. ... Qashqai (also spelled Ghashghai, Qashqay, Kashgai and Qashqai) are a Turkic-speaking tribal confederation of clans in Iran. ...


The leader of Operation Ajax was Kermit Roosevelt, Jr., a senior CIA agent, and grandson of the former U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt. While formal leadership was vested in Kermit Roosevelt, the project was designed and executed by Donald Wilber, a career contract CIA agent and acclaimed author of books on Iran, Afghanistan and Ceylon. Kermit Roosevelt Kermit Kim Roosevelt, Jr. ... The presidential seal was used by President Hayes in 1880 and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. ... Donald Newton Wilber, American writer and spy. ...


Outcome

As a condition of restoring the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, the U.S. was able to dictate that the AIOC’s oil monopoly should lapse. Five major U.S. oil companies, plus Royal Dutch Shell and French Compagnie Française des Pétroles were given licences to operate in the country alongside AIOC. The Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC) was founded in 1909, as the Anglo-Persian Oil Company, following the discovery of a large oil field in Masjed Soleiman, Iran. ... Royal Dutch Shell PLC is a multinational oil company of Anglo Dutch origins, which is amongst the largest energy corporations in the world, and one of the six supermajors (vertically integrated private-sector oil exploration, natural gas, and petroleum product marketing companies). ... Total SA (Euronext: FP, NYSE: TOT) is a French oil company headquartered in Paris, France, and one of the top four oil companies in the world (along with Royal Dutch Shell, BP, and ExxonMobil). ...


Operation Ajax was the first time the Central Intelligence Agency was involved in a plot to overthrow a democratically-elected government. The success of this operation, and its relatively low cost, encouraged the CIA to successfully carry out a similar operation in Guatemala a year later. Former president Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán on the cover of TIME magazine in June 1954 after his overthrow Operation PBSUCCESS was a CIA-organized covert operation that overthrew the democratically-elected President of Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. ...


Repercussions

Widespread dissatisfaction with the regime of the reinstalled Shah led to the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran and the occupation of the U.S. embassy. The role that the U.S. embassy had played in the 1953 coup led the revolutionary guards to suspect that it might be used to play a similar role in suppressing the revolution. For the Smashing Pumpkins song, see 1979 (song). ... Protestors take to the street in support of Ayatollah Khomeini. ... The Iran hostage crisis was a hostage crisis that took place from November 4, 1979 until January 20, 1981, a 444-day period. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ A Very British Coup (English) (radio show). Document. British Broadcasting Corporation (2005). Retrieved on 2006-06-14.

2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 14 is the 165th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (166th in leap years), with 200 days remaining. ...

References

Stephen Kinzer is an American author and newspaper reporter. ... All the Shahs Men : An American Coup and the Roots of Middle East Terror (ISBN 0471678783 ) is a book, written by journalist Stephen Kinzer, about the 1953 CIA-engineered coup in which Mohammed Mossadegh was overthrown by American and British agents (chief among them Kermit Roosevelt) and royalists loyal... John Wiley & Sons, Inc. ... Ryszard KapuÅ›ciÅ„ski Ryszard KapuÅ›ciÅ„ski   (born March 4, 1932 in PiÅ„sk) is a popular Polish journalist, both at home and abroad. ... Shah of Shahs, published in 1982, is Polish journalist Ryszard KapuÅ›ciÅ„skis analysis of the decline and fall of of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran. ... Vintage Books was founded in 1954 by Alfred A. Knopf as a trade paperback home for its authors. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Operation Ajax - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (929 words)
Operation Ajax (1953) (officially TP-AJAX) was an covert operation by the United States CIA in collaboration with the Pahlavi dynasty, to overthrow the elected government ([1][2][3][4]) of Iran and Prime Minister Mohammed Mossadegh and consolidate the power of Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi.
In planning the operation, the CIA organized a guerrilla force in case the communist Tudeh Party seized power as a result of the chaos created by Operation Ajax.
Widespread dissatisfaction with the oppressive regime of the reinstalled Shah led to the 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran and the occupation of the U.S. embassy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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