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Encyclopedia > Opera
The Teatro alla Scala in Milan, Italy. Founded in 1778, La Scala is one of the world's most famous opera houses.
The Teatro alla Scala in Milan, Italy. Founded in 1778, La Scala is one of the world's most famous opera houses.

Opera is a form of musical and dramatic work in which singers convey the drama.[1] Opera is part of the Western classical music tradition.[2] An opera performance incorporates many of the elements of spoken theatre, such as acting, scenery and costumes and sometimes incorporates dance. The performance is usually given in an opera house, accompanied by an orchestra or smaller musical ensemble. Opera may refer to: In music: Opera, performance art which combines music and drama Chinese opera, a popular form of music drama in China Beijing opera, kind of Chinese opera which arose in the mid-19th century and was extremely popular in the Qing Dynasty court Opera, an opera by... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x742, 239 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: La Scala Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x742, 239 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: La Scala Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... La Scala The Teatro alla Scala (or La Scala for short), in Milan, Italy, is one of the worlds most famous opera houses. ... Type Anti-tank Nationality Joint France/Germany Era Cold War, modern Launch platform Individual, Vehicle Target Vehicle, Fortification History Builder MBDA, Bharat Dynamics (under license) Date of design 70s Production period since 1972 Service duration since 1972 Operators 41 countries Variants MILAN 1, MILAN 2, MILAN 2T, MILAN 3, MILAN... New York State Theater, Lincoln Center, home of the New York City Opera Bolshoi Theatre. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... In music a singer or vocalist is a type of musician who sings, i. ... For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ... This article is about Western art music from 1000 AD to the 2000s . ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... Acting is the work of an actor or actress, which is a person in theatre, television, film, or any other storytelling medium who tells the story by portraying a character and, usually, speaking or singing the written text or play. ... Theatrical scenery is things that are used as setting for a theatrical production. ... Yarkand ladies summer fashions. ... For other uses, see Dance (disambiguation). ... New York State Theater, Lincoln Center, home of the New York City Opera Bolshoi Theatre. ... For the song titled Orchestra, see The Servant (band). ... A musical ensemble is a group of two or more musicians who perform instrumental or vocal music. ...


Dafne (1597) by Jacopo Peri is commonly regarded as the first opera, but the first great composer of the new art form was Claudio Monteverdi (1567–1643), whose works are still performed today. Opera soon spread from Venice and Rome throughout Italy and the rest of Europe: Schütz in Germany, Lully in France, and Purcell in England all helped to establish their national traditions in the 17th century. However, in the 18th century, Italian opera continued to dominate most of Europe, except France, attracting foreign composers such as Handel. Opera seria was the most prestigious form of Italian opera, until Gluck reacted against its artificiality with his "reform" operas in the 1760s. The most influential figure of late 18th century opera was Mozart, who began with opera seria but is most famous for his Italian comic operas, especially The Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni, and Cosi Fan Tutte and The Magic Flute, a landmark in the German tradition. Dafne is the earliest known work that, by modern standards, could be considered an opera. ... Jacopo Peri Jacopo Peri (August 20, 1561 – August 12, 1633) was an Italian composer and singer of the transitional period between the Renaissance and Baroque styles, and is often called the inventor of opera. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Heinrich Schütz. ... Jean-Baptiste de Lully, originally Giovanni Battista di Lulli (November 28, 1632 – March 22, 1687), was an Italian-born French composer, who spent most of his life working in the court of Louis XIV of France. ... Henry Purcell Henry Purcell (IPA: ;[1] September 10 (?),[2], 1659–November 21, 1695), was an English Baroque composer. ... HANDEL was the code-name for the UKs National Attack Warning System in the Cold War. ... A caricature of a performance of Handels Flavio, featuring three of the most well-known opera seria singers of their day: Senesino on the left, diva Francesca Cuzzoni in the centre, and art-loving castrato Gaetano Berenstadt on the right. ... Christoph Willibald Gluck (July 2, 1714 – November 15, 1787) was a German composer. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was one of the most significant and influential of all composers of Western classical music. ... Comic opera, or light opera, denotes a sung dramatic work of a light or comic nature, usually with a happy ending. ... Le nozze di Figaro ossia la folle giornata (Trans: ), K. 492, is an opera buffa (comic opera) composed in 1786 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, with libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte, based on a stage comedy by Pierre Beaumarchais, Le mariage de Figaro (1784). ... Don Giovanni (K.527; complete title: Il dissoluto punito, ossia il Don Giovanni, literally The Rake Punishd, or Don Giovanni) is an opera in two acts with music by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte. ... Così fan tutte is an opera by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. ... Die Zauberflöte, K. 620, (en: The Magic Flute) is an opera in two acts composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to a German libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder. ...


The first third of the 19th century saw the highpoint of the bel canto style, with Rossini, Donizetti and Bellini all creating works that are still performed today. The mid to late 19th century is considered a golden age of opera, led by Wagner in Germany and Verdi in Italy. The golden age continued through the verismo era in Italy and contemporary French opera through to Puccini and Strauss in the early 20th century. At the same time, new operatic traditions emerged in Central and Eastern Europe, particularly in Russia and Bohemia. The 20th century saw many experiments with modern styles, such as atonality and serialism (Schoenberg and Berg), Neo-Classicism (Stravinsky), and Minimalism (Philip Glass and John Adams). With the rise of recording technology, singers such as Enrico Caruso became known to audiences beyond the circle of opera fans. The term Bel Canto may refer to: Belcanto, a vocal technique; or Bel Canto, a novel by Ann Patchett. ... Gioachino Rossini. ... Gaetano Donizetti Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti (29 November 1797 – 8 April 1848) was a famous Italian opera composer. ... Vincenzo Bellini Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini (November 3, 1801 – September 23, 1835) was an Italian opera composer. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... VERDI is an acronym for the Italian unification movement, named after the composer Giuseppe Verdi (ardent supporter of the movement) VERDI stands for Vittorio Emmanuelle, Re D Italia (Victor Emmanuel, King of Italy) Categories: Historical stubs ... Verismo was an Italian literary movement born approximately between 1875 and 1895. ... In rivalry with imported Italian opera productions, a separate French tradition, sung in the French, was founded by Italian Jean-Baptiste Lully. ... Giacomo Puccini Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (December 22, 1858 – November 29, 1924) is regarded as one of the great operatic composers of the late 19th and early 20th century. ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Atonality describes music not conforming to the system of tonal hierarchies, which characterizes the sound of classical European music between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 Arnold Schoenberg (the anglicized form of Schönberg — Schoenberg changed the spelling officially when he left Germany and re-converted to Judaism in 1933; September 13, 1874 – July 13, 1951) was an Austrian and later American composer. ... Gunnar Berg (1909–1989) was a Swiss-born Danish composer, and perhaps the leading exponent of serialism in Denmark. ... Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture. ... Igor Fyodorovitch Stravinsky () (June 17, 1882 – April 6, 1971) was a composer of modern classical music. ... For other uses, see Minimalism (disambiguation). ... Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is a three-times Academy Award-nominated American composer. ... For the Alaska-based postminimalist composer, see John Luther Adams. ... For the song Caruso by Lucio Dalla, see Caruso (song). ...

Contents

History

Origins

Main article: Origins of Opera
Claudio Monteverdi
Claudio Monteverdi

The word opera means "work" in Italian (from Latin opus meaning "work" or "labour") suggesting that it combines the arts of solo and choral singing, declamation, acting and dancing in a staged spectacle. Dafne by Jacopo Peri was the earliest composition considered opera, as understood today. It was written around 1597, largely under the inspiration of an elite circle of literate Florentine humanists who gathered as the "Camerata dé Bardi". Significantly, Dafne was an attempt to revive the classical Greek drama, part of the wider revival of antiquity characteristic of the Renaissance. The members of the Camerata considered that the "chorus" parts of Greek dramas were originally sung, and possibly even the entire text of all roles; opera was thus conceived as a way of "restoring" this situation. Dafne is unfortunately lost. A later work by Peri, Euridice, dating from 1600, is the first opera score to have survived to the present day. The honour of being the first opera still to be regularly performed, however, goes to Claudio Monteverdi's L'Orfeo, composed for the court of Mantua in 1607.[3] The word opera means works in Italian (from the plural of Latin opus meaning work or labour) suggesting that it combines the arts of solo and choral singing, declamation, acting and dancing in a staged spectacle. ... Download high resolution version (514x636, 89 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (514x636, 89 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Dafne is the earliest known work that, by modern standards, could be considered an opera. ... Jacopo Peri Jacopo Peri (August 20, 1561 – August 12, 1633) was an Italian composer and singer of the transitional period between the Renaissance and Baroque styles, and is often called the inventor of opera. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities—particularly rationality. ... Tragedy is one of the oldest forms of drama. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Jacopo Peri, in costume for the performance of the first opera, Dafne. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... LOrfeo (LOrfeo, favola in musica, SV 318, or La Favola dOrfeo, or The Legend of Orpheus) is one of the earliest works recognised as an opera, composed by Claudio Monteverdi with text by Alessandro Striggio for the annual carnival of Mantua. ... For other uses, see Mantua (disambiguation). ...


Italian opera

Main article: Italian Opera

Italian opera can be divided into three periods, the Baroque, the Romantic and the modern. ...

The Baroque era

Opera did not remain confined to court audiences for long; in 1637 the idea of a "season" (Carnival) of publicly-attended operas supported by ticket sales emerged in Venice. Monteverdi had moved to the city from Mantua and composed his last operas, Il ritorno d'Ulisse in patria and L'incoronazione di Poppea, for the Venetian theatre in the 1640s. His most important follower Francesco Cavalli helped spread opera throughout Italy. In these early Baroque operas, broad comedy was blended with tragic elements in a mix that jarred some educated sensibilities, sparking the first of opera's many reform movements, sponsored by Venice's Arcadian Academy which came to be associated with the poet Metastasio, whose libretti helped crystallize the genre of opera seria, which became the leading form of Italian opera until the end of the 18th century. Once the Metastasian ideal had been firmly established, comedy in Baroque-era opera was reserved for what came to be called opera buffa.[4] This article describes the festival season. ... Il ritorno dUlisse in patria (The Return of Ulysses to His Country) is an opera (dramma per musica) in a prologue and three acts by Claudio Monteverdi to an Italian libretto by Giacomo Badoaro, based on the final portion of Homers Odyssey. ... Lincoronazione di Poppea (The Coronation of Poppea) is an opera seria in three acts by Claudio Monteverdi to an Italian libretto by Giovanni Francesco Busenello, based on historical incidents described in the Annals of Tacitus. ... Francesco Cavalli (February 14, 1602 – January 14, 1676), Italian composer, was born at Crema. ... Pietro Trapassi (January 13, 1698 - April 12, 1782), Italian poet, is better known by his pseudonym of Metastasio. ... A caricature of a performance of Handels Flavio, featuring three of the most well-known opera seria singers of their day: Senesino on the left, diva Francesca Cuzzoni in the centre, and art-loving castrato Gaetano Berenstadt on the right. ... Opera buffa (a form of comic opera), also known as Commedia in musica or Commedia per musica, is a genre of opera. ...


Opera seria was elevated in tone and highly stylised in form, usually consisting of secco recitative interspersed with long da capo arias. These afforded great opportunity for virtuosic singing and during the golden age of opera seria the singer really became the star. The role of the hero was usually written for the castrato voice; castrati such as Farinelli and Senesino, as well as female sopranos such as Faustina Bordoni, became in great demand throughout Europe as opera seria ruled the stage in every country except France. Indeed, Farinelli was the most famous singer of the 18th century. Italian opera set the Baroque standard. Italian libretti were the norm, even when a German composer like Handel found himself writing for London audiences. Italian libretti remained dominant in the classical period as well, for example in the operas of Mozart, who wrote in Vienna near the century's close. Leading Italian-born composers of opera seria include Alessandro Scarlatti, Vivaldi and Porpora.[5] A castrato is a male soprano, mezzo-soprano, or alto voice produced either by castration of the singer before puberty or one who, because of an endocrinological condition, never reaches sexual maturity. ... Farinelli, by Wagner after Amigoni 1735 Farinelli (January 24, 1705 – September 16, 1782), was the stage name of Carlo Broschi, one of the most famous Italian soprano castrato singers of the 18th century. ... Senesino (Francesco Bernardi) (1690?-1750?) was a celebrated Italian castrato who worked in London for some time. ... This article is about the voice-type. ... Faustina Bordoni (1693 in Venice, Italy-1783 in Venice) Italian mezzo-soprano opera singer, nicknamed the new siren and commonly known, simply, as Faustina. She was known for the great agility of her voice and sang for many years in Venice, Vienna and London. ... Libretto can also refer to a sub-notebook PC manufactured by Toshiba. ... “Handel” redirects here. ... The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1730 through 1820, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... A caricature of a performance of Handels Flavio, featuring three of the most well-known opera seria singers of their day: Senesino on the left, diva Francesca Cuzzoni in the centre, and art-loving castrato Gaetano Berenstadt on the right. ... Alessandro Scarlatti Alessandro Scarlatti (May 2, 1660 – October 24, 1725) was a Baroque composer especially famous for his operas and chamber cantatas. ... Antonio Vivaldi Antonio Vivaldi (March 4, 1678, Venice – July 28, 1741, Vienna), nicknamed Il Prete Rosso, meaning The Red Priest, was an Italian priest and baroque music composer. ... Nicola (Antonio) Porpora (August 17, 1686 - March 3, 1768) was an Italian composer of Baroque operas (see opera seria) and teacher of singing, whose most famous pupil was the castrato Farinelli. ...


Reform: Gluck, the attack on the Metastasian ideal, and Mozart

Opera seria had its weaknesses and critics, and the taste for embellishment on behalf of the superbly trained singers, and the use of spectacle as a replacement for dramatic purity and unity drew attacks. Francesco Algarotti's Essay on the Opera (1755) proved to be an inspiration for Christoph Willibald Gluck's reforms. He advocated that opera seria had to return to basics and that all the various elements -- music (both instrumental and vocal), ballet, and staging -- must be subservient to the overriding drama. Several composers of the period, including Niccolò Jommelli and Tommaso Traetta, attempted to put these ideals into practice. The first to really succeed and to leave a permanent imprint upon the history of opera, however, was Gluck. Gluck tried to achieve a "beautiful simplicity". This is illustrated in the first of his "reform" operas, Orfeo ed Euridice, where vocal lines lacking in the virtuosity of (say) Handel's works are supported by simple harmonies and a notably richer-than-usual orchestral presence throughout. A caricature of a performance of Handels Flavio, featuring three of the most well-known opera seria singers of their day: Senesino on the left, diva Francesca Cuzzoni in the centre, and art-loving castrato Gaetano Berenstadt on the right. ... Count Francesco Algarotti (11 December 1712 – 3 May 1764) was an Italian philosopher and art critic. ... Gluck redirects here. ... Niccolò Jommelli Niccolò Jommelli (September 10, 1714 – August 25, 1774) was an Italian composer. ... Tommaso Traetta Tommaso Traetta (March 30, 1727–April 6, 1779) was an Italian composer. ... Orfeo ed Euridice is an opera by Christoph Willibald Gluck. ...


Gluck's reforms have had resonance throughout operatic history. Weber, Mozart and Wagner, in particular, were influenced by his ideals. Mozart, in many ways Gluck's successor, combined a superb sense of drama, harmony, melody, and counterpoint to write a series of comedies, notably Così fan tutte, Le Nozze di Figaro, and Don Giovanni (in collaboration with Lorenzo Da Ponte) which remain among the most-loved, popular and well-known operas today. But Mozart's contribution to opera seria was more mixed; by his time it was dying away, and in spite of such fine works as Idomeneo and La Clemenza di Tito, he would not succeed in bringing the art form back to life again.[6] Così fan tutte, ossia La scuola degli amanti (Thus Do They [f. ... Le nozze di Figaro ossia la folle giornata (Trans: ), K. 492, is an opera buffa (comic opera) composed in 1786 by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, with libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte, based on a stage comedy by Pierre Beaumarchais, Le mariage de Figaro (1784). ... Don Giovanni (K.527; complete title: Il dissoluto punito, ossia il Don Giovanni, literally The Rake Punishd, or Don Giovanni) is an opera in two acts with music by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte. ... Lorenzo da Ponte Lorenzo Da Ponte (March 10, 1749–August 17, 1838) was an Italian librettist born in Ceneda (now Vittorio Veneto). ... Idomeneo, re di Creta ossia Ilia e Idamante (Italian: Idomeneo, King of Crete, or, Ilia and Idamante; usually referred to simply as Idomeneo, K. 366) is an Italian opera by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. ... La clemenza di Tito (The Clemency of Titus), K. 621, was an opera seria written by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. ...

Image File history File links Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart - Don Giovanni - Overtüre. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... Don Giovanni (K.527; complete title: Il dissoluto punito, ossia il Don Giovanni, literally The Rake Punishd, or Don Giovanni) is an opera in two acts with music by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte. ... Image File history File links Der_Hoelle_Rache. ... “Mozart” redirects here. ... Die Zauberflöte (en: The Magic Flute) is an opera in two acts composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to a German libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder. ...

Bel canto, Verdi and verismo

Giuseppe Verdi, by Giovanni Boldini, 1886 (National Gallery of Modern Art, Rome)
Giuseppe Verdi, by Giovanni Boldini, 1886 (National Gallery of Modern Art, Rome)

The bel canto opera movement flourished in the early 19th century and is exemplified by the operas of Rossini, Bellini, Donizetti, Pacini, Mercadante and many others. Literally "beautiful singing", bel canto opera derives from the Italian stylistic singing school of the same name. Bel canto lines are typically florid and intricate, requiring supreme agility and pitch control. Portrait of Giuseppe Verdi by Giovanni Boldini (1886) National Gallery of Modern Art in Rome This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Portrait of Giuseppe Verdi by Giovanni Boldini (1886) National Gallery of Modern Art in Rome This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Giovanni Boldini (1910) Giovanni Boldini (December 31, 1842 – July 11, 1931) was an Italian genre and portrait painter, belonging to the Parisian school. ... The term Bel Canto may refer to: Belcanto, a vocal technique; or Bel Canto, a novel by Ann Patchett. ... Portrait Gioacchino Antonio Rossini (February 29, 1792 – November 13, 1868)[1] was an Italian musical composer who wrote more than 30 operas as well as sacred music and chamber music. ... Vincenzo Bellini Vincenzo Salvatore Carmelo Francesco Bellini (November 3, 1801 – September 23, 1835) was an Italian opera composer. ... Gaetano Donizetti Domenico Gaetano Maria Donizetti (29 November 1797 – 8 April 1848) was a famous Italian opera composer. ... Giovanni Pacini . ... Giuseppe Saverio Raffaele Mercadante, Altamura (born near Bari, September 16, 1795 - died in Naples, December 17, 1870), was an Italian composer, particularly of operas. ...


Following the bel canto era, a more direct, forceful style was rapidly popularized by Giuseppe Verdi, beginning with his biblical opera Nabucco. Verdi's operas resonated with the growing spirit of Italian nationalism in the post-Napoleonic era, and he quickly became an icon of the patriotic movement (although his own politics were perhaps not quite so radical). In the early 1850s, Verdi produced his three most popular operas: Rigoletto, Il trovatore and La traviata. But he continued to develop his style, composing perhaps the greatest French Grand opera, Don Carlos, and ending his career with two Shakespeare-inspired works, Otello and Falstaff, which reveal how far Italian opera had grown in sophistication since the early 19th century. “Verdi” redirects here. ... Nabucco is an opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Temistocle Solera, based on the biblical story and the play by Anicet-Bourgeois and Francis Cornu. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Giuseppe Verdi, by Giovanni Boldini, 1886 (National Gallery of Modern Art, Rome) Rigoletto is an opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi. ... Il trovatore (The Troubadour) is an opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Leone Emanuele Bardare and Salvatore Cammarano, based on the play El Trobador by Antonio García Gutiérrez. ... La traviata is an opera in three acts by Giuseppe Verdi set to an Italian libretto by Francesco Maria Piave. ... Grand Opera is a style of opera mainly characterized by many features on a grandiose scale. ... This article refers to the opera Don Carlos by Giuseppe Verdi (and its revised Italian version, known as Don Carlo). ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... For the Rossini opera, see Otello (Rossini) or for the eurobeat artist see Gianni Coraini. ... For other uses, see Falstaff (disambiguation). ...


After Verdi, the sentimental "realistic" melodrama of verismo appeared in Italy. This was a style introduced by Pietro Mascagni's Cavalleria Rusticana and Ruggiero Leoncavallo's Pagliacci that came virtually to dominate the world's opera stages with such popular works as Giacomo Puccini's La Boheme, Tosca, and Madama Butterfly. Later Italian composers, such as Berio and Nono, have experimented with modernism.[7] Verismo is a style of Italian opera distinguished by often sordid or violent depictions of everyday life (especially life of the lower classes), as opposed to historical or mythological subjects. ... Pietro Mascagni (Livorno December 7, 1863 – Rome August 2, 1945) is one of the most important Italian opera composers of the turn of the 20th century. ... Cavalleria rusticana (Rustic Chivalry) is an opera in one act by Pietro Mascagni to a libretto by Targioni-Tozzetti and Menasci, adapted from a short story by Giovanni Verga. ... Ruggiero Leoncavallo (March 8, 1857 - August 9, 1919) was an Italian opera composer. ... Cover of the first edition of Pagliacci published by E. Sonzogno, Milan, 1892 Pagliacci (Clowns) is an opera consisting of a prologue and two acts written and composed by Ruggero Leoncavallo. ... Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (December 22, 1858 – November 29, 1924) was an Italian composer whose operas, including La bohème, Tosca, and Madama Butterfly, are among the most frequently performed in the standard repertoire. ... La Bohème, French for The Bohemian Life, is an opera in four acts by Giacomo Puccini to an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa, based on La Vie de Bohème by Henri Murger. ... For other uses, see Tosca (disambiguation). ... Madama Butterfly (Madame Butterfly) is an opera in three acts (originally two acts) by Giacomo Puccini, with an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa. ... Luciano Berio (October 24, 1925 – May 27, 2003) was an Italian composer. ... Grave of Nono in the San Michele Cemetery, Venice. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ...

La Donna E Mobile Rigoletto. ... For the song Caruso by Lucio Dalla, see Caruso (song). ... La donna è mobile (Woman is fickle) is the cynical Duke of Mantuas canzone from Giuseppe Verdis opera Rigoletto (1851). ... “Verdi” redirects here. ... Giuseppe Verdi, by Giovanni Boldini, 1886 (National Gallery of Modern Art, Rome) Rigoletto is an opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi. ... Image File history File links No_Pagliaccio_non_son. ... Ruggiero Leoncavallo (March 8, 1857 - August 9, 1919) was an Italian opera composer. ... Cover of the first edition of Pagliacci published by E. Sonzogno, Milan, 1892 Pagliacci (Clowns) is an opera consisting of a prologue and two acts written and composed by Ruggero Leoncavallo. ...

German-language opera

Main article: German opera

The first German opera was Dafne, composed by Heinrich Schütz in 1627 (the music has not survived). Italian opera held a great sway over German-speaking countries until the late 18th century. Nevertheless, native forms developed too. In 1644 Sigmund Staden produced the first Singspiel, a popular form of German-language opera in which singing alternates with spoken dialogue. In the late 17th and early 18th centuries, the Theater am Gänsemarkt in Hamburg presented German operas by Keiser, Telemann and Handel. Yet many of the major German composers of the time, including Handel himself, as well as Graun, Hasse and later Gluck, chose to write most of their operas in foreign languages, especially Italian. Mozarts German singspiel The Magic Flute (1791) stands at the head of a German opera tradition that was developed in the 19th century by Beethoven, Weber, Heinrich Marschner and Wagner. ... Heinrich Schütz. ... Sigmund Theophil Staden (born Kulmbach, 6 November 1607 - died Nuremberg 30 July 1655) was an important early German composer. ... Singspiel (song-play) is a form of German-language music drama, similar to modern musical theater, though it is also referred to as a type of operetta or opera. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... Reinhard Keiser (1674-1739) was a popular German opera composer based in Hamburg. ... Georg Philipp Telemann (March 14, 1681–June 25, 1767) was a German Baroque music composer, born in Magdeburg. ... HANDEL was the code-name for the UKs National Attack Warning System in the Cold War. ... Carl Heinrich Graun. ... Johann Adolph Hasse. ... Christoph Willibald Gluck (July 2, 1714 – November 15, 1787) was a German composer. ...


Mozart's Singspiele, Die Entführung aus dem Serail (1782) and Die Zauberflöte (1791) were an important breakthrough in achieving international recognition for German opera. The tradition was developed in the 19th century by Beethoven with his Fidelio, inspired by the climate of the French Revolution. Carl Maria von Weber established German Romantic opera in opposition to the dominance of Italian bel canto. His Der Freischütz (1821) shows his genius for creating a supernatural atmosphere. Other opera composers of the time include Marschner, Schubert, Schumann and Lortzing, but the most important figure was undoubtedly Richard Wagner. “Mozart” redirects here. ... Die Entführung aus dem Serail (K. 384; in English The Abduction from the Seraglio; also known as Il Seraglio) is a opera Singspiel in three acts by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. ... Die Zauberflöte (en: The Magic Flute) is an opera in two acts composed by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart to a German libretto by Emanuel Schikaneder. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... Fidelio (Op. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Carl Maria von Weber Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst, Freiherr von Weber (November 18, 1786 in Eutin, Holstein – June 5, 1826 in London, England) was a German composer, conductor, pianist and critic, one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school. ... For the general context, see Romanticism. ... The term Bel Canto may refer to: Belcanto, a vocal technique; or Bel Canto, a novel by Ann Patchett. ... Der Freischütz (English: The Freeshooter) is an opera in three acts by Carl Maria von Weber to a libretto by Friedrich Kind. ... Heinrich Marschner (Zittau, 16 August 1795–Hannover, 16 December 1861), was a German composer of 23 operas and singspiels who was a rival of Carl Maria von Weber and friend of Beethoven and Mendelssohn. ... For the crater on the moon, see Schubert (crater) Franz Schubert Franz Peter Schubert (January 31, 1797 – November 19, 1828), was an Austrian composer. ... For other persons named Robert Schumann, see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ... Gustav Albert Lortzing (October 23, 1801 - January 21, 1851) was a German composer. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ...

Illustration inspired by Wagner's music drama Das Rheingold
Illustration inspired by Wagner's music drama Das Rheingold

Wagner was one of the most revolutionary and controversial composers in musical history. Starting under the influence of Weber and Meyerbeer, he gradually evolved a new concept of opera as a Gesamtkunstwerk (a "complete work of art"), a fusion of music, poetry and painting. In his mature music dramas, Tristan und Isolde, Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, Der Ring des Nibelungen and Parsifal, he abolished the distinction between aria and recitative in favour of a seamless flow of "endless melody". He greatly increased the role and power of the orchestra, creating scores with a complex web of leitmotivs, recurring themes often associated with the characters and concepts of the drama; and he was prepared to violate accepted musical conventions, such as tonality, in his quest for greater expressivity. Wagner also brought a new philosophical dimension to opera in his works, which were usually based on stories from Germanic or Arthurian legend. Finally, Wagner built his own opera house at Bayreuth, exclusively dedicated to performing his own works in the style he wanted. Image File history File links Rheingold. ... Image File history File links Rheingold. ... Carl Maria von Weber Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst, Freiherr von Weber (November 18, 1786 in Eutin, Holstein – June 5, 1826 in London, England) was a German composer, conductor, pianist and critic, one of the first significant composers of the Romantic school. ... Giacomo Meyerbeer Giacomo Meyerbeer (September 5, 1791 - May 2, 1864) was a noted opera composer. ... Tristan und Isolde (Tristan and Isolde) is an opera in three acts by Richard Wagner to a German libretto by the composer, based largely on the romance by Gottfried von Straßburg. ... Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (The Master Singers of Nuremberg) is an opera in three acts, written and composed by Richard Wagner. ... Der Ring des Nibelungen, (The Ring of the Nibelung), is a cycle of four epic music dramas by the German composer Richard Wagner. ... Parsifal is an opera, or music drama, in three acts by Richard Wagner. ... A leitmotif (also spelled leitmotiv) is a recurring musical theme, associated within a particular piece of music with a particular person, place or idea. ... Tonality is a system of writing music according to certain hierarchical pitch relationships around a key center or tonic. ... King Arthur is an important figure in the mythology of Britain. ... Bayreuth [pronounced by-royt] is a town in northern Bavaria, Germany, on the Red Main river in a valley between the Frankish Alb and the Fichtelgebirge. ...


Opera would never be the same after Wagner and for many composers his legacy proved a heavy burden. On the other hand, Richard Strauss accepted Wagnerian ideas but took them in wholly new directions. He first won fame with the scandalous Salome and the dark tragedy Elektra, in which tonality was pushed to the limits. Then Strauss changed tack in his greatest success, Der Rosenkavalier, where Mozart and Viennese waltzes became as important an influence as Wagner. Strauss continued to produce a highly varied body of operatic works, often with libretti by the poet Hugo von Hofmannsthal, right up until Capriccio in 1942. Other composers who made individual contributions to German opera in the early 20th century include Zemlinsky, Hindemith, Kurt Weill and the Italian-born Ferruccio Busoni. The operatic innovations of Arnold Schoenberg and his successors are discussed in the section on modernism.[8] This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... This article is about the opera by Richard Strauss . ... Elektra is a one-act opera by Richard Strauss, to a German-language libretto by Hugo von Hofmannsthal adapted from his drama of 1903—the first of many such collaborations between composer and librettist. ... Der Rosenkavalier (The Cavalier of the Rose) is a comic opera in three acts by Richard Strauss to an original German libretto by Hugo von Hofmannsthal. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was one of the most significant and influential of all composers of Western classical music. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... The waltz is a dance in 3/4 time, done primarily in closed position, the commonest basic figure of which is a full turn in two measures using three steps per measure. ... Hugo von Hofmannsthal Hugo von Hofmannsthal (February 1, 1874 – July 15, 1929), was an Austrian novelist, librettist, poet, dramatist, narrator, and essayist. ... Capriccio is an opera by German composer Richard Strauss. ... Alexander von Zemlinsky Alexander Zemlinsky or Alexander von Zemlinsky, (October 14, 1871 – March 15, 1942) was an Austrian composer of classical music, conductor, and teacher. ... Paul Hindemith (November 16, 1895 – December 28, 1963) was a German classical composer, violist, teacher, theorist and conductor. ... Kurt Julian Weill (March 2, 1900 – April 3, 1950), born in Dessau, Germany and died in New York City, was a German and in his later years, a German-American composer active from the 1920s until his death. ... Ferruccio Busoni Ferruccio Busoni (April 1, 1866 – July 27, 1924) was an Italian composer, pianist, music teacher and conductor. ... Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 Arnold Schoenberg (the anglicized form of Schönberg — Schoenberg changed the spelling officially when he left Germany and re-converted to Judaism in 1933; September 13, 1874 – July 13, 1951) was an Austrian and later American composer. ...

Tristan und Isolde: Prelude Richard Wagner - Tristan und Isolde - Vorspiel. ...

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French opera

Main article: French Opera
1875 poster for Bizet's Carmen
1875 poster for Bizet's Carmen

In rivalry with imported Italian opera productions, a separate French tradition was founded by the Italian Jean-Baptiste Lully at the court of King Louis XIV. Despite his foreign origin, Lully established an Academy of Music and monopolised French opera from 1672. Starting with Cadmus et Hermione, Lully and his librettist Quinault created tragédie en musique,a form in which dance music and choral writing were particularly prominent. Lully's operas also show a concern for expressive recitative which matched the contours of the French language. In the 18th century, Lully's most important successor was Jean-Philippe Rameau, who composed five tragédies en musique as well as numerous works in other genres such as opera-ballet, all notable for their rich orchestration and harmonic daring. After Rameau's death, the German Gluck was persuaded to produce six operas for the Parisian stage in the 1770s. They show the influence of Rameau, but simplified and with greater focus on the drama. At the same time, by the middle of the 18th century another genre was gaining popularity in France: opéra comique. This was the equivalent of the German singspiel, where arias alternated with spoken dialogue. Notable examples in this style were produced by Monsigny, Philidor and, above all, Grétry. During the Revolutionary period, composers such as Méhul and Cherubini, who were followers of Gluck, brought a new seriousness to the genre, which had never been wholly "comic" in any case. In rivalry with imported Italian opera productions, a separate French tradition, sung in the French, was founded by Italian Jean-Baptiste Lully. ... Image File history File links 1875_Carmen_poster. ... Image File history File links 1875_Carmen_poster. ... Jean-Baptiste de Lully, originally Giovanni Battista di Lulli (November 28, 1632 – March 22, 1687), was an Italian-born French composer, who spent most of his life working in the court of Louis XIV of France. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) Louis XIV (Louis-Dieudonné) (September 5, 1638–September 1, 1715) reigned as King of France and King of Navarre from May 14, 1643 until his death. ... Théâtre de lAcadémie Royale de Musique, Paris, circa 1865 Théâtre de lAcadémie Royale de Musique (was also known as the Théâtre Impérial de l´Opéra, Le Rue Peletier, or simply, Le Peletier, but more familiarly as the Paris Opéra) was... Cadmus et Hermione is a tragédie en musique in a prologue and five acts by Jean-Baptiste Lully. ... Philippe Quinault (June 3, 1635 - November 26, 1688), French dramatist and librettist, was born in Paris on the 3rd of June 1635. ... The French lyric tragedy (French : tragédie lyrique or tragédie en musique) is a specific French form of opera introduced by Jean-Baptiste Lully and used by his followers until the second half of the eighteenth century. ... Recitative, a form of composition often used in operas, oratorios, and cantatas (and occasionally in operettas and even musicals), is melodic speech set to music, or a descriptive narrative song in which the music follows the words. ... Jean-Philippe Rameau, by Jacques André Joseph Aved, 1728 Jean-Philippe Rameau (French IPA: ) (September 25, 1683 - September 12, 1764) was one of the most important French composers and music theorists of the Baroque era. ... The French lyric tragedy (French : tragédie lyrique or tragédie en musique) is a specific French form of opera introduced by Jean-Baptiste Lully and used by his followers until the second half of the eighteenth century. ... Opera Ballet (ballets de cour) is the name given to ballets performed in the 17th century that occurred within an Opera. ... Christoph Willibald Gluck (July 2, 1714 – November 15, 1787) was a German composer. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Opéra comique is a French style of opera that is a partial counterpart to the Italian opera buffa. ... Singspiel (song-play) is a form of German-language music drama, similar to modern musical theater, though it is also referred to as a type of operetta or opera. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... François-André Danican Philidor (September 1, 1726 - August 31, 1795) was a French chess player and composer. ... André Ernest Modeste Grétry (February 8, 1741 – September 24, 1813), a Belgian composer, who worked from 1767 onwards in France. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Etienne Henri (or Nicolas) Méhul (June 24, 1763 - October 18, 1817) was a French composer. ... Maria Luigi Carlo Zenobio Salvatore Cherubini (September 14, 1760 – March 15, 1842) was an Italian composer. ...


By the 1820s, Gluckian influence in France had given way to a taste for Italian bel canto, especially after the arrival of Rossini in Paris. Rossini's Guillaume Tell helped found the new genre of Grand opera, a form whose most famous exponent was another foreigner, Giacomo Meyerbeer. Meyerbeer's works, such as Les Huguenots emphasised virtuoso singing and extraordinary stage effects. Lighter opéra comique also enjoyed tremendous success in the hands of Boïeldieu, Auber, Hérold and Adolphe Adam. In this climate, the operas of the French-born composer Hector Berlioz struggled to gain a hearing. Berlioz's epic masterpiece Les Troyens, the culmination of the Gluckian tradition, was not given a full performance for almost a hundred years. The term Bel Canto may refer to: Belcanto, a vocal technique; or Bel Canto, a novel by Ann Patchett. ... Gioacchino Antonio Rossini (February 29, 1792 — November 13, 1868) was an Italian musical composer who wrote more than 30 operas as well as sacred music and chamber music. ... William Tell is an opera by Gioacchino Rossini. ... Grand Opera is a style of opera mainly characterized by many features on a grandiose scale. ... Giacomo Meyerbeer Giacomo Meyerbeer (September 5, 1791 – May 2, 1864) was a noted German-born opera composer, and the first great exponent of Grand Opera. ... Les Huguenots is a French opera by Giacomo Meyerbeer. ... François-Adrien Boïeldieu (December 16, 1775 – October 8, 1834) was a French composer, mainly of operas. ... Daniel François Esprit Auber (January 29, 1782 - May 13, 1871), French composer, the son of a Paris print-seller, was born in Caen in Normandy. ... Lithograph of Ferdinand Herold by Louis Dupré, Paris, circa 1830 Louis Joseph Ferdinand Herold[1] better known as Ferdidnand Herold (Paris, January 28, 1791–Thernes, January 19, 1833) was a French operatic composer of Alsatian descent who also wrote many pieces for the piano, orchestra, and the ballet. ... Adolphe Adam Adolphe Charles Adam (July 24, 1803 – May 3, 1856) was a French composer and music critic. ... Painting of Berlioz by Gustave Courbet, 1850. ... Cover of the score of La prise de Troie, the first two acts of Les Troyens. ...


In the second half of the 19th century, Jacques Offenbach created operetta with witty and cynical works such as Orphée aux enfers; Charles Gounod scored a massive success with Faust; and Bizet composed Carmen, which, once audiences learned to accept its blend of Romanticism and realism, became the most popular of all opéra comiques. Massenet, Saint-Saëns and Delibes all composed works which are still part of the standard repertory. At the same time, the influence of Richard Wagner was felt as a challenge to the French tradition. Many French critics angrily rejected Wagner's music dramas while many French composers closely imitated them with variable success. Perhaps the most interesting response came from Claude Debussy. As in Wagner's works, the orchestra plays a leading role in Debussy's unique opera Pelléas et Mélisande (1902) and there are no real arias, only recitative. But the drama is understated, enigmatic and completely unWagnerian. Operetta is a genre of light opera, light in terms both of music and subject matter. ... Orphée aux enfers is an operetta in two acts by Jacques Offenbach. ... Charles Gounod. ... Faust is an opera in five acts by Charles Gounod to a French libretto by Jules Barbier and Michel Carré from Carrés play Faust et Marguerite, in turn loosely based on Goethes Faust, Part I. It debuted at the Théatre-Lyrique in Paris on March 19, 1859. ... Georges Bizet (October 25, 1838 – June 3, 1875), was a French composer of the romantic era best known for his opera Carmen. ... Poster from the 1875 premiere of Carmen Carmen is a French opera by Georges Bizet. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Jules Émile Frédéric Massenet (May 12, 1842 - August 13, 1912) was a French composer. ... Charles Camille Saint-Saëns () (9 October 1835 – 16 December 1921) was a French composer, organist, conductor, and pianist, known especially for his orchestral works The Carnival of the Animals, Danse Macabre, Samson et Dalila, and Symphony No. ... Delibes is the last name of some famous people: Leo Delibes (1836-1891), a French composer Miguel Delibes (1920- ), a Spanish Writer This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... Claude Debussy, photo by Félix Nadar, 1908. ... Pelléas et Mélisande is the name of several dramatic works. ...


Other notable 20th century names include Ravel, Dukas, Roussel and Milhaud. Francis Poulenc is one of the very few post-war composers of any nationality whose operas (which include Dialogues des carmélites) have gained a foothold in the international repertory. Olivier Messiaen's lengthy sacred drama Saint François d'Assise (1983) has also attracted widespread attention.[9] Joseph-Maurice Ravel (March 7, 1875 – December 28, 1937) was a French composer and pianist, best known for his orchestral work, Boléro, and his famous 1922 orchestral arrangement of Modest Mussorgskys Pictures at an Exhibition. ... Paul Dukas (October 1, 1865 – May 17, 1935) was a French composer of classical music. ... The Roussel was a French automobile manufactured from 1908 to 1914. ... Darius Milhaud was a French composer. ... Francis Jean Marcel Poulenc (IPA: ) (January 7, 1899 - January 30, 1963) was a French composer and a member of the French group Les Six. ... Dialogues of the Carmelites ( in French, Dialogues des Carmélites) is an opera in three acts by Francis Poulenc. ... Olivier Messiaen It has been suggested that List of students of Olivier Messiaen be merged into this article or section. ... Saint François dAssise is a French opera in three acts and eight scenes by composer and librettist Olivier Messiaen, written from 1975 to 1983. ...

Prelude Toreador song. ...

From Georges Bizet's Carmen. Performed by the Damrosch Orchestra (1903)

Problems listening to the file? See media help. Georges Bizet Georges Bizet (October 25, 1838 – June 3, 1875) was a French composer and pianist of the romantic era. ... For other uses, see Carmen (disambiguation). ...

English-language opera

In England, opera's antecedent was the 17th century jig. This was an afterpiece which came at the end of a play. It was frequently libellous and scandalous and consisted in the main of dialogue set to music arranged from popular tunes. In this respect, jigs anticipate the ballad operas of the 18th century. At the same time, the French masque was gaining a firm hold at the English Court, with even more lavish splendour and highly realistic scenery than had been seen before. Inigo Jones became the quintessential designer of these productions, and this style was to dominate the English stage for three centuries. These masques contained songs and dances. In Ben Jonson's Lovers Made Men (1617), "the whole masque was sung after the Italian manner, stilo recitativo".[10] In English and American law, and systems based on them, libel and slander are two forms of defamation (or defamation of character), which is the tort or delict of making a false statement of fact that injures someones reputation. ... Costume for a Knight, by Inigo Jones: the plumed helmet, the heroic torso in armour and other conventions were still employed for opera seria in the 18th century. ... Inigo Jones, by Sir Anthony van Dyck Inigo Jones (July 15, 1573–June 21, 1652) is regarded as the first significant English architect. ... For other persons of the same name, see Ben Johnson (disambiguation). ...

Henry Purcell
Henry Purcell

The approach of the English Commonwealth closed theatres and halted any developments that may have led to the establishment of English opera. However, in 1656, the dramatist Sir William Davenant produced The Siege of Rhodes. Since his theatre was not licensed to produce drama, he asked several of the leading composers (Lawes, Cooke, Locke, Coleman and Hudson) to set sections of it to music. This success was followed by The Cruelty of the Spaniards in Peru (1658) and The History of Sir Francis Drake (1659). These pieces were encouraged by Oliver Cromwell because they were critical of Spain. With the English Restoration, foreign (especially French) musicians were welcomed back. In 1673, Thomas Shadwell's Psyche, patterned on the 1671 'comédie-ballet' of the same name produced by Molière and Jean-Baptiste Lully. William Davenant produced The Tempest in the same year, which was the first Shakespeare play to be set to music (composed by Locke and Johnson).[10] About 1683, John Blow composed Venus and Adonis, often thought of as the first true English-language opera. Blow's immediate successor was the better known Henry Purcell. Despite the success of his masterwork Dido and Aeneas (1689), in which the action is furthered by the use of Italian-style recitative, much of Purcell's best work was not involved in the composing of typical opera, but instead he usually worked within the constraints of the semi-opera format, where isolated scenes and masques are contained within the structure of a spoken play, such as Shakespeare in Purcell's The Fairy-Queen (1692) and Beaumont and Fletcher in The Prophetess (1690) and Bonduca (1696). The main characters of the play tend not to be involved in the musical scenes, which means that Purcell was rarely able to develop his characters through song. Despite these hindrances, his aim (and that of his collaborator John Dryden) was to establish serious opera in England, but these hopes ended with Purcell's early death at the age of 36. Download high resolution version (828x1056, 128 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (828x1056, 128 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Henry Purcell Henry Purcell (IPA: ;[1] September 10 (?),[2], 1659–November 21, 1695), was an English Baroque composer. ... The Commonwealth was the republican government which ruled first England and then the whole of Britain, Ireland, the colonies and other Crown possessions during the periods from 1649 (the monarch Charles I being beheaded on January 30 and An Act declaring England to be a Commonwealth being passed by the... A dramatist is an author of dramatic compositions, usually plays. ... William Davenant Sir William Davenant (February 28, 1606 - April 7, 1668), also spelled DAvenant, was an English poet and playwright. ... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... For other uses, see Restoration. ... Thomas Shadwell Thomas Shadwell (c. ... For the 2007 film, see Molière (film). ... Jean-Baptiste de Lully, originally Giovanni Battista di Lulli (November 28, 1632 – March 22, 1687), was an Italian-born French composer, who spent most of his life working in the court of Louis XIV of France. ... William Davenant Sir William Davenant (February 28, 1606 - April 7, 1668), also spelled DAvenant, was an English poet and playwright. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... John Blow John Blow (1649 – October 1, 1708) was an English composer and organist. ... A painting of Venus and Adonis by Cornelis van Haarlem, 1614 Venus and Adonis is an opera in three acts and a prologue by the English Baroque composer John Blow, composed c. ... Henry Purcell Henry Purcell (IPA: ;[1] September 10 (?),[2], 1659–November 21, 1695), was an English Baroque composer. ... The Composer, Henry Purcell Dido and Aeneas is an opera by the English Baroque composer Henry Purcell, from a libretto by Nahum Tate. ... Semi-opera is an early form of opera. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... The Fairy-Queen (Z.629) is a masque or semi-opera by Henry Purcell. ... John Dryden John Dryden (August 19 {August 9 O.S.}, 1631 - May 12 {May 1 O.S.}, 1700) was an influential English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright, who dominated the literary life of Restoration England to such a point that the period came to be known in literary circles...

Stay, Prince and hear Image File history File links Stay,_Prince_and_hear. ...

A scene from Purcell's operatic masterpiece, Dido and Aeneas. The witches' messenger, in the form of Mercury himself, attempts to convince Aeneas to leave Carthage. Note the use of Italian-style recitative, a rarity in English opera at that time.

Problems listening to the file? See media help. The Composer, Henry Purcell Dido and Aeneas is an opera by the English Baroque composer Henry Purcell, from a libretto by Nahum Tate. ...

Lithograph - The Mikado
Lithograph - The Mikado

Following Purcell, for many years Great Britain was essentially an outpost of Italianate opera. Handel's opera serias dominated the London operatic stages for decades, and even home-grown composers such as Thomas Arne and John Frederick Lampe wrote using Italian models. This situation continued throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, including in the work of Michael Balfe, and the operas of the great Italian composers, as well as those of Mozart, Beethoven and Meyerbeer, continued to dominate the musical stage in England. The only exceptions were ballad operas, such as John Gay's The Beggar's Opera (1728), musical burlesques, European operettas, and late Victorian era light operas, notably the Savoy Operas of W. S. Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan, all of which types of musical entertainments frequently spoofed operatic conventions. Sullivan wrote only one grand opera, Ivanhoe (following the efforts of a number of young English composers beginning about 1876),[10] but he claimed that even his light operas constituted part of a school of "English" opera, intended to supplant the French operettas (usually performed in bad translations) that had dominated the London stage throughout the 19th century into the 1870s. London's Daily Telegraph agreed, describing The Yeomen of the Guard as "...a genuine English opera, forerunner of many others, let us hope, and possibly significant of an advance towards a national lyric stage."[11] Image File history File links The_Mikado_Three_Little_Maids. ... Image File history File links The_Mikado_Three_Little_Maids. ... The Mikado, or The Town of Titipu, is a comic opera in two acts, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W. S. Gilbert, their ninth of fourteen operatic collaborations. ... HANDEL was the code-name for the UKs National Attack Warning System in the Cold War. ... Thomas Augustine Arne (1710-March 5, 1778) was an English composer, best known for the popular patriotic song, Rule Britannia, which is still frequently sung, notably at the Last Night of the Proms; and also his musical settings of songs from the plays of William Shakespeare. ... John Frederick Lampe (1703 - 1751) was a musician. ... Michael William Balfe (May 15, 1808 - October 20, 1870), was an Irish composer, best known today for his opera The Bohemian Girl. ... Ballad opera is a genre of 18th century English stage entertainment. ... John Gay John Gay (30 June 1685 - 4 December 1732) was an English poet and dramatist. ... Painting based on The Beggars Opera, Scene V, William Hogarth, c. ... In literary criticism, the term burlesque is employed as a term in genre criticism, to describe any imitative work that derives humor from an incongruous contrast between style and subject. ... Operetta is a genre of light opera, light in terms both of music and subject matter. ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... Comic opera, or light opera, denotes a sung dramatic work of a light or comic nature, usually with a happy ending. ... The Savoy Operas are a series of operettas written by Gilbert and Sullivan. ... Sir William Schwenck Gilbert Sir William Schwenck Gilbert (November 18, 1836 – May 29, 1911) was an English dramatist, librettist and illustrator best known for the fourteen comic operas produced in collaboration with the composer Sir Arthur Sullivan. ... Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan (May 13, 1842 – November 22, 1900) was an English composer best known for his operatic collaborations with librettist W. S. Gilbert. ... Ivanhoe is a romantic opera in three acts based on the novel by Sir Walter Scott, with music by Arthur Sullivan and a libretto by Julian Sturgis. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... The Yeomen of the Guard, or The Merryman and his Maid, is the eleventh of Gilbert and Sullivans operettas. ...


In the 20th century, English opera began to assert more independence, with works of Ralph Vaughan Williams and in particular Benjamin Britten, who in a series of fine works that remain in standard repertory today, revealed an excellent flair for the dramatic and superb musicality. Today composers such as Thomas Adès continue to export English opera abroad.[12] A statue of Ralph Vaughan Williams in Dorking. ... Britten redirects here. ... Thomas Adès (born in London, 1 March 1971) is a British composer. ...


Also in the 20th century, American composers like Gershwin, Gian Carlo Menotti, and Carlisle Floyd began to contribute English-language operas infused with touches of popular musical styles. They were followed by modernists like Philip Glass, Mark Adamo, John Coolidge Adams, and Jake Heggie. George Gershwin photograph by Edward Steichen in 1927. ... Gian Carlo Menotti, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1944 Gian Carlo Menotti (July 7, 1911 – February 1, 2007) was an Italian-born American composer and librettist who wrote the classic Christmas opera Amahl and the Night Visitors among about two dozen other operas intended to appeal to popular taste. ... Carlisle Floyd (born 1926 in Latta, South Carolina) is an American opera composer. ... Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is a three-times Academy Award-nominated American composer. ... Mark Adamo (1962-) is an American composer and librettist who was born in Philadelphia. ... For the Alaska-based postminimalist composer, see John Luther Adams. ... Jake Heggie is a American composer and pianist. ...


Russian opera

Main article: Russian Opera

Opera was brought to Russia in the 1730s by the Italian operatic troupes and soon it became an important part of entertainment for the Russian Imperial Court and aristocracy. Many foreign composers such as Baldassare Galuppi, Giovanni Paisiello, Giuseppe Sarti, and Domenico Cimarosa (as well as various others) were invited to Russia to compose new operas, mostly in the Italian language. Simultaneously some domestic musicians like Maksym Berezovsky and Dmytro Bortniansky were sent abroad to learn to write operas. The first opera written in Russian was Tsefal i Prokris by the Italian composer Francesco Araja (1755). The development of Russian-language opera was supported by the Russian composers Vasily Pashkevich, Yevstigney Fomin and Alexey Verstovsky. A Russian Warrior, Bilibins costume design for Borodins Prince Igor, 1930) See also Russian opera articles for the details and additional information Russian opera (Russian: Ру́сская о́пера) is the art of opera in Russia. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (407x601, 38 KB) Summary Feodor_Chaliapin_as_Ivan_Susanin. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (407x601, 38 KB) Summary Feodor_Chaliapin_as_Ivan_Susanin. ... Feodor Chaliapin Feodor Ivanovich Chaliapin (Russian: Фёдор Ива́нович Шаля́пин) [a more accurate English transliteration is Fyódor Shalyápin] (born February 13 [O.S. February 1] 1873, Kazan – died April 12, 1938, Paris) was the most famous Russian opera singer, bass of the first half of the 20th century. ... Ivan Susanin (15?? - 1613) was a Russian folk hero and martyr of the early 17th centurys Time of Troubles. ... Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (Михаи́л Ива́нович Гли́нка) (June 1, 1804 – February 15, 1857) was a Russian composer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Italian opera can be divided into three periods, the Baroque, the Romantic and the modern. ... A troupe is a theatre company of touring actors, singers and/or dancers. ... Aristocrat redirects here. ... Baldassare Galuppi (October 18, 1706 - January 3, 1785) was a Venetian composer noted for his operas, and particularly opera buffa. ... Paisiello at the clavichord, by Marie Louise Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun, 1791. ... Giuseppe Sarti (December 28, 1729 - July 28, 1802), was an Italian composer. ... Domenico Cimarosa (December 17, 1749-January 11, 1801), Italian opera composer, was born at Aversa, in the kingdom of Naples. ... Italian ( , or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people,[2] primarily in Italy. ... Maksym Sozontovych Berezovsky (Ukrainian: Максим Созонтович Березовський, Maksym Sozontovych Berezovskyi; Polish: Berezowski; c 1745–1777) was a Ukrainian composer, opera singer, and violinist. ... Dmytro Stepanovych Bortniansky (Ukrainian: , Dmitro Stepanovych Bortnians’kyi; Russian: , Dmitrij Stepanovič Bortnjanskij; also referred to as Dmitry or Dmitri Bortnyansky; 1751-1825) was a Ukrainian composer in Imperial Russia. ... Giuseppe Valeriani: Sketch of sets for the opera Tsefal i Prokris by Francesco Araja, 1755 Tsefal i Prokris (Russian: Цефал и Прокрис – Cephalus and Prokris), is an opera seria in three acts by the Italian composer Francesco Araja. ... Francesco Araja Francesco Domenico Araja (or Araia, Russian: Арайя) (Born: June 25, 1709, Naples, Kingdom of Sicily, died between 1762 and 1770, Bologna, States of the Church) was an Italian composer who spent 25 year in Russia and wrote at least 14 operas for the Russian Imperial Court including Tsefal i... The view of the Hermitage, St Petersburg: on a CD cover featuring some music by Vasily Pashkevich Vasily Alexeyevich Pashkevich also Paskevich (Russian: ) (c. ... Composer Yevstigney Fomin Yevstigney Ipatyevich Fomin [1] (Russian: Евстигне́й Ипа́тьевич Фоми́н) (born St Petersburg August 16 [O.S. August 5] 1761 – died St. ... Portrait of 20-years old Alexey Verstovsky at the piano with the score of his first successful vaudevilleGrandmothers Parrots (1819) Alexey Nikolayevich Verstovsky (Russian: Алексéй Николáевич Верстóвский) (born Seliverstovo Estate, Kozlovsky district, Tambov’s region March 1 [O.S. February 18] 1799 – died Moscow, February 17 [O.S. February 5] 1862) was...


However, the real birth of Russian opera came with Mikhail Glinka and his two great operas A Life for the Tsar, (1836) and Ruslan and Lyudmila (1842). After him in the 19th century in Russia there were written such operatic masterpieces as Rusalka and The Stone Guest by Alexander Dargomyzhsky, Boris Godunov and Khovanshchina by Modest Mussorgsky, Prince Igor by Alexander Borodin, Eugene Onegin and The Queen of Spades by Pyotr Tchaikovsky, and The Snow Maiden and Sadko by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov. These developments mirrored the growth of Russian nationalism across the artistic spectrum, as part of the more general Slavophilism movement. A Russian Warrior, Bilibins costume design for Borodins Prince Igor, 1930) See also Russian opera articles for the details and additional information Russian opera (Russian: Ру́сская о́пера) is the art of opera in Russia. ... Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (Russian: Mihail Ivanovič Glinka) (June 1, 1804 [O.S. May 20] - February 15, 1857 [O.S. February 3]), was the first Russian composer to gain wide recognition inside his own country, and is often regarded as the father of Russian classical music. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ruslan and Lyudmila (Russian: , transliteration: Ruslan i Lyudmila) is an opera in five acts (eight tableaux) composed by Mikhail Glinka between 1837 and 1842. ... Rusalka (Русалка in Cyrillic; stress on the second syllable) is an opera in four acts, six tableaux, by Alexander Dargomyzhsky, composed during 1848-1855. ... The Stone Guest is a poetic drama by Aleksandr Pushkin based on the Spanish legend of Don Juan. ... Alexander Sergeyevich Dargomyzhsky Александр Сергеевич Даргомыжский (February 14, 1813–May 17, 1869) was a 19th century Russian composer. ... I regard the people as a great being, inspired by a single idea. ... Khovanshchina (Russian: , Hovánščina, sometimes rendered The Khovansky Affair) is an opera (subtitled a national music drama) in five acts by Modest Mussorgsky. ... Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (Russian: , Modest Petrovič Musorgskij, French: ) (March 9/21, 1839 – March 16/28, 1881), one of the Russian composers known as the Five, was an innovator of Russian music. ... For the historical figure, see Igor Svyatoslavich. ... Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin (Russian: , Aleksandr Porfirevič Borodin) (31 Oct. ... Eugene Onegin (Евгений Онегин in Russian, Yevgeny Onegin in transliteration) is an opera in three acts by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky to a Russian libretto by Konstantin Shilovsky and the composer, based on the novel of the same name by Aleksandr Pushkin. ... The Queen of Spades (Пиковая дама in Russian, Pikovaya dama in transliteration) is an opera in three acts by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky to a Russian libretto by the composers brother Modest Tchaikovsky, based on a short story by the poet Aleksandr Pushkin. ... “Tchaikovsky” redirects here. ... The Snow Maiden (дипломник in Russian, Snegurochka in transliteration) is an opera in four acts by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov to a Russian libretto by the composer, based on the play by Alexandr Ostrovsky. ... Sadko, Palekh painting Sadko (Russian: ) was a legendary hero of a Russian bylina (epic tale) with the same name, a merchant and gusli musician from Novgorod. ... Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (Russian: , Nikolaj Andreevič Rimskij-Korsakov), also Nikolay, Nicolai, and Rimsky-Korsakoff, (March 6 (N.S. March 18), 1844 – June 8 (N.S. June 21) 1908) was a Russian composer, one of five Russian composers known as The Five, and was later a... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... A Slavophile was an advocate of the supremacy of Slavic culture over that of others, especially Western European culture. ...


In the 20th century the traditions of Russian opera were developed by many composers including Sergei Rachmaninov in his works The Miserly Knight and Franchesca da Rimini, Igor Stravinsky in Le Rossignol, Mavra, Oedipus rex, and The Rake's Progress, Sergei Prokofiev in The Gambler, The Love for Three Oranges, The Fiery Angel, Betrothal in a Monastery, and War and Peace; as well as Dmitri Shostakovich in The Nose and Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District, Edison Denisov in L'écume des jours, and Alfred Schnittke in Life With an Idiot, and Historia von D. Johann Fausten.[13] For other uses, see Tradition (disambiguation). ... Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff (Russian: , Sergej Vasilevič Rakhmaninov, 1 April 1873 (N.S.) or 20 March 1873 (O.S.) – 28 March 1943) was a Russian composer, pianist, and conductor, one of the last great champions of the Romantic style of European classical music. ... The Miserly Knight (Skupoy rïtsar’ in transliteration) is an opera in one act by Sergei Rachmaninoff to a Russian libretto by Alexander Pushkin, based his drama. ... Francesca da Rimini, (Russian: Франческа да Римини) Op. ... Igor Stravinsky. ... The Nightingale (Solovyei) is a Russian conte lyrique in three acts by Igor Stravinsky. ... Mavra is a one-act opera buffa composed by Igor Stravinsky. ... Other musical works on the same subject include Oedipus Rex by Tom Lehrer, and Oedipus Tex by P. D. Q. Bach. ... The Rakes Progress is an English opera in three acts and an epilogue by Igor Stravinsky. ... Sergei Sergeyevich Prokofiev (Russian: , Sergej Sergejevič Prokofijev; April 27 (April 151 O.S.), 1891–March 5, 1953) was a Russian and Soviet composer who mastered numerous musical genres and came to be admired as one of the greatest composers of the 20th century. ... The Gambler (Russian: Игрок — Igrok in transliteration) is an opera in four acts by Sergei Prokofiev to a Russian libretto by the composer, based on the story of the same name by Fyodor Dostoyevsky. ... Sergei Prokofiev // The Love for Three Oranges (Любовь к трём апельсинам in Russian, Lyubov k Tryom Apelsinam in transliteration) is an opera written in 1919 by Sergei Prokofiev to a libretto based on the play Lamore delle tre melarance by Carlo Gozzi. ... The Fiery Angel (Russian: Огненный ангел — Ognenny angel in transliteration) is an opera in five acts by Sergei Prokofiev to a Russian libretto by the composer, based on the novel by Valery Bryusov. ... Betrothal in a Monastery (Obrucheniye v monastïre in transliteration) is Sergei Prokofievs 6th opera with an opus number. ... War and Peace (Op. ... Dmitri Shostakovich in 1942 Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich   (Russian: , Dmitrij Dmitrievič Å ostakovič) (September 25 [O.S. September 12] 1906 – August 9, 1975) was a Russian composer of the Soviet period. ... The Nose is a satirical opera by the Russian composer Dmitri Shostakovich. ... Lady Macbeth of the Mtsensk District (Леди Макбет Мценского уезда in Russian; Ledi Makbet Mtsenskovo Uyezda in transliteration) is an opera in four acts by the Russian composer Dmitri Shostakovich to a Russian libretto by Alexander Preis and the composer, inspired by and named after the famous story by Nikolai Leskov. ... Edison Denisov (April 6, 1929 - November 24, 1996) was a Russian composer from Tomsk, Siberia. ... Lécume des jours (English: The Foam of Days) is an opera in three acts (14 scenes) by the Russian composer Edison Denisov. ... Alfred Schnittke April 6, 1989, Moscow Alfred Garyevich Schnittke (Russian: Альфре́д Га́рриевич Шни́тке, November 24, 1934 Engels - August 3, 1998 Hamburg) was a Russian and Soviet composer. ... Historia von D. Johann Fausten is an opera by the Russian composer Alfred Schnittke (1934-1998) in three acts, with introduction and epilogue to the German libretto by Jörg Morgener (Jürgen Köchel) and Alfred Schnittke after the anonymous prose book of the same name (published by Johannes...


Other national operas

Spain also produced its own distinctive form of opera, known as zarzuela, which had two separate flowerings: one in the 17th century, and another beginning in the mid-19th century. During the 18th century, Italian opera was immensely popular in Spain, supplanting the native form. For other uses, see Zarzuela (disambiguation). ...


Czech composers also developed a thriving national opera movement of their own in the 19th century, starting with Bedřich Smetana who wrote eight operas including the internationally popular The Bartered Bride. Antonín Dvořák, most famous for Rusalka, wrote 13 operas; and Leoš Janáček gained international recognition in the 20th century for his innovative works including Jenůfa, The Cunning Little Vixen, and Káťa Kabanová. Portrait of BedÅ™ich Smetana BedÅ™ich Smetana (pronounced ; 2 March 1824 - 12 May 1884) was a Czech composer. ... The Bartered Bride (Czech: , The Sold Bride) is the second opera, a comedy, by BedÅ™ich Smetana. ... Antonín Dvořák Antonín Leopold Dvořák ( , often anglicized DVOR-zhak; September 8, 1841 – May 1, 1904) was a Czech composer of romantic music, who employed the idioms and melodies of the folk music of his native Bohemia and Moravia in symphonic, oratorial, chamber and operatic works. ... For an opera of the same name by Alexander Dargomyzhsky, see Rusalka (Dargomyzhsky). ... LeoÅ¡ Janáček in 1928 LeoÅ¡ Janáček ( ; July 3, 1854 in Hukvaldy, Moravia, then Austrian empire – August 12, 1928 in Ostrava, then Czechoslovakia) was a Czech composer. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The Cunning Little Vixen (Příhody LiÅ¡ky BystrouÅ¡ky, literally The Adventures of Vixen Sharp-Ears, in Czech) is an opera by LeoÅ¡ Janáček, with a libretto adapted by the composer from a serialized novella (daily comic) by Rudolf TÄ›snohlídek, which was first published in newspaper... Káťa Kabanová is an opera in three acts by LeoÅ¡ Janáček to a Czech translation by Vincenc Cervinka, first produced in Brno on 23 November 1921. ...


The key figure of Hungarian national opera in the 19th century was Ferenc Erkel, whose works mostly dealt with historical themes. Among his most often performed operas are Hunyadi László and Bánk bán. The most famous modern Hungarian opera is Béla Bartók's Duke Bluebeard's Castle. Ferenc Erkel (November 7, 1810, Gyula - June 25, 1893, Budapest) was a Hungarian composer. ... Bartok redirects here. ... A Kékszakállú herceg vára, (commonly referred to by its English name, Bluebeards Castle) is a one-act opera by Hungarian composer Béla Bartók. ...


The best-known composer of Polish national opera was Stanislaw Moniuszko, most celebrated for the opera Straszny Dwór.[14] In the 20th century, other operas created by Polish composers included King Roger by Karol Szymanowski and Ubu Rex by Krzysztof Penderecki. Polish opera is the art of opera in Poland. ... Stanisław Moniuszko Stanisław Moniuszko (b. ... King Roger (Król Roger in Polish) is an opera by the Polish composer Karol Szymanowski set to a libretto by JarosÅ‚aw Iwaszkiewicz. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Karol Szymanowski Karol Szymanowski Karol Maciej Korwin-Szymanowski (October 6, 1882–March 28, 1937) was a Polish composer and pianist. ... Krzysztof Penderecki. ...


Contemporary, recent, and Modernist trends

Modernism

Perhaps the most obvious stylistic manifestation of modernism in opera is the development of atonality. The move away from traditional tonality in opera had begun with Wagner, and in particular the Tristan chord. Composers such as Richard Strauss, Claude Debussy, Giacomo Puccini, Paul Hindemith and Hans Pfitzner pushed Wagnerian harmony further with a more extreme use of chromaticism and greater use of dissonance. Atonality describes music not conforming to the system of tonal hierarchies, which characterizes the sound of classical European music between the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ... The Tristan chord is a chord made up of the notes F, B, D# and G#. More generally, it can be any chord that consists of these same intervals, viz. ... This article is about the German composer of tone-poems and operas. ... Claude Debussy, photo by Félix Nadar, 1908. ... Giacomo Antonio Domenico Michele Secondo Maria Puccini (December 22, 1858 – November 29, 1924) was an Italian composer whose operas, including La bohème, Tosca, and Madama Butterfly, are among the most frequently performed in the standard repertoire. ... Paul Hindemith aged 28. ... Hans Pfitzner (May 5, 1869 - May 22, 1949) was a German composer and self-described anti-modernist. ...


Operatic Modernism truly began in the operas of two Viennese composers, Arnold Schoenberg and his acolyte Alban Berg, both composers and advocates of atonality and its later development (as worked out by Schoenberg), dodecaphony. Schoenberg's early musico-dramatic works, Erwartung (1909, premiered in 1924) and Die glückliche Hand display heavy use of chromatic harmony and dissonance in general. Schoenberg also occasionally used Sprechstimme, which he described as: "The voice rising and falling relative to the indicated intervals, and everything being bound together with the time and rhythm of the music except where a pause is indicated". Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 Arnold Schoenberg (the anglicized form of Schönberg — Schoenberg changed the spelling officially when he left Germany and re-converted to Judaism in 1933; September 13, 1874 – July 13, 1951) was an Austrian and later American composer. ... Bust of Alban Berg at Schiefling, Carinthia, Austria Alban Maria Johannes Berg (February 9, 1885 – December 24, 1935) was an Austrian composer. ... Twelve-tone technique is a system of musical composition devised by Arnold Schoenberg. ... Erwartung (translation: Expectation) is an opera, composed in 1909 by the Viennese composer Arnold Schoenberg. ... Die glückliche Hand (Op. ... Sprechgesang (German for speech song) or Sprechstimme (speech voice) is a technique of vocal production halfway between singing and speaking. ...


The two operas of Schoenberg's pupil Alban Berg, Wozzeck and Lulu (left incomplete at his death) share many of the same characteristics as described above, though Berg combined his highly personal interpretation of Schoenberg's twelve-tone technique with melodic passages of a more traditionally tonal nature (quite Mahlerian in character) which perhaps partially explains why his operas have remained in standard repertory, despite their controversial music and plots. Schoenberg's theories have influenced (either directly or indirectly) significant numbers of opera composers ever since, even if they themselves did not compose using his techniques. Composers thus influenced include the Englishman Benjamin Britten, the German Hans Werner Henze, and the Russian Dmitri Shostakovich. (Philip Glass also makes use of atonality, though his style is generally described as minimalist, usually thought of as another 20th century development.) Wozzeck is the first opera by the Austrian composer Alban Berg (1885-1935). ... Lulu is an opera by the composer Alban Berg. ... Britten redirects here. ... Hans Werner Henze (born July 1, 1926 in Gütersloh, Westphalia, Germany) is a composer well known for his left-wing political beliefs. ... Dmitri Shostakovich in 1942 Dmitri Dmitriyevich Shostakovich   (Russian: , Dmitrij Dmitrievič Å ostakovič) (September 25 [O.S. September 12] 1906 – August 9, 1975) was a Russian composer of the Soviet period. ... Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is a three-times Academy Award-nominated American composer. ... Minimalist music is a genre of post-1960s classical music and experimental music which displays some or all of the following features: emphasis on consonant harmony, if not functional tonality; reiteration of musical phrases, with subtle, gradual, and/or infrequent variation over long periods of time, possibly limited to simple...


However, operatic modernism's use of dodecaphony sparked a backlash among several leading composers. Prominent among the vanguard of these was the Russian Igor Stravinsky. After composing obviously Modernist music for the Diaghilev-produced ballets Petrushka and The Rite of Spring, in the 1920s Stravinsky turned to Neoclassicism, culminating in his opera-oratorio Oedipus Rex.[15] When he did compose a full-length opera that was without doubt an opera (after his Rimsky-Korsakov-inspired works The Nightingale (1914), and Mavra (1922)), in the The Rake's Progress he continued to ignore serialist techniques and wrote an 18th century-style "number" opera, using diatonicism. His resistance to serialism (which ended at the death of Schoenberg) proved to be an inspiration for many other composers.[16] Igor Stravinsky. ... Sergei Pavlovich Diaghilev (Сергей Павлович Дягилев) (March 19, 1872 – August 19, 1929), often known as Serge, was a Russian ballet impresario and founder of the Ballets Russes from which many famous... Pétrouchka (English: Petrushka; Russian: петрушка) is a ballet with music by the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky. ... The Rite of Spring, commonly referred to by its original French title, Le Sacre du printemps (Russian: Весна священная, Vesna svjaščennaja) is a ballet with music by the Russian composer Igor Stravinsky, which was first performed in 1913. ... For the subgenre of darkwave, see Neoclassical (Dark Wave). ... Oedipus the King (also known as Oedipus Rex and Oedipus Tyrannos) is a Greek tragedy, written by Sophocles around 427 BC. The play was the second of Sophocles three Theban plays to be produced, but its events occur before those of Oedipus at Colonus or Antigone. ... The Nightingale (Solovyei) is a Russian conte lyrique in three acts by Igor Stravinsky. ... Mavra is a one-act opera buffa composed by Igor Stravinsky. ... The Rakes Progress is an English opera in three acts and an epilogue by Igor Stravinsky. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ...


Other trends

A common trend throughout the 20th century, in both opera and general orchestral repertoire, is the downsizing of orchestral forces. As patronage of the arts decreases, new works are commissioned and performed with smaller budgets, very often resulting in chamber-sized works, and one act operas. Many of Benjamin Britten's operas are scored for as few as 13 instrumentalists; Mark Adamo's two-act realization of Little Women is scored for 18 instrumentalists. Britten redirects here. ... Mark Adamo (1962-) is an American composer and librettist who was born in Philadelphia. ... Little Women (1998) is the first opera composed by American composer Mark Adamo to his own libretto after Louisa May Alcotts tale of growing up in New England after the American Civil War. ...


Another feature of 20th century opera is the emergence of contemporary historical operas. The Death of Klinghoffer and Nixon in China by John Adams, and Dead Man Walking by Jake Heggie exemplify the dramatisation on stage of events in recent living memory, where characters portrayed in the opera were alive at the time of the premiere performance. Earlier models of opera generally stuck to more distant history, re-telling contemporary fictional stories (reworkings of popular plays), or mythical/legendary stories.[17] The Death of Klinghoffer is an opera by the contemporary American composer John Adams to an English libretto by the poet Alice Goodman. ... Promotional flier for the Nixon in China opera. ... For other persons named John Adams, see John Adams (disambiguation). ... Dead Man Walking is the title of an opera by Jake Heggie, with a libretto (based on the book by Sister Helen Prejean) by Terrence McNally; it was premiered by San Francisco Opera on October 7, 2000, with Susan Graham as Sister Helen, John Packard as Joseph De Rocher, and... Jake Heggie is a American composer and pianist. ...


The Metropolitan Opera reports that the average age of its patrons is now 60. Many opera companies have experienced a similar trend, and opera company websites are replete with attempts to attract a younger audience. This trend is part of the larger trend of greying audiences for classical music since the last decades of the 20th century.[18] Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ...


From musicals back towards opera

Also by the late 1930s, some musicals began to be written with a more operatic structure. These works include complex polyphonic ensembles and reflect musical developments of their times. Porgy and Bess, influenced by jazz styles, and Candide, with its sweeping, lyrical passages and farcical parodies of opera, both opened on Broadway but became accepted as part of the opera repertory. Show Boat, West Side Story, Brigadoon, Sweeney Todd, Evita, The Light in the Piazza and others tell dramatic stories through complex music and are now sometimes seen in opera houses. Some musicals, beginning with Tommy (1969) and Jesus Christ Superstar (1971) and continuing through Les Miserables (musical) (1980), Rent (1996) and Spring Awakening (2006), utilize various operatic conventions, such as through composition, recitative instead of dialogue, leitmotifs, and dramatic stories told predominantly through rock or pop music. The Black Crook (1866), considered by some historians to be the first musical[1] Musical theatre is a form of theatre combining music, songs, spoken dialogue and dance. ... The cast of Porgy and Bess during the Boston try-out prior to the Broadway opening. ... Candide is a comic operetta by Leonard Bernstein, based on the novella of the same name by Voltaire. ... For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ... For films based on the musical, see Show Boat (film). ... This article is about the musical. ... For other uses, see Brigadoon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sweeney Todd (disambiguation). ... Evita is a musical by Andrew Lloyd Webber (music) and Tim Rice (lyrics). ... The Light in the Piazza is a musical drama by Adam Guettel (music and lyrics) and Craig Lucas (book). ... Alternate cover Deluxe edition cover Tommy is the first of The Whos two full-scale rock operas (the second being Quadrophenia), and the first musical work explicitly billed as a rock opera. ... This article is about the rock opera. ... Les Misérables programme from Palace Theatre purchased for £3 in July 2003. ... Rent is a rock musical, with music and lyrics by Jonathan Larson[1] inspired by and partially based on Giacomo Puccinis opera La bohème. ... Spring Awakening is a Tony Award-winning musical which premiered Off-Broadway at the Atlantic Theatre Company on May 19, 2006 and closed August 17, 2006. ... Through-composed describes music which is relatively continuous, non-sectional, and/or non-repetitive. ...


Acoustic enhancement with speakers

A subtle type of sound reinforcement called acoustic enhancement is used in some concert halls where operas are performed. Acoustic enhancement systems help give a more even sound in the hall and prevent "dead spots" in the audience seating area by "...augment[ing] a hall's intrinsic acoustic characteristics." The systems use "...an array of microphones connected to a computer [which is] connected to an array of loudspeakers." However, as concertgoers have become aware of the use of these systems, debates have arisen, because "...purists maintain that the natural acoustic sound of [Classical] voices [or] instruments in a given hall should not be altered."[19] Acoustic enhancement is a subtle type of sound reinforcement system used in some concert halls where classical music such as symphonies and opera is performed. ...


Kai Harada's article Opera's Dirty Little Secret[20] states that opera houses have begun using electronic acoustic enhancement systems "...to compensate for flaws in a venue's acoustical architecture." Despite the uproar that has arisen amongst operagoers, Harada points out that note of the opera houses using acoustic enhancement systems "...use traditional, Broadway-style sound reinforcement, in which most if not all singers are equipped with radio microphones mixed to a series of unsightly loudspeakers scattered throughout the theatre." Instead, most opera houses use the sound reinforcement system for acoustic enhancement, and for subtle boosting of offstage voices, onstage dialogue, and sound effects (e.g., church bells in Tosca or thunder in Wagnerian operas). For other uses, see Tosca (disambiguation). ...


Operatic voices

Vocal classifications

Singers and the roles they play are classified by voice type, based on the tessitura, agility, power and timbre of their voices. Male singers can be loosely classified by vocal range as bass, bass-baritone, baritone, tenor and countertenor, and female singers as contralto, mezzo-soprano and soprano. (Men sometimes sing in the "female" vocal ranges, in which case they are termed sopranist or countertenor. Of these, only the countertenor is commonly encountered in opera, sometimes singing parts written for castrati -- men neutered at a young age specifically to give them a higher singing range.) Singers are then classified by voice type - for instance, a soprano can be described as a lyric soprano, coloratura, soubrette, spinto, or dramatic soprano. These terms, although not fully describing a singing voice, associate the singer's voice with the roles most suitable to the singer's vocal characteristics. A particular singer's voice may change drastically over his or her lifetime, rarely reaching vocal maturity until the third decade, and sometimes not until middle age. Voice type, often called Fach (pl. ... In music, tessitura (Italian: texture) is a range of pitches compared to the instrument for which it was intended to be used. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In music, timbre, or sometimes timber, (from Fr. ... Human voices may be classified according to their vocal range — the highest and lowest pitches that they can produce. ... A bass (or basso in Italian) is a male singer who sings in the deepest vocal range of the human voice. ... A bass-baritone is a singing voice that shares certain qualities of both the baritone and the bass. ... For other uses, see Baritone (disambiguation). ... This article is about Tenor vocalists in music. ... A countertenor is an adult male who sings in an alto, mezzo or soprano range, often through use of falsetto, or sometimes natural head voice. ... In music, an alto is a singer with a vocal range somewhere between a tenor and a soprano. ... A mezzo-soprano (meaning medium soprano in Italian) is a female singer with a range usually extending from the A below middle C to the F an eleventh above middle C. Mezzo-sopranos generally have a darker (or lower) vocal tone than sopranos, and their vocal range is between that... This article is about the voice-type. ... A sopranist is a male singer who sings in the soprano vocal range. ... A countertenor is an adult male who sings in an alto, mezzo or soprano range, often through use of falsetto, or sometimes natural head voice. ... A countertenor is an adult male who sings in an alto, mezzo or soprano range, often through use of falsetto, or sometimes natural head voice. ... A castrato is a male soprano, mezzo_soprano, or alto voice produced by castration of the singer before puberty. ... Voice type, often called Fach (pl. ... Coloratura is an old word meaning colouring. ... Soubrette is a term referring to a type of female role —specifically, a stock character —in opera and theatre. ... Spinto is a vocal term used to characterize a soprano or tenor voice of a weight between lyric and dramatic that is capable of handling large dramatic climaxes at moderate intervals. ...


Historical use of voice parts

The following is only intended as a brief overview. For the main articles, see soprano, mezzo-soprano, alto, tenor, baritone, bass, countertenor and castrato. This article is about the voice-type. ... A mezzo-soprano (meaning medium soprano in Italian) is a female singer with a range usually extending from the A below middle C to the F an eleventh above middle C. Mezzo-sopranos generally have a darker (or lower) vocal tone than sopranos, and their vocal range is between that... This article is about the voice-type. ... This article is about Tenor vocalists in music. ... For other uses, see Baritone (disambiguation). ... A bass (or basso in Italian) is a male singer who sings in the deepest vocal range of the human voice. ... A countertenor is an adult male who sings in an alto, mezzo or soprano range, often through use of falsetto, or sometimes natural head voice. ... A castrato is a male soprano, mezzo-soprano, or alto voice produced either by castration of the singer before puberty or one who, because of an endocrinological condition, never reaches sexual maturity. ...


The soprano voice has typically been used throughout operatic history as the voice of choice for the female protagonist of the opera in question. The current emphasis on a wide vocal range was primarily an invention of the Classical period. Before that, the vocal virtuosity, not range, was the priority, with soprano parts rarely extending above a high A (Handel, for example, only wrote one role extending to a high C), though the castrato Farinelli was alleged to possess a top D (his lower range was also extraordinary, extending to tenor C). The mezzo-soprano, a term of comparatively recent origin, also has a large repertoire, ranging from the female lead in Purcell's Dido and Aeneas to such heavyweight roles as Brangäne in Wagner's Tristan und Isolde (these are both roles sometimes sung by sopranos; there is quite a lot of "movement" between these two voice-types). For the true contralto, the range of parts is more limited, hence the saying that contraltos only sing "Witches, bitches, and britches". In recent years many of the trouser roles from the Baroque era, originally written for women, and those originally sung by castrati, have been assigned to countertenors. The Classical period in Western music occurred from about 1750 to 1820, despite considerable overlap at both ends with preceding and following periods, as is true for all musical eras. ... HANDEL was the code-name for the UKs National Attack Warning System in the Cold War. ... Farinelli, by Wagner after Amigoni 1735 Farinelli (January 24, 1705 – September 16, 1782), was the stage name of Carlo Broschi, one of the most famous Italian soprano castrato singers of the 18th century. ... A breeches role (also pants role or trouser role) is a role in which an actress appears in male clothes (breeches being tight-fitting knee-length pants, the standard male garment at the time breeches roles were introduced). ...


The tenor voice, from the Classical era onwards, has traditionally been assigned the role of male protagonist. Many of the most challenging tenor roles in the repertory were written during the bel canto era, such as Donizetti's sequence of 9 Cs above middle C during La fille du régiment. With Wagner came an emphasis on vocal heft for his protagonist roles, with this vocal category described as Heldentenor; this heroic voice had its more Italianate counterpart in such roles as Calaf in Puccini's Turandot. Basses have a long history in opera, having been used in opera seria in supporting roles, and sometimes for comic relief (as well as providing a contrast to the preponderance of high voices in this genre). The bass repertoire is wide and varied, stretching from the comedy of Leporello in Don Giovanni to the nobility of Wotan in Wagner's Ring Cycle. In between the bass and the tenor is the baritone, which also varies in "weight" from say, Guglielmo in Mozart's Così fan tutte to Posa in Verdi's Don Carlos; the actual designation "baritone" was not used until the mid-nineteenth century. Categories: People stubs | 1797 births | 1848 deaths | Opera composers | Romantic composers | Italian composers | People born in Bergamo, Italy ... La fille du régiment (The Daughter of the Regiment) is a comic opera in two acts by Gaetano Donizetti. ... Don Giovanni (K.527; complete title: Il dissoluto punito, ossia il Don Giovanni, literally The Rake Punishd, or Don Giovanni) is an opera in two acts with music by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart and libretto by Lorenzo da Ponte. ... Valkyrie Warrior Maiden by artist Arthur Rackham (1912) Der Ring des Nibelungen, commonly translated into English as The Ring of the Nibelung or The Nibelungs Ring, is a series of four epic music dramas based loosely on figures and elements of Germanic paganism, particularly from the Icelanders sagas and...


Famous singers

Early performances of opera were too infrequent for singers to make a living exclusively from the style, but with the birth of commercial opera in the mid-17th century, professional performers began to emerge. The role of the male hero was usually entrusted to a castrato, and by the 18th century, when Italian opera was performed throughout Europe, leading castrati who possessed extraordinary vocal virtuosity, such as Senesino and Farinelli, became international stars. The career of the first major female star (or prima donna), Anna Renzi, dates to the mid-1600s. In the 18th century, a number of Italian sopranos gained international renown and often engaged in fierce rivalry, as was the case with Faustina Bordoni and Francesca Cuzzoni, who started a fist fight with one another during a performance of a Handel opera. The French disliked castrati, preferring their male heroes to be sung by a haute-contre (a high tenor), of which Joseph Legros was a leading example.[21] A castrato is a male soprano, mezzo-soprano, or alto voice produced either by castration of the singer before puberty or one who, because of an endocrinological condition, never reaches sexual maturity. ... Senesino (Francesco Bernardi) (1690?-1750?) was a celebrated Italian castrato who worked in London for some time. ... Farinelli, by Wagner after Amigoni 1735 Farinelli (January 24, 1705 – September 16, 1782), was the stage name of Carlo Broschi, one of the most famous Italian soprano castrato singers of the 18th century. ... Look up Prima donna in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Anna Renzi (c. ... Faustina Bordoni (1693 in Venice, Italy-1783 in Venice) Italian mezzo-soprano opera singer, nicknamed the new siren and commonly known, simply, as Faustina. She was known for the great agility of her voice and sang for many years in Venice, Vienna and London. ... Francesca Cuzzoni (1700 - 1770) was an Italian soprano. ... A countertenor is an adult male who sings in an alto, mezzo or soprano range, often through use of falsetto, or sometimes natural head voice. ... Joseph Legros Joseph Legros (b Monampteuil, Laon, 7 or 8 Sept 1739; d La Rochelle, 20 Dec 1793) was a French singer and composer of the 18th century. ...


See also

Lists

This is a list of more than 1,250 works by more than 360 individual opera composers. ... This is a list of musical terms that are likely to be encountered in printed scores. ... The following is a list of operas with entries in Wikipedia. ... This list provides a guide to the most important operas, as determined by their presence on a majority of compiled lists of significant operas: see the Lists Consulted section for full details. ... This list provides a guide to the most important opera composers, as determined by their presence on a majority of compiled lists of significant opera composers. ... Opera houses are listed by continent, then by country with the name of the opera house and city; the opera company is sometimes named for clarity. ... The list of important opera companies is comprised of 61 established, full-time opera companies that present performances during an annual season, selected on various criteria. ... This is an inclusive list of opera festivals and summer seasons, and music festivals that have opera productions. ... This List of opera directors is an inclusive register of famous drama producers and directors who have worked, or are working, in the opera world. ... Voice type, often called Fach (pl. ...

Related topics

Tazieh (Persian: تعزیه) and Naqqali are traditional Persian theatrical genres in which the drama is conveyed wholly or predominantly through music and singing. ... Polish opera is the art of opera in Poland. ... A Russian Warrior, Bilibins costume design for Borodins Prince Igor, 1930) See also Russian opera articles for the details and additional information Russian opera (Russian: Ру́сская о́пера) is the art of opera in Russia. ... In rivalry with imported Italian opera productions, a separate French tradition, sung in the French, was founded by Italian Jean-Baptiste Lully. ... Mozarts German singspiel The Magic Flute (1791) stands at the head of a German opera tradition that was developed in the 19th century by Beethoven, Weber, Heinrich Marschner and Wagner. ... Italian opera can be divided into three periods, the Baroque, the Romantic and the modern. ... Emperor Xuan-Zong of Tang (left) and his Consort Yang Yuhuan (right) portrayed in a Chinese Opera 19th century Chinese opera Chinese opera costumes Some athletic jump Chinese opera is a popular form of drama in China. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dance (disambiguation). ... For the song titled Orchestra, see The Servant (band). ...

Notes

  1. ^ Some definitions of opera: dramatic performance or composition of which music is an essential part, branch of art concerned with this (Concise Oxford English Dictionary); any dramatic work that can be sung (or at times declaimed or spoken) in a place for performance, set to original music for singers (usually in costume) and instrumentalists (Amanda Holden, Viking Opera Guide); musical work for the stage with singing characters, originated in early years of 17th century (Pears Cyclopaedia, 1983 ed.).
  2. ^ Comparable art forms from various other parts of the world, many of them ancient in origin, are also sometimes called "opera" by analogy, usually prefaced with an adjective indicating the region (for example, Chinese opera). These independent traditions are not derivative of Western opera, but are rather distinct forms of musical theatre. Opera is also not the only type of Western musical theatre: in the ancient world, Greek drama featured singing and instrumental accompaniment; and in modern times, other forms such as the musical have appeared.
  3. ^ Oxford Illustrated History of Opera, Chapter 1; articles on Peri and Monteverdi in The Viking Opera Guide.
  4. ^ Before such elements were forced out of opera seria, many libretti had featured a separately unfolding comic plot as sort of an "opera-within-an-opera." One reason for this was an attempt to attract members of the growing merchant class, newly wealthy, but still less cultured than the nobility, to the public opera houses. These separate plots were almost immediately resurrected in a separately developing tradition that partly derived from the commedia dell'arte, (as indeed, such plots had always been) a long-flourishing improvisitory stage tradition of Italy. Just as intermedi had once been performed in-between the acts of stage plays, operas in the new comic genre of "intermezzi", which developed largely in Naples in the 1710s and '20s, were initially staged during the intermissions of opera seria. They became so popular, however, that they were soon being offered as separate productions.
  5. ^ Oxford Illustrated History of Opera, Chapters 1-3.
  6. ^ Man and Music: the Classical Era, ed. Neal Zaslaw (Macmillan, 1989); entries on Gluck and Mozart in The Viking Opera Guide.
  7. ^ Oxford Illustrated History of Opera, Chapters 5, 8 and 9. Viking Opera Guide entry on Verdi.
  8. ^ General outline for this section from the The Oxford Illustrated History of Opera, Chapters 1-3, 6, 8 and 9, and The Oxford Companion to Music; more specific references from the individual composer entries in The Viking Opera Guide.
  9. ^ General outline for this section from the The Oxford Illustrated History of Opera, Chapters 1-4, 8 and 9; and The Oxford Companion to Music (10th ed., 1968); more specific references from the individual composer entries in The Viking Opera Guide.
  10. ^ a b c From Webrarian.com's Ivanhoe site.
  11. ^ the Daily Telegraph's review of Yeomen stated, "The accompaniments... are delightful to hear, and especially does the treatment of the woodwind compel admiring attention. Schubert himself could hardly have handled those instruments more deftly. ...we have a genuine English opera, forerunner of many others, let us hope, and possibly significant of an advance towards a national lyric stage. (quoted at p. 312 in Allen, Reginald (1975). The First Night Gilbert and Sullivan. London: Chappell & Co. Ltd.). Sullivan produced a few light operas in the 1990s that were of a more serious nature than most of the G&S series, including [[Haddon Hall (opera)|]] and The Beauty Stone, but [[Ivanhoe (opera)|]] (which ran for 155 consecutive performances, using alternating casts -- a record until Broadway's La Boheme) survives as his only real grand opera.
  12. ^ Oxford Illustrated History of Opera, Chapters 1, 3 and 9. The Viking Opera Guide articles on Blow, Purcell and Britten.
  13. ^ Taruskin, Richard: Russia in 'The New Grove Dictionary of Opera', ed. Stanley Sadie (London, 1992); Oxford Illustrated History of Opera, Chapters 7-9.
  14. ^ See the chapter on "Russian, Czech, Polish and Hungarian Opera to 1900" by John Tyrrell in The Oxford Illustrated History of Opera (1994).
  15. ^ Stravinsky had already turned away from the modernist trends of his early ballets to produce small-scale works that do not fully qualify as opera, yet certainly contain many operatic elements, including Renard (1916: "a burlesque in song and dance") and The Soldier's Tale (1918: "to be read, played, and danced"; in both cases the descriptions and instructions are those of the composer). In the latter, the actors declaim portions of speech to a specified rhythm over instrumental accompaniment, peculiarly similar to the older German genre of Melodrama.
  16. ^ Oxford Illustrated History of Opera, Chapter 8; The Viking Opera Guide articles on Schoenberg, Berg and Stravinsky; Malcolm MacDonald Schoenberg (Dent,1976); Francis Routh, Stravinsky (Dent, 1975).
  17. ^ However, something similar happened in French opera during the Revolutionary era. One example is Gossec's Le triomphe de la République (1793), depicting the French victory at Valmy the previous year. Such works were obviously intended as propaganda.
  18. ^ General reference for this section: Oxford Illustrated History of Opera, Chapter 9.
  19. ^ http://harada-sound.com/sound/handbook/intro2.html
  20. ^ Entertainment Design, Mar 1, 2001 http://industryclick.com/magazinearticle.asp?releaseid=5643&magazinearticleid=66853&siteid=15&magazineid=138
  21. ^ The Oxford Illustrated History of Opera (ed. Parker, 1994), Chapter 11

Emperor Xuan-Zong of Tang (left) and his Consort Yang Yuhuan (right) portrayed in a Chinese Opera 19th century Chinese opera Chinese opera costumes Some athletic jump Chinese opera is a popular form of drama in China. ... The Black Crook (1866), considered by some historians to be the first musical[1] Musical theatre is a form of theatre combining music, songs, spoken dialogue and dance. ... Greek theatre or Greek Drama came into its own between 600 and 200 BC in the ancient city of Athens. ... The Black Crook (1866), considered by some historians to be the first musical[1] Musical theatre is a form of theatre combining music, songs, spoken dialogue and dance. ... New York State Theater, Lincoln Center, home of the New York City Opera Bolshoi Theatre. ... Ivanhoe is a romantic opera in three acts based on the novel by Sir Walter Scott, with music by Arthur Sullivan and a libretto by Julian Sturgis. ... The Beauty Stone is an opera by Arthur Sullivan to a libretto by Arthur Wing Pinero and J. Comyns Carr. ... La Bohème, French for The Bohemian Life, is an opera in four acts by Giacomo Puccini to an Italian libretto by Luigi Illica and Giuseppe Giacosa, based on La Vie de Bohème by Henri Murger. ... Grand Opera is a style of opera mainly characterized by many features on a grandiose scale. ... Michail Larionov: The sketch of the costume of Renard in the nuns black gown for the 1922 performance Renard, Histoire burlesque chantée et jouée (The Fox: burlesque tale sung and played) is a one-act chamber opera-ballet by Igor Stravinsky, written in 1916. ... Histoire du soldat (sometimes written Lhistoire du soldat; translated as The Soldiers Tale or A Soldiers Tale) is a 1918 theatrical work to be read, played, and danced (lue, jouée et dansée) set to music by Igor Stravinsky. ... Poster for The Perils of Pauline (1914). ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... François Joseph Gossec, by Antoine Vestier. ... Combatants France Prussia Commanders Dumouriez, Kellermann Duke of Brunswick Strength 47,000 35,000 Casualties 300 184 The Battle of Valmy (or Cannonade of Valmy) was fought on 20 September 1792, during the French Revolutionary Wars, around the village of Valmy in northern France. ...

References

  • The New Grove Dictionary of Opera, edited by Stanley Sadie (1992), 5,448 pages, is the best, and by far the largest, general reference in the English language. ISBN 0-333-73432-7 and ISBN 1-56159-228-5
  • The Viking Opera Guide (1994), 1,328 pages, ISBN 0-670-81292-7
  • The Oxford Illustrated History of Opera, ed. Roger Parker (1994)
  • The Oxford Dictionary of Opera, by John Warrack and Ewan West (1992), 782 pages, ISBN 0-19-869164-5
  • Opera, the Rough Guide, by Matthew Boyden et al. (1997), 672 pages, ISBN 1-85828-138-5
  • Opera: A Concise History, by Leslie Orrey and Rodney Milne, World of Art, Thames & Hudson

The New Grove Dictionary of Opera is an encyclopedia (or encyclopedic dictionary) of opera, considered to be one of the best general reference sources on the subject. ...

Further reading

  • DiGaetani, John Louis: An Invitation to the Opera Anchor Books, 1986/91. ISBN 0-385-26339-2
  • Simon, Henry W.: A Treasury of Grand Opera. Simon and Schuster, New York, 1946.

John Louis DiGaetani is professor of English at Hofstra University. ...

External links


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