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Encyclopedia > OpenVMS
OpenVMS
The OpenVMS mascot.

OpenVMS V7.3-1 running the CDE-based DECwindows GUI
Website: HP OpenVMS website
Company/
developer:
Hewlett-Packard and Digital Equipment Corporation
Source model: Closed source
Latest stable release: 8.3 / August, 2006
Kernel type: Monolithic kernel with loadable modules
License: Proprietary
Working state: Current

OpenVMS[1] (Open Virtual Memory System or just VMS) is the name of a high-end computer server operating system that runs on the VAX[2] and Alpha[3] family of computers developed by Digital Equipment Corporation of Maynard, Massachusetts (DIGITAL was then purchased by Compaq, and is now owned by Hewlett-Packard), and most recently on Hewlett-Packard systems built around the Intel Itanium[4] CPU. Image File history File links OpenVMSTMShark. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 163 KB)DECwindows CDE on OpenVMS 7. ... CDE on Unix (Solaris 8) DECwindows CDE on OpenVMS 7. ... A website (or Web site) is a collection of web pages, typically common to a particular domain name or subdomain on the World Wide Web on the Internet. ... The term software company could be applied to; a) a company that produces software or b) a company that distributes software from a third party or c) a company that provides services for software. ... A software developer is a programmer who is concerned with one or more facets of the software development process, a somewhat broader scope of computer programming. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... The DEC logo Digital Equipment Corporation was a pioneering American company in the computer industry. ... The text below is generated by a template, which has been proposed for deletion. ... 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer. ... Graphical overview of a monolithic kernel A monolithic kernel defines a high-level virtual interface over the hardware, with a set of primitives or system calls to implement operating system services such as process management, concurrency, and memory management in several modules that run in supervisor mode. ... A software license is a legal agreement which may take the form of a proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software. ... Proprietary software is software that has restrictions on using and copying it, usually enforced by a proprietor. ... In information technology, a server is a computer system that provides services to other computing systems—called clients—over a network. ... An operating system (OS) is a computer program that manages the hardware and software resources of a computer. ... VAX is a 32-bit computing architecture that supports an orthogonal instruction set (machine language) and virtual addressing (i. ... DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor The DEC Alpha, also known as the Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit RISC microprocessor originally developed and fabricated by Digital Equipment Corp (DEC). ... The DEC logo Digital Equipment Corporation was a pioneering American company in the computer industry. ...   Maynard is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Compaq Computer Corporation is an American personal computer company founded in 1982, and now a brand name of Hewlett-Packard. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... Itanium 2 logo Old Itanium logo The Itanium is an IA-64 microprocessor developed jointly by Hewlett-Packard and Intel. ...


OpenVMS is a multi-user, multiprocessing virtual memory-based operating system (OS) designed for use in time sharing, batch processing, real time (process priorities can be set higher than OS kernel jobs) and transaction processing. It offers high system availability through clustering, or the ability to distribute the system over multiple physical machines. This allows the system to be "disaster-tolerant" against natural disasters that may disable individual data-processing facilities. VMS also includes a process priority system that allows for real-time process to run unhindered, while user processes get temporary priority "boosts" if necessary.[5][6][7][8] Multi-user is a term that defines an operating system that allows concurrent access by multiple users of a computer. ... Multiprocessing is traditionally known as the use of multiple concurrent processes in a system as opposed to a single process at any one instant. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... (Type of Multi-Tasking Operating Systems) Time Sharing system is a type of Multi-Tasking Operating Systems which operates in an interactive mode with a quick response time. ... Batch processing is the execution of a series of programs (jobs) on a computer without human interaction, when possible. ... It has been suggested that Real-time computing be merged into this article or section. ... In computer science, transaction processing is information processing that is divided into individual, indivisible operations, called Each transaction must succeed or fail as a complete unit; it cannot remain in an intermediate state. ... In telecommunications and reliability theory, the term availability has the following meanings: 1. ... Linux Cluster at Purdue University. ...


OpenVMS commercialized many features that are now considered standard requirements for any high-end server operating system. These include:

Enterprise-class environments typically select and use OpenVMS for various purposes including as a mail server, network services, manufacturing or transportation control and monitoring, critical applications and databases, and particularly environments where system uptime and data access is critical. System up-times of a decade or more have been reported, and features such as Rolling Upgrades and clustering allow clustered applications and data to remain continuously accessible while operating system software and hardware maintenance and upgrades are performed, or when a whole data center is destroyed. Customers using OpenVMS include banks and financial services, hospitals and healthcare, network information services, and large-scale industrial manufacturers of various products. DECnet is a proprietary suite of network protocols created by Digital Equipment Corporation, originally released in 1975 in order to connect two PDP-11 minicomputers. ... The Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols that implement the protocol stack on which the Internet runs. ... Non-Uniform Memory Access or Non-Uniform Memory Architecture (NUMA) is a computer memory design used in multiprocessors, where the memory access time depends on the memory location relative to a processor. ... In computing, a file system (often also written as filesystem) is a method for storing and organizing computer files and the data they contain to make it easy to find and access them. ... Files-11, also known as on-disk structure, is the filesystem used by Hewlett-Packards OpenVMS operating system, and also (in a simpler form) by the older RSX-11. ... The term or expression database originated within the computer industry. ... Files-11, also known as on-disk structure, is the filesystem used by Hewlett-Packards OpenVMS operating system, and also (in a simpler form) by the older RSX-11. ... Rdb/VMS is a relational database management system (RDBMS) for the Hewlett-Packard OpenVMS operating system. ... Other listings of programming languages are: Categorical list of programming languages Generational list of programming languages Chronological list of programming languages Note: Esoteric programming languages have been moved to the separate List of esoteric programming languages. ... In computing, a shell is a piece of software that provides an interface for users (command line interpreter). ... DCL is the standard Command line interface (CLI) adopted by most of the operating systems that were sold by the former Digital Equipment Corporation (which has since been acquired by Hewlett-Packard). ... A mail transfer agent or MTA (also called a mail server, or a mail exchange server in the context of the Domain Name System) is a computer program or software agent which transfers electronic mail messages from one computer to another. ...

Contents

History

Origin and name changes

In April 1975, DIGITAL embarked on a hardware project, code named Star, to design a 32-bit virtual address extension to its PDP-11. A companion software project, code named Starlet, was begun in June, 1975 to develop a totally new operating system, based on RSX-11M, for the Star family of processors. These two projects were tightly integrated from the beginning. Gordon Bell[23] was the VP lead on the VAX hardware its architecture. Roger Gourd was the project lead for the Starlet program, with software engineers Dave Cutler, Dick Hustvedt, and Peter Lippman acting as the technical project leaders, each having responsibility for a different area of the operating system. The Star and Starlet projects culminated in the VAX 11/780 computer and the VAX-11/VMS operating system. The Starlet name survived in VMS as a name of several of the main system libraries, including STARLET.OLB and STARLET.MLB. 32-bit is a term applied to processors, and computer architectures which manipulate the address and data in 32-bit chunks. ... The PDP-11 was a 16-bit minicomputer sold by Digital Equipment Corp. ... RSX-11: A family of real-time operating systems mainly for PDP-11 computers created by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC), common in the late 1970s and early 1980s, designed for and much used in process control, but also popular for program development. ... C. Gordon Bell (August 19, 1934) is a leading computer engineer and manager, an early employee of Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) who designed several of their PDP machines and later rose to Vice President of Engineering and oversaw the development of the VAX. // Career Born in Kirksville, Missouri, he received... David Neil Cutler, Sr. ... Richard (Dick) Irvin Hustvedt (born February 18, 1946) is a renowned software engineer, designer and developer of several operating systems including the RSX-11, 782 ASMP and VMS (OpenVMS) systems of Digital Equipment Corporation. ... VAX is a 32-bit computing architecture that supports an orthogonal instruction set (machine language) and virtual addressing (i. ...


Over the years the name of the product has changed. In 1980 it was renamed, with version 2.0 release, to VAX/VMS (at the same time as the VAX-11 computer was renamed to simply VAX). With the introduction of the MicroVAX range such as the MicroVAX II and MicroVAX 2000 in the mid-to-late 1980s, DIGITAL released MicroVMS versions specifically targeted for these platforms which had much more limited memory and disk capacity e.g. the smallest MicroVAX 2000 had a 40MB RD32 hard disk and only 4MB of RAM, and its CPU had to emulate some of the VAX floating point instructions in software. MicroVMS kits were released for VAX/VMS 4.0 to 4.7 on TK50 tapes and RX50 floppy disks, but discontinued with VAX/VMS 5.0. In 1991 it was renamed again to OpenVMS to indicate its support for industry standards such as POSIX and Unix compatibility, and to drop the hardware connection as the port to DIGITAL's 64-bit Alpha RISC processor was in process. The OpenVMS name first appeared after the version 5.5-2 release. 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday. ... save Y100!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... POSIX or Portable Operating System Interface for uniX is the collective name of a family of related standards specified by the IEEE to define the application programming interface (API) for software compatible with variants of the Unix operating system. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... In computing, a 64-bit component is one in which data are processed or stored in 64-bit units (words). ... DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor The DEC Alpha, also known as the Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit RISC microprocessor originally developed and fabricated by Digital Equipment Corp (DEC). ... Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC), is a microprocessor CPU design philosophy that favors a smaller and simpler set of instructions that all take about the same amount of time to execute. ...


For details of the origin, the engineers and engineering, and the general history of OpenVMS, the OpenVMS 20th Anniversary book, and the OpenVMS FAQ are central resources.


Port to DEC Alpha

The VMS port to Alpha resulted in the creation of a second and separate source code libraries (based on a source code management tool known as VDE) for the VAX 32-bit source code library and a second and new source code library for the Alpha (and the subsequent Itanium port) 64-bit architectures. 1992 saw the release of the first version of OpenVMS for Alpha AXP systems, designated OpenVMS AXP V1.0. (The decision to use the 1.x version numbering stream for the pre-production quality releases of OpenVMS AXP caused confusion for some customers and was not repeated in the subsequent porting program; in the Itanium port.) VAX is a 32-bit computing architecture that supports an orthogonal instruction set (machine language) and virtual addressing (i. ... 32-bit is a term applied to processors, and computer architectures which manipulate the address and data in 32-bit chunks. ... Itanium 2 logo Old Itanium logo The Itanium is an IA-64 microprocessor developed jointly by Hewlett-Packard and Intel. ... In computing, a 64-bit component is one in which data are processed or stored in 64-bit units (words). ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor The DEC Alpha, also known as the Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit RISC microprocessor originally developed and fabricated by Digital Equipment Corp. ...


In 1994, with the release of OpenVMS version 6.1, feature (and version number) parity between the VAX and Alpha variants was achieved. This was the so-called Functional Equivalence[24] release, in the marketing materials of the time. Some features were missing however, e.g. based shareable images, which where implemented in later versions. Subsequent version numberings for the VAX and Alpha variants of the product have remained consistent through V7.3, though Alpha subsequently diverged with the availability of the V8.2 and V8.3 releases. 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by United Nations. ...


For general details on the port to Alpha, see the OpenVMS 20th Anniversary book. For technical details on the port, see the DIGITAL Technical Journal Volume 4 Number 4.


Port to Intel Itanium

In 2001, just prior to its acquisition by Hewlett-Packard, Compaq announced[25] the port of OpenVMS to the Intel Itanium 64-bit EPIC architecture. This port was accomplished using source code maintained in common within the OpenVMS Alpha source code library, with conditional and additional modules where changes specific to Itanium were required. The OpenVMS Alpha pool was chosen as the basis of the port as it was significantly more portable than the original OpenVMS VAX source code, and because the Alpha source code pool was already fully 64-bit capable (unlike the VAX source code pool). With the Alpha port, many of the VAX hardware-specific dependencies had been previously moved into the Alpha SRM firmware for OpenVMS. Features necessary for OpenVMS were then moved from SRM into OpenVMS I64 as part of the Itanium port[26]. 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... Compaq Computer Corporation is an American personal computer company founded in 1982, and now a brand name of Hewlett-Packard. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... Itanium 2 logo Old Itanium logo The Itanium is an IA-64 microprocessor developed jointly by Hewlett-Packard and Intel. ... Explicitly Parallel Instruction Computing (EPIC) is a computing paradigm that began to be researched in the 1990s. ...


Unlike the port from VAX to Alpha, in which a "snapshot" of the VAX code base circa V5.4-2[27] was used as the basis for the Alpha release and the 64-bit source code pool then diverged, the OpenVMS Alpha and I64 (Itanium) versions of OpenVMS are built and maintained using a common source code library and common tools. The core software source code control system used for OpenVMS is the VMS Development Environment (VDE); see the VDE installation kit for details.


Two pre-production releases, OpenVMS I64 V8.0 and V8.1, were available in June 30, 2003 and in December 18 2003. These releases were intended for HP organizations and third-party vendors involved with porting software packages to OpenVMS I64.


The following are recent OpenVMS I64 releases:


OpenVMS I64 V8.2, the first production-quality Itanium release, was shipped January 13, 2005. An V8.2 release is also available for Alpha platforms.


OpenVMS I64 V8.2-1, adding support for Integrity Superdome and cell based systems, was released in September 2005. V8.2-1 is available for Itanium platforms only.


OpenVMS I64 V8.3, was released for Itanium platforms in September 2006. V8.3 is also available for Alpha systems.


OpenVMS I64 V8.3-1H1, currently planned for the second half of 2007. c-Class Integrity BladeServer blade support. See the OpenVMS Roadmap for details on future OpenVMS releases. See HP BladeSystem information for details on computing blade products from HP. In computing marketing-speak, the term blade designates a standardised module which one can plug in to a computer system - after the manner of a changeable blade in a kitchen appliance. ...


For technical details on the OpenVMS port to Itanium, see the OpenVMS Technical Journal V6. In particular, see the Porting OpenVMS to Integrity article. Information on OpenVMS releases from V4.0 to current is available, as are listings of upgrade paths in the OpenVMS FAQ and at the HP OpenVMS site.


Features

Window System

OpenVMS uses the DECwindows Motif windowing system as its graphical interface, OpenVMS's X11 compliant windowing system.[28][29] KDE 3. ...


Clustering

OpenVMS supports clustering (first called VAXcluster and later VMScluster), where multiple systems share disk storage, processing, job queues and print queues, and connected either by specialized hardware or an industry-standard LAN (usually Ethernet). A LAN-based cluster is often called a LAVc, for Local Area Network VMScluster, and allows, among other things, bootstrapping a possibly diskless satellite node over the network using the system disk of a bootnode. Linux Cluster at Purdue University. ... A VMScluster is a computer cluster involving a group of computers running the OpenVMS operating system. ... Local area network scheme A local area network (LAN) is a computer network covering a local area, like a home, office, or group of buildings[1]. Current LANs are most likely to be based on switched IEEE 802. ... Ethernet is a large and diverse family of frame-based computer networking technologies for local area networks (LANs). ...


Mixtures of cluster interconnects and technologies are permitted, including Gigabit (GbE) Ethernet, SCSI, DSSI, CI and Memory Channel adapters.


OpenVMS supports up to 96 nodes in a single cluster, and allows mixed-architecture clusters, where VAX and Alpha systems, or Alpha and Itanium systems can co-exist in a single cluster (Various organizations have demonstrated triple-architecture clusters and cluster configurations with up to 150 nodes, but these configurations are not supported by HP).


Unlike many other clustering solutions, VAXcluster offers transparent and fully distributed read-write with record-level locking, which means that the same disk and even the same file can be accessed by several cluster nodes at once; the locking occurs only at the level of a single record of a file, which would usually be one line of text or a single record in a database. This allows the construction of high-availability multiply-redundant database servers.


Cluster interconnections can span upwards of 500 miles, allowing member nodes to be located in different buildings on an office campus, or in different cities.


Host-based volume shadowing allows volumes (of the same or of different sizes) to be shadowed (mirrored) across multiple controllers and multiple hosts, allowing the construction of disaster-tolerant environments.


Full access into the distributed lock manager (DLM) is available to application programmers, and this allows applications to coordinate arbitrary resources and activities across all cluster nodes. This obviously includes file-level coordination, but the resources and activities and operations that can be coordinated with the DLM are completely arbitrary. A distributed lock manager (DLM) provides distributed applications with a means to synchronize their accesses to shared resources. ...


With the supported capability of rolling upgrades and with multiple system disks, cluster configurations can be maintained on-line and upgraded incrementally. This allows cluster configurations to continue to provide application and data access while a subset of the member nodes are upgraded to newer software versions.


For general details, see the OpenVMS Cluster SPD. For more specific details, see the clustering-related manuals in the OpenVMS documentation set.


File system

Main article: OpenVMS filesystem

OpenVMS has a very rich filesystem, with support for stream and record-oriented IO, ACLs, file versioning, etc. The typical user and application interface into the file system is the RMS. Files-11, also known as on-disk structure, is the filesystem used by Hewlett-Packards OpenVMS operating system, and also (in a simpler form) by the older RSX-11. ... In computing, a file system (often also written as filesystem) is a method for storing and organizing computer files and the data they contain to make it easy to find and access them. ... The access control list (ACL) is a concept in computer security used to enforce privilege separation. ... Files-11, also known as on-disk structure, is the filesystem used by Hewlett-Packards OpenVMS operating system, and also (in a simpler form) by the older RSX-11. ...


Details are in the RMS Utilities and RMS programming manuals, and in the I/O User's Reference Manual, all part of the OpenVMS documentation set. Also see the available ODS2 documentation, as well as the VMS File Systems Internals book, by Kirby McCoy, ISBN 1-55558-056-4.


Timekeeping

OpenVMS represents time as the 64-bit number of 100 nanosecond intervals (that is, ten million units per second) since the epoch. The epoch of OpenVMS is midnight preceding November 17, 1858, which is the start of Modified Julian Day numbering. The clock is not necessarily updated every 100 ns; for example, systems with a 100 Hz interval timer simply add 100 000 to the value every hundredth of a second. The operating system includes a mechanism to adjust for hardware timekeeping drift; when calibrated against a known time standard, it easily achieves an accuracy better than 0.01%. All OpenVMS hardware platforms derive timekeeping from an internal clock not associated with the AC supply power frequency. To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 10−9 seconds and 10−8 seconds (1 nanosecond and 10 nanoseconds) See also times of other orders of magnitude. ... In chronology, an epoch is an instant chosen as the origin of a particular time scale. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Julian day or Julian day number (JDN) is the (integer) number of days that have elapsed since Monday, January 1, 4713 BC in the proleptic Julian calendar [1]. That day is counted as Julian day zero. ...


While the system is shut down, time is kept by a Time-of-Year ("TOY") hardware clock. This clock keeps time to a lower resolution (perhaps 1 second) and generally, a lower accuracy (often 0.025% versus 0.01%). When the system is restarted, the VMS 64-bit time value is recomputed based on the time kept by the TOY clock and the last recorded year (stored on the system disk).


The 100 nanosecond granularity implemented within OpenVMS and the 63-bit absolute time representation (the sign bit indicates absolute time when clear and relative time when set) should allow OpenVMS trouble-free time computations up to 31-JUL-31086 02:48:05.47. At this instant, all clocks and time-keeping operations in OpenVMS will suddenly fail, since the counter will overflow and start from zero again.


Though the native OpenVMS time format can range far into the future, applications based on the C runtime library will likely encounter timekeeping problems beyond January 19, 2038 due to the Year 2038 problem. Many components and applications may also encounter field-length-related date problems at year 10000 (see the Year 10,000 problem). January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2038 (MMXXXVIII) will be a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In computing, the year 2038 problem may cause some computer software to fail in or about the year 2038. ... Ten thousand (10000) is the natural number following 9999 and preceding 10001. ... The year 10,000 problem is the collective name for all potential software bugs that may emerge as the need to express years with five digits arises. ...


Detailed information on time and timekeeping, and on daylight saving time and timezone differential factor operations, is contained in the OpenVMS FAQ.


Programming

The common language programming environment is described in the OpenVMS Calling Standard and the OpenVMS Programming Concepts manuals. This provides mixed-language calls, and a set of language-specific, run-time library (RTL), and system service routines. The language calls and the RTLs are implemented in user-mode shareable images, while the system services calls are generally part of the operating system, or part of privileged-mode code. This distinction between languages and RTLs and system services was once fairly clean and clear, but the implementations and specifics have become rather more murky over the years.


Various utilities and tools are integrated, as are various add-on languages and tools.


Many Programming Examples are available, see the pointers in the OpenVMS FAQ.


Common Language Environment

Among OpenVMS's notable features is the Common Language Environment, a strictly defined standard that specifies calling convention for functions and routines, including use of stacks, registers, etc., independently of programming language. Because of this, it is possible to call a routine written in one language (e.g. FORTRAN) from another (e.g COBOL), without needing to know the implementation details of the target language. OpenVMS itself is implemented in a variety of different languages (primarily BLISS, VAX Macro and C) (per comp.os.vms newsgroup postings from members of HP OpenVMS Engineering), and the common language environment and calling standard supports freely mixing these languages, as well as Ada, PL/I, Fortran, Basic, and others. This is in contrast to a system such as Unix, which is implemented nearly entirely in the C language. Simple representation of a stack In computer science, a stack is a temporary abstract data type and data structure based on the principle of Last In First Out (LIFO). ... In computer architecture, a processor register is a small amount of very fast computer memory used to speed the execution of computer programs by providing quick access to commonly used values—typically, the values being in the midst of a calculation at a given point in time. ... Fortran (previously FORTRAN[1]) is a general-purpose[2], procedural,[3] imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. ... COBOL is a third-generation programming language, and one of the oldest programming languages still in active use. ... BLISS is a system programming language developed at Carnegie-Mellon by W. A. Wulf, D. B. Russell, and A. N. Habermann around 1970. ... VAX Macro is the computer assembly language implementing the instruction set for the line of CPUs designed to run the OpenVMS operating system created by Digital Equipment Corporation in 1977. ... C is a general-purpose, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ... Ada is a structured, statically typed imperative computer programming language designed by a team led by Jean Ichbiah of CII Honeywell Bull during 1977–1983. ... PL/I (Programming Language One, pronounced pee el one) is an imperative computer programming language designed for scientific, engineering, and business applications. ... Fortran (previously FORTRAN[1]) is a general-purpose[2], procedural,[3] imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. ... BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of high-level programming languages. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... C is a general-purpose, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ...


For details on these compilers and libraries, see the language manuals available at OpenVMS documentation.


Macro32 (an assembler on OpenVMS VAX, and a compiler on OpenVMS Alpha and on OpenVMS I64) is available within and integrated into OpenVMS. Bliss compilers are available for download from the OpenVMS Freeware, as are various ports of Perl, PHP, Ruby and other languages. Java is available from the HP Java website. C, Fortran and other languages are commercial products, and are available for purchase.


Run-time Libraries

OpenVMS contains a very rich set of Run-time Libraries (RTLs). These cover a wide range of functions, including String manipulation (STR$ routines), Mathematical operations (MTH$ routines), the Run-time Library (LIB$) routines, Screen Management operations (SMG$ routines) and a number of other categories grouped together as General Purpose functions (OTS$ routines). These functions, combined with the low-level System Services, make it easy to write complex programs. A library of Screen Management routines for OpenVMS. These routines allow programs to create text-based, terminal interfaces in a terminal-independent manner. ...


Before writing a simple program in a High-Level language, however, the user should consider whether the required operation can be completed using DCL's functions from a command file. Start with the OpenVMS User's Guide. For details on the programming interfaces, see the associated manuals in the OpenVMS documentation. DCL is the standard Command line interface (CLI) adopted by most of the operating systems that were sold by the former Digital Equipment Corporation (which has since been acquired by Hewlett-Packard). ...


Security

OpenVMS provides various security features and mechanisms, including security identifiers, resource identifiers, subsystem identifiers, ACLs, and detailed security auditing and alarms. Specific versions evaluated at DoD NCSC Class C2 and, with the SEVMS security enhanced services support, at NCSC Class B1, per the NCSC Rainbow Series. OpenVMS also holds an ITSEC E3 rating. For details on these ratings and the specific associated OpenVMS versions and ratings, see the NCSC and Common Criteria pages, and the associated product listings. The access control list (ACL) is a concept in computer security used to enforce privilege separation. ... The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated as DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ... The Rainbow Series (sometimes known as the Rainbow Books) is a series of computer security standards published by the United States government in the 1980s and 1990s. ... The National Computer Security Center, part of the National Security Agency, was established in 1981 and is responsible for testing and evaluating computer equipment for use in high security and/or confidential applications. ... The Common Criteria (CC) is an international standard (ISO 15408) for computer security. ...


For details on the OpenVMS security mechanisms, see the HP OpenVMS Guide to System Security manual available at the OpenVMS documentation web site http://www.hp.com/go/openvms/doc/. Also see the OpenVMS Security information.


Documentation

The OpenVMS operating documentation for various recent releases and for various core OpenVMS layered products is available online at the HP website http://www.hp.com/go/openvms/doc/.


Software Product Description (SPD) documents for many OpenVMS-related products (and for OpenVMS itself) are available at http://h18000.www1.hp.com/info/spd/. SPDs are introductory and legal descriptions of various products, listing the various supported capabilities and product features.


The OpenVMS Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) contains information and pointers associated with OpenVMS, and is available in various formats at http://www.hoffmanlabs.org/vmsfaq/.


Releases, Software Support Status

The current OpenVMS releases are OpenVMS Alpha V8.3, OpenVMS I64 V8.3, and OpenVMS VAX V7.3.


HP provides Current Version Support (CVS) and Prior Version Support (PVS) for various OpenVMS releases. The OpenVMS Roadmap guarantees PVS status for specific releases (V5.5-2, V5.5-2H4, V6.2, V6.2-1H3, V7.3-2) until 2012, and only then ending with 24 month's prior notice. CVS is provided for the current release and for the immediately-prior release.


Per the OpenVMS Roadmap, the next OpenVMS release is reportedly OpenVMS I64 V8.3-1H1 and is scheduled for the second half of 2007, and with OpenVMS V8.4 and subsequent release(s) scheduled roughly 18 to 24 months apart.


Applicable Industry Standards

The following are some of the industry standards claimed in the OpenVMS Software Product Description (SPD) document:

  • ANSI X3.4-1986: ASCII
  • ANSI X3.22-1973/FIPS 3-1: Magtape, 800 BPI NRZI
  • ANSI X3.27-1987/FIPS 79: Magtape, Labels and Volume Structures
  • ANSI X3.39-1986/FIPS 25: Magtape, 1600 BPI PE
  • ANSI X3.40-1983: Magtape, unrecorded
  • ANSI X3.41-1974: ASCII 7-bit control sequences
  • ANSI X3.42-1975: Numeric values in character strings
  • ANSI X3.54-1986/FIPS 50: Magtape, 6250 BPI GCR
  • ANSI X3.131-1986/ISO 9316(1989): SCSI-1
  • ANSI X3.131-1994/ISO 10288(1994): SCSI-2
  • ANSI/IEEE 802.2-1985: logical link control
  • ANSI/IEEE 802.3-1985: Ethernet CSMA/CD
  • FIPS 1-2: Code for Information Interchange; includes ANSI X3.4-1977(86)/FIPS 15; ANSI X3.32-1973/FIPS 36; ANSI X3.41-1974/FIPS 35; FIPS 7
  • FIPS 16-1/ANSI X3.15-1976: Serial Comms Bit Sequencing; FED STD 1010
  • FIPS 22-1/ANSI X3.1-1976: Synch signaling for DTE/DCE comms; FED STD 1013
  • FIPS 37/ANSI X3.36-1975: Synch High-Speed signaling for DTE/DCE comms; GIPS 1001
  • FIPS 86/ANSI X3.64-1979: Additional Controls for Use with ASCII
  • ISO 646: ISO 7-bit Coded Character Set for Information Exchange
  • ISO 1001: Magtape, Labels and Volume Structures
  • ISO 1863: Magtape, 800 BPI NRZI
  • ISO 1864: Magtape, unrecorded / NRZI and PE
  • ISO 2022: Code extensions for ISO 646
  • ISO 3307: Time and Date Representations
  • ISO 3788: Magtape, 1600 BPI PE
  • ISO 4873: 8-Bit Character Codes
  • ISO 5652: Magtape, 6250 BPI GCR
  • ISO 6429: Control Sequences
  • ISO 9660: CD-ROM volume and file structures

OpenVMS Hobbyist Program

Despite being a proprietary commercial operating system, in 1997 OpenVMS and a number of layered products were made available free of charge for hobbyist, non-commercial use as part of the OpenVMS Hobbyist Program. Since then, several companies producing OpenVMS software have made their products available under the same terms, such as Process Software and MVP Systems. 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


As of 2006, the time required to obtain a hobbyist license was approximately one week from start to finish; from registration with a user group through acquisition of licenses and media. Hobbyist CD media is available for US$30, including international shipping. No anonymous FTP software downloads are available to hobbyists.


More information on the hobbyist program can be found at http://www.openvmshobbyist.org/ and http://www.OpenVMS.org/


Central OpenVMS-related topics

OpenVMS-related terms and acronyms include:

  • ACMS - Digital's transaction processing (TP) system, often used with the DECdtm distributed transaction manager system service components of OpenVMS, and with the DECforms and Rdb products in applications with transactional requirements
  • Asynchronous system trap (AST)
  • DECforms - Digital's successor to the Forms Management System
  • DECnet - Digital's proprietary networking architecture which also includes MOP.
  • DIGITAL Command Language (DCL) - Digital Command Language - command line interface.
  • DECwindows - Digital's implementation of the X Window System.
  • Event flag - a simple synchronization mechanism
  • Files-11 - low level filesystem, also known as the eXtended QIO Processor (XQP).
  • File Description Language (FDL) - File Description Language - defines file record/field structure.
  • Forms Management System (FMS) - Digital's first generation language-independent Form driver.
  • Local Area Transport (LAT) - is a LAN-based non-routable communications protocol to support DEC and other Terminal Servers
  • QIO Queued Input Output; the low-level I/O interface
  • Oracle Rdb - An SQL compliant relational database created by DEC but now owned by Oracle
  • Record Management Services (RMS) - high-level, language/device-independent Input/output
  • Runtime libraries (RTL) - shared routines and functions, callable from any language
  • OpenVMS Galaxy - co-habitating OpenVMS installations; a form of system partitioning
  • OpenVMS Clusters - for redundancy, incremental hardware upgrades, or disaster tolerance

For information on layered products, see the Software Product Description (SPD) for the product. For OpenVMS components, see the OpenVMS documentation set. ACMS was a transaction processing system sold by Digital Equipment Corporation of Maynard, Massachusetts for their computer systems running OpenVMS. Categories: | | ... In computer science, transaction processing is information processing that is divided into individual, indivisible operations, called Each transaction must succeed or fail as a complete unit; it cannot remain in an intermediate state. ... Rdb/VMS is a relational database management system (RDBMS) for the Hewlett-Packard OpenVMS operating system. ... Asynchronous system trap (AST) refers to a mechanism used in several computer operating systems designed by the former Digital Equipment Corporation ( DEC) of Maynard, Massachusetts. ... DECnet is a proprietary suite of network protocols created by Digital Equipment Corporation, originally released in 1975 in order to connect two PDP-11 minicomputers. ... The Maintenance Operation Protocol (MOP) is used for utility services such as uploading and downloading system software, remote testing and problem diagnosis. ... DCL is the standard Command line interface (CLI) adopted by most of the operating systems that were sold by the former Digital Equipment Corporation (which has since been acquired by Hewlett-Packard). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... KDE 3. ... An event flag was a process synchronization primitive in the OpenVMS operating system. ... Files-11, also known as on-disk structure, is the filesystem used by Hewlett-Packards OpenVMS operating system, and also (in a simpler form) by the older RSX-11. ... See Filing system for this term as it is used in libraries and offices In computing, a file system is a method for storing and organizing computer files and the data they contain to make it easy to find and access them. ... Local Area Transport OR LAT is a non-routable networking technology developed by Digital Equipment Corporation to provide connection between the DECserver 90, 100, 200, 300, 700 and DECserver 900 Terminal Servers and Digitals VAX and Alpha host computers via Ethernet, giving communication between those hosts and serial devices... QIO (Queue I/O) is a term used in several computer operating systems designed by the former Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) of Maynard, Massachusetts. ... Rdb/VMS is a relational database management system (RDBMS) for the Hewlett-Packard OpenVMS operating system. ... Files-11, also known as on-disk structure, is the filesystem used by Hewlett-Packards OpenVMS operating system, and also (in a simpler form) by the older RSX-11. ... In computing, input/output, or I/O, is the collection of interfaces that different functional units (sub-systems) of an information processing system use to communicate with each other, or the signals (information) sent through those interfaces. ...


Notes

  1. ^ See the OpenVMS Software Product Description (SPD) documents for OpenVMS VAX, OpenVMS Alpha, and OpenVMS I64; see the SPD repository
  2. ^ VAX Architecture Reference Manual
  3. ^ http://ftp.digital.com/pub/Digital/info/semiconductor/literature/dsc-library.html DIGITAL Microprocessor and Alpha Architecture Library
  4. ^ Intel Itanium documentation
  5. ^ OpenVMS Alpha Internals and Data Structures : Scheduling and Process Control : Version 7.0, Ruth Goldenberg, Saro Saravanan, Denise Dumas, ISBN 1-55558-156-0
  6. ^ OpenVMS Alpha Internals and Data Structures: Memory Management, Ruth Goldenberg, ISBN 1-55558-159-5
  7. ^ VAX/VMS Internals and Data Structures: Version 5.2 ("IDSM"), Ruth Goldenberg, Saro Saravanan, Denise Dumas, ISBN 1-55558-059-9
  8. ^ OpenVMS Alpha Internals and Data Structures : Scheduling and Process Control : Version 7.0, Ruth Goldenberg, Saro Saravanan, Denise Dumas, ISBN 1-55558-156-0
  9. ^ OpenVMS documentation; see the DECnet and TCP/IP Services documentation, and see the User's Guide
  10. ^ OpenVMS documentation; see the clustering and OpenVMS Galaxy documentation
  11. ^ OpenVMS documentation; see the RMS and XQP documentation
  12. ^ OpenVMS documentation; see the RMS documentation
  13. ^ The Oracle Rdb web site
  14. ^ OpenVMS documentation; see the languages documentation
  15. ^ OpenVMS Freeware; see the Bliss, Macro64, OPS5, Perl, PHP, Tcl/Tk and other language kits and tools
  16. ^ Writing Real Programs in DCL, second edition, Stephen Hoffman, Paul Anagnostopoulos, ISBN 1-55558-191-9
  17. ^ OpenVMS documentation; see the OpenVMS User's Guide
  18. ^ OpenVMS documentation; see the OpenVMS Galaxy documentation
  19. ^ OpenVMS documentation; see OpenVMS Guide to System Security manual
  20. ^ NIST NCSC
  21. ^ National Computer Security Center (NCSC) Trusted Product Evaluation List (TPEL)
  22. ^ OpenVMS at DEFCON9
  23. ^ http://research.microsoft.com/~gbell/bio.htm
  24. ^ OpenVMS VAX and Alpha Compatibility
  25. ^ http://h71000.www7.hp.com/openvmstimes/openvmstimes.pdf
  26. ^ Information from various comp.os.vms newsgroup postings from OpenVMS Engineers
  27. ^ OpenVMS VAX and Alpha Compatibility
  28. ^ HP DECwindows Motif for OpenVMS Software Product Description (SPD)
  29. ^ Using DECwindows Motif for OpenVMS, Margie Sherlock, ISBN 1-55558-114-5

See also

OpenVMS Books: The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of widely used and currently available operating systems. ... A screenshot of SRM loading aboot (a Linux bootloader) The SRM firmware (also called the SRM console) is the boot firmware written by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) for computer systems based on the Alpha AXP microprocessor. ... In computing, firmware is software that is embedded in a hardware device. ... DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor The DEC Alpha, also known as the Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit RISC microprocessor originally developed and fabricated by Digital Equipment Corp (DEC). ... EFI is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, including: Electronic fuel injection Electronics For Imaging European Forest Institute Extensible Firmware Interface, in computing This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a... In computing, firmware is software that is embedded in a hardware device. ... Itanium 2 logo Old Itanium logo The Itanium is an IA-64 microprocessor developed jointly by Hewlett-Packard and Intel. ... FreeVMS is a free software clone —licensed under the terms of the GPL— of the computer operating system VMS. As of 2006, the project was very much in the early stages of development. ... Line 14 - St Lazare station 1/10 scale model of the new m2 metro in Lausanne, of the same type as the Paris line 14. ... Indian Railways (IR) is the state-owned railway company of India. ... Terry Shannon Terry Craig (T.C.) Shannon, was born in Syracuse, New York, USA on August 16, 1952, the first son of Glenn and Muriel (Mike) Shannon. ...


No attempt has been made to determine which of these books are in or out of print.

  • Getting Started with OpenVMS, Michael D. Duffy, ISBN 1-55558-279-6
  • Getting Started with OpenVMS System Management, 2nd Edition, David Donald Miller, Stephen Hoffman, Lawrence Baldwin, ISBN 1-55558-243-5
  • Introduction to OpenVMS, 5th Edition Lesley Ogilvie Rice, ISBN 1-55558-194-3
  • Introduction to OpenVMS, David W Bynon, ISBN 1-878956-61-2
  • OpenVMS Alpha Internals and Data Structures : Scheduling and Process Control : Version 7.0, Ruth Goldenberg, Saro Saravanan, Denise Dumas, ISBN 1-55558-156-0
  • OpenVMS Alpha Internals and Data Structures: Memory Management, Ruth Goldenberg, ISBN 1-55558-159-5
  • OpenVMS System Management Guide, Lawrence Baldwin, ISBN 1-55558-143-9
  • The OpenVMS User's Guide, Second Edition, Patrick Holmay, ISBN 1-55558-203-6
  • Using DECwindows Motif for OpenVMS, Margie Sherlock, ISBN 1-55558-114-5
  • VAX/VMS Internals and Data Structures: Version 5.2 ("IDSM"), Ruth Goldenberg, Saro Saravanan, Denise Dumas, ISBN 1-55558-059-9
  • Writing Real Programs in DCL, second edition, Stephen Hoffman, Paul Anagnostopoulos, ISBN 1-55558-191-9
  • Writing OpenVMS Alpha Device Drivers in C, Margie Sherlock, Leonard Szubowicz, ISBN 1-55558-133-1
  • OpenVMS Performance Management, Joginder Sethi, ISBN 1-55558-126-9
  • Many more books: Arne Vajhøj's OpenVMS Bibliography
  • OpenVMS online documentation

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
OpenVMS - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2490 words)
OpenVMS (Open Virtual Memory System or just VMS) is the name of a high-end computer server operating system that runs on the VAX and Alpha family of computers developed by Digital Equipment Corporation of Maynard, Massachusetts (now owned by Hewlett-Packard), and more recently on Hewlett-Packard systems built around Intel Itanium CPU.
OpenVMS is a multi-user, multiprocessing virtual memory-based operating system (OS) designed for use in time sharing, batch processing, real time (process priorities can be set higher than OS kernel jobs) and transaction processing.
OpenVMS itself is implemented in a variety of different languages (primarily BLISS, VAX Macro and C), and the common language environment and calling standard supports freely mixing these languages, as well as Ada, PL/I, Fortran, Basic, and others.
OpenVMS - a System of Structure - OSNews.com (850 words)
In its initial concept, OpenVMS (then VAX/VMS) sought to provide the functionality and capabilities of a mainframe-class system at a small fraction of the size and cost, while at the same time providing higher levels of reliability and integrity.
OpenVMS clusters, which are composed of multiple OpenVMS processors sharing a file system, have reported uptimes measured in decades, across system updates, CPU changes, and mass storage reconfigurations and upgrades.
OpenVMS was the first system to be certified by the US National Computer Security Center at the C2 level, in 1986.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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