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Encyclopedia > OpenType
OpenType
File extension: .otf, .ttf
Type code: OTTO
Uniform Type Identifier: public.opentype-font
Developed by: Microsoft & Adobe Systems
Type of format: Font file
Standard(s): OpenType 1.4

OpenType is a scalable format for computer fonts (also sometimes known interchangeably as "typefaces"), initially developed by Microsoft, later joined by Adobe Systems. OpenType was first announced in 1996, with a significant number of OpenType fonts starting to ship in 2000–2001. Adobe completed conversion of its entire font library to OpenType around the end of 2002. As of early 2005, there were around 10,000 fonts available in OpenType format, with Adobe's library making up under a third of the total. As of 2006, every major font foundry and many minor ones were developing fonts in OpenType format. A filename extension is a suffix to the name of a computer file applied to indicate its type. ... A type code is a mechanism used in pre-Mac OS X versions of the Macintosh operating system to denote a files format, in a manner similar to file extensions in other operating systems. ... A Uniform Type Identifier (UTI) is a string that uniquely identifies the type of a class of items. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Adobe Systems (pronounced a-DOE-bee IPA: ) (NASDAQ: ADBE) (LSE: ABS) is an American computer software company headquartered in San Jose, California, USA. Adobe was founded in December 1982[1] by John Warnock and Charles Geschke, who established the company after leaving Xerox PARC in order to develop and sell... “Font” redirects here. ... Standards are produced by many organizations, some for internal usage only, others for use by a groups of people, groups of companies, or a subsection of an industry. ... In typography, a typeface is a co-ordinated set of character designs, which usually comprises an alphabet of letters, a set of numerals and a set of punctuation marks. ... In typography, a typeface is a co-ordinated set of character designs, which usually comprises an alphabet of letters, a set of numerals and a set of punctuation marks. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Adobe Systems (pronounced a-DOE-bee IPA: ) (NASDAQ: ADBE) (LSE: ABS) is an American computer software company headquartered in San Jose, California, USA. Adobe was founded in December 1982[1] by John Warnock and Charles Geschke, who established the company after leaving Xerox PARC in order to develop and sell... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A type foundry is a company that designs and/or distributes typefaces. ...

Contents

History

OpenType is intended by Microsoft and Adobe to be the successor to the TrueType font format which was developed by Apple Computer and licensed by Microsoft, and the Type 1 ("PostScript") font format developed by Adobe. TrueType is an outline font standard originally developed by Apple Computer in the late 1980s as a competitor to Adobes Type 1 fonts used in PostScript. ... Apple Inc. ... PostScript (PS) is a page description language used primarily in the electronic and desktop publishing areas. ... For the literary term, see Postscript. ...


Microsoft tried to license Apple's advanced typography technology, "GX Typography," in the early 1990s, and upon being refused developed its own technology, dubbed "TrueType Open," in 1994. [1] Adobe joined Microsoft in 1996, adding support for the type of outlines used in its Type 1 fonts, and the name OpenType was then used for the combined technologies.


Adobe and Microsoft continued to develop and refine OpenType over the next decade. Then, in late 2005, OpenType began the process of becoming an open standard under the International Standards Organization (ISO), under the MPEG group which had previously adopted OpenType by reference. The new standard is essentially OpenType 1.4, with appropriate language changes for ISO, and is called the "Open Font Format." The initial adoption of the new standard was completed in March 2007, when OpenType became ISO Standard ISO/IEC 14496-22 [2]. Logo of the International Organization for Standardization The International Organization for Standardization (ISO or Iso) is an international standard-setting body made up of representatives from national standards bodies. ... The Moving Picture Experts Group or MPEG is a working group of ISO/IEC charged with the development of video and audio encoding standards. ...


Description

OpenType uses the general "sfnt" structure of a TrueType font, but it adds several smartfont options which enhance the font's typographic and language support capabilities. The glyph outline data in an OpenType font may be in one of two formats: TrueType format outlines, in a 'glyf' table, or Compact Font Format (CFF) outlines in a 'CFF ' table. CFF outline data is based on the PostScript language Type 2 font format. The table name 'CFF ' is four characters long, ending in a space character. Smartfont systems are font rendering systems that have advanced typographic features such as choosing the proper glyph automatically. ... variant glyphs representing the character a (allographs of a) in the Zapfino typeface. ... ... Compact Font Format (also known as CFF font format, Type 2 font format, or CFF/Type 2 font format) is a font format specification developed by Adobe. ... For the literary term, see Postscript. ...


For many purposes, such as layout, it doesn't matter what the outline data format is, but for some purposes, such as rasterisation, it is significant. The term "OpenType" doesn't specify outline data format. Sometimes terms like "OpenType (PostScript flavor)", "OpenType CFF", or "OpenType (TrueType flavor)" are used to indicate which outline format a particular OpenType font contains. Rasterization or rasterisation is the task of taking an image described in a vector graphics format (shapes) and converting it into a raster image (pixels or dots) for output on a video display or printer. ...


OpenType has several distinctive features:

  • The font character encoding is based on Unicode and can support any script (or multiple scripts at once).
  • OpenType fonts can have up to 65,536 glyphs.
  • Fonts can have advanced typographic features that allow proper typographic treatment of complex scripts and advanced typographic effects for simpler scripts, such as the Latin script used in writing English.
  • Font files are intended to be cross-platform, and can be used without modification on Mac OS, Windows and some Unix systems.
  • If no additional glyphs or extensive typographic features are added, OpenType CFF fonts can be considerably smaller than their Type 1 counterparts.

A character encoding or character set (sometimes referred to as code page) consists of a code that pairs a sequence of characters from a given set with something else, such as a sequence of natural numbers, octets or electrical pulses, in order to facilitate the storage of text in computers... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... variant glyphs representing the character a (allographs of a) in the Zapfino typeface. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Comparison to other formats

Compared with Apple Computer's "GX Typography"—now called Apple Advanced Typography (AAT)—OpenType is less flexible in typographic options, but superior in language-related options and support. Apple Inc. ... Apple Computer has been attentive to the typefaces used in its marketing, operating systems and industrial design. ...


OpenType has been much more successful than AAT. There are many more fonts and supporting applications, despite AAT being an older technology. The single-platform nature of AAT and the lack of support from any major software vendor other than Apple itself are both likely factors in this.


From a font developer's perspective, OpenType is, for many common situations, easier to develop for than AAT. First, the simple declarative substitutions and positioning of OpenType are more readily understood than AAT's more complex (but powerful) state tables. Second, Adobe's strategy of licensing at no charge the source code developed for its own font development, AFDKO (Adobe Font Development Kit for OpenType), allowed third-party font editing applications such as FontLab and FontMaster to add support with relative ease. Although Adobe's text-driven coding support is not as visual as Microsoft's separate tool, VOLT (Visual OpenType Layout Tool), the integration with the tools being used to make the fonts has been well received. Source code (commonly just source or code) is any series of statements written in some human-readable computer programming language. ... FontLab is both the name of a company, FontLab Ltd, and the former name of their flagship font editor product, now called FontLab Studio. ...


Another difference is that an OpenType support framework (such as Microsoft's Uniscribe) needs to provide a fair bit of knowledge about special language processing issues to handle (for example) Arabic. With AAT, the font developer of an AAT font has to encapsulate all that expertise in the font. This means that AAT can handle any arbitrary language, but that it requires more work and expertise from the font developers. On the other hand, OpenType fonts are easier to make, but can only support complex scripts if the application or operating system knows how to handle them. Uniscribe is the Microsoft Windows set of services for rendering Unicode-encoded text. ... The word العربية alarabiyyah, the Arabic language in Arabic, in stages of rendering. ...


Prior to supporting OpenType, Adobe promoted multiple master fonts for high-end typography. Multiple master fonts lacked the controls for alternate glyphs and languages provided by OpenType, but provided more control over glyph shape. Multiple master fonts (or MM fonts) are (or, rather, were) an extension to Adobe Systems Type 1 PostScript fonts, now mostly superseded by the advent of OpenType. ...


OpenType support

Basic Roman support

OpenType support may be divided into several categories: virtually all applications and most modern operating systems have basic Roman support and work with OpenType fonts just as well as other, older formats. What is of particular interest apart from basic Roman support is: Extended language support through Unicode, support for "complex" writing scripts such as Arabic and the Indic languages, and advanced typographic support for Latin script languages such as English. The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The Indo-Aryan languages form a subgroup of the Indo-Iranian languages, which belong to the Indo-European family of languages. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Amongst Microsoft's operating systems, OpenType TT fonts (.TTF) are backward compatible and therefore supported by all Windows versions. OpenType PS fonts (.OTF) are however supported only by Windows 2000, Windows XP and Windows Vista. Adobe Type Manager is required to be installed on Windows 95/98/NT/Me for basic Roman support. Windows redirects here. ... Windows 2000 (also referred to as Win2K) is a preemptive, interruptible, graphical and business-oriented operating system designed to work with either uniprocessor or symmetric multi-processor computers. ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on general-purpose computer systems, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... Windows Vista is a line of graphical operating systems used on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ... Adobe Type Manager (ATM) is the name of four different computer programs created and marketed by Adobe Systems. ...


Extended language support

Extended language support via Unicode for both OpenType and TrueType is present in most Windows applications (including Microsoft Office Publisher, most Adobe applications, and Microsoft Office 2003, though not Word 2002), and many Mac OS X applications, including Apple's own such as TextEdit, Pages and Keynote. OpenType is fully supported on Mac OS X by the word processor Mellel.sux dick The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Microsoft Publisher is a desktop publishing application from Microsoft. ... Adobe Systems (pronounced a-DOE-bee IPA: ) (NASDAQ: ADBE) (LSE: ABS) is an American computer software company headquartered in San Jose, California, USA. Adobe was founded in December 1982[1] by John Warnock and Charles Geschke, who established the company after leaving Xerox PARC in order to develop and sell... A screenshot of Apples TextEdit. ... For Bering Strait album, see Pages (album). ... For the text editor called Keynote, see Keynote (notetaking software). ... Mellel (, the Hebrew for text) is a word processor for Mac OS X, purported to be especially suited for technical and academic writers. ...


OpenType support for complex written scripts has so far mainly appeared in Microsoft applications in Microsoft Office, such as Microsoft Word and Microsoft Publisher. Adobe InDesign provides extensive OpenType capability in Japanese but does not directly support Middle Eastern or Indic scripts — though a separate version of InDesign is available that supports Middle Eastern scripts such as Arabic and Hebrew; Indic scripts are still not supported. The word العربية alarabiyyah, the Arabic language in Arabic, in stages of rendering. ... Microsoft Office is an office suite from Microsoft for Microsoft Windows and Apple Mac OS X operating systems. ... Microsoft Word is Microsofts flagship word processing software. ... Microsoft Publisher is a desktop publishing application from Microsoft. ... Adobe InDesign is a desktop publishing (DTP) application produced by Adobe Systems. ... The Brahmic family is a family of abugidas (writing systems) used in South Asia, Southeast Asia, Tibet, Mongolia, Manchuria, descended from the BrāhmÄ« script of Mauryan India. ...


Advanced typography

Advanced typographic support for Latin script languages had so far mainly appeared in Adobe applications such as Adobe InDesign, Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Illustrator. QuarkXPress 6.5 and below (Quark, Inc.) are not Unicode compliant. Hence text which contains anything other than WinANSI/MacRoman characters will not display correctly in an OpenType font (nor in other Unicode font formats, for that matter). However, Quark offers support similar to Adobe's in QuarkXPress 7, which shipped in May 2006. Corel's CorelDRAW does not support OpenType typographic features, either. Adobe InDesign is a desktop publishing (DTP) application produced by Adobe Systems. ... Photoshop redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... QuarkXPress is a page layout application for Mac OS X and Windows, produced by Quark, Inc. ... Quark, Inc. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Code page is the traditional IBM term used for a specific character encoding table: a mapping in which a sequence of bits, usually a single octet representing integer values 0 through 255, is associated with a specific character. ... Mac OS Roman is a character encoding primarily used by Mac OS to represent text. ... QuarkXPress is a page layout application for Mac OS X and Windows, produced by Quark, Inc. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Strangely, on Windows, all available word processors, including Microsoft Office Word, lack advanced OpenType typography features. Advanced typography features are implemented only in high-end desktop publishing software and not present in any of the word processors. However, the text engine from Windows Presentation Foundation, which is a managed code implementation of OpenType is the first Windows API to expose OpenType features to software developers, supporting both OpenType, TrueType, and OpenType CFF (Compact Font Format) fonts. It supports advanced typographic features such as ligatures, old-style numerals, swash variants, fractions, superscript and subscript, small capitalization, glyph substitution, multiple baselines, contextual and stylistic alternate character forms, kerning, line-level justification, ruby characters etc. So far, Expression Blend and Expression Design use the WPF text engine, and thus automatically gain support of advanced typography features. On Mac OS X, AAT-supporting applications running on Mac OS X 10.4 and later, including TextEdit and Keynote, get considerable OpenType support. Microsoft Word is a word processing application from Microsoft. ... Adobe InDesign CS2, one of many popular desktop publishing applications. ... This subsystem is a part of . ... In Microsoft Windows terminology, managed code is computer instructions — that is, code — executed by a CLI-compliant virtual machine, such as Microsofts . ... API and Api redirect here. ... TrueType is an outline font standard originally developed by Apple Computer in the late 1980s as a competitor to Adobes Type 1 fonts used in PostScript. ... Compact Font Format (also known as CFF font format, Type 2 font format, or CFF/Type 2 font format) is a font format specification developed by Adobe. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ligature (palaeography). ... Hoefler Text, a contemporary font, uses hanging or old style text figures. ... A swash is a typographical flourish on a glyph, like an exaggerated serif. ... For other meanings of the word fraction, see fraction (disambiguation) A cake with one quarter removed. ... This article is about the term superscript as used in typography. ... A subscript is a number, figure, or indicator that appears below the normal line of type, typically used in a formula, mathematical expression, or description of a chemical compound. ... In typography, small caps (short for small capitals) are uppercase (capital) characters that are printed in a smaller size than normal uppercase characters of the same font. ... Font substitution is the process of using one font in place of another when the intended font either is not available or does not contain glyphs for the required characters. ... In typography and penmanship, the baseline is the line upon which most letters sit and under which descenders extend. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... In typesetting, justification is the setting of text or images within a column or measure to align along both the left and right margin. ... This article or section uses Ruby annotation. ... Microsoft Expression Blend screenshot Microsoft Expression Blend is Microsofts user interface design tool for creating rich graphical interfaces for web and desktop applications that blend the features of these two types of applications. ... Microsoft Expression Design screenshot Microsoft Expression Design is an upcoming commercial vector and bitmap graphics editor based on Creature House Expression, which was acquired by Microsoft in 2003. ... Apple Computer has been attentive to the typefaces used in its marketing, operating systems and industrial design. ... Mac OS X version 10. ...


Apple's support for OpenType in Mac OS X 10.4 includes most advanced typographic features necessary for Latin script languages, such as small caps, oldstyle figures, and various sorts of ligatures. It does not yet support contextual alternates, positional forms, nor glyph reordering as handled by Microsoft's Uniscribe library on Windows. Thus, Mac OS X 10.4 does not offer support for Arabic or Indic scripts via OpenType (though such scripts are fully supported by existing AAT fonts). Mac OS X version 10. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world, the standard script of the English language and most of the languages of western and central Europe, and of those areas settled by Europeans. ... In typography, small caps (short for small capitals) are uppercase (capital) characters that are printed in a smaller size than normal uppercase characters of the same font. ... Hoefler Text, a contemporary font, uses hanging or old style text figures. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ligature (palaeography). ... Apple Computer has been attentive to the typefaces used in its marketing, operating systems and industrial design. ...


Bitstream Panorama, a line layout and text composition engine from Bitstream Inc., provides complete OpenType support for compact and standard Asian fonts, Arabic, Hebrew, Indic, Thai and over 50 other worldwide languages. The application supports key OpenType tables required for line layout, such as BASE, glyph definition (GDEF),glyph positioning (GPOS), and glyph substitution (GSUB). Panorama also offers complete support for advanced typography features, such as ligatures, swashes, small caps, ornaments, ordinals, superiors, old style, kerning, fractions, etc. Bitstream Panorama is a line layout and text composition engine to render text in various worldwide languages. ... Bitstream Inc. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ligature (palaeography). ... A swash is a typographical flourish on a glyph, like an exaggerated serif. ... In typography, small caps (short for small capitals) are uppercase (capital) characters that are printed in a smaller size than normal uppercase characters of the same font. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In free software environments like Linux, OpenType support is provided by the FreeType project, included in free implementations of the X Window System such as Xorg. Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ... FreeType is a software library that implements a font engine. ... “X11” redirects here. ... The XOrg Foundation Open Source Public Implementation of X11 (the XOrg Server) is the official reference implementation of the X Window System. ...


Layout tags

OpenType Layout tags are 4-byte character strings that identify the scripts, language systems, features and baselines in an OpenType Layout font. Microsoft's Layout tag registry establishes conventions for naming and using these tags. OpenType features are created by using the tags in creating feature scripts that describe how characters are to be manipulated to make the desired feature. These feature scripts can be created and incorporated into OpenType fonts by advanced font editors such as FontLab Studio and AsiaFont Studio. FontLab is both the name of a company, FontLab Ltd, and the former name of their flagship font editor product, now called FontLab Studio. ... FontLab is both the name of a company, FontLab Ltd, and the former name of their flagship font editor product, now called FontLab Studio. ...


Script tags

Script tags identify the scripts represented in an OpenType typeface. Each tag corresponds to contiguous character code ranges in Unicode. A script tag can consist of 4 or fewer lowercase letters. Examples include arab for the Arabic alphabet, cyrl for the Cyrillic alphabet, latn for the Latin alphabet, etc. The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ...


Language system tags

Language system tags identify the language systems supported in an OpenType typeface. Examples include ARA for Arabic, ESP for Spanish, HYE for Armenian, etc. The codes are not in general the same as ISO 639-2 codes. Arabic redirects here. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ...


Feature tags

Feature tags identify glyphs as representing certain typographic features.

  • 'aalt' Access All Alternates
  • 'abvf' Above-base Forms
  • 'abvm' Above-base Mark Positioning
  • 'abvs' Above-base Substitutions
  • 'afrc' Alternative Fractions
  • 'akhn' Akhands
  • 'blwf' Below-base Forms
  • 'blwm' Below-base Mark Positioning
  • 'blws' Below-base Substitutions
  • 'calt' Contextual Alternates
  • 'case' Case-Sensitive Forms
  • 'ccmp' Glyph Composition / Decomposition
  • 'clig' Contextual Ligatures
  • 'cpsp' Capital Spacing
  • 'cswh' Contextual Swash
  • 'curs' Cursive Positioning
  • 'c2sc' Small Capitals From Capitals
  • 'c2pc' Petite Capitals From Capitals
  • 'dist' Distances
  • 'dlig' Discretionary Ligatures
  • 'dnom' Denominators
  • 'expt' Expert Forms
  • 'falt' Final Glyph on Line Alternates
  • 'fin2' Terminal Forms #2
  • 'fin3' Terminal Forms #3
  • 'fina' Terminal Forms
  • 'frac' Fractions
  • 'fwid' Full Widths
  • 'half' Half Forms
  • 'haln' Halant Forms
  • 'halt' Alternate Half Widths
  • 'hist' Historical Forms
  • 'hkna' Horizontal Kana Alternates
  • 'hlig' Historical Ligatures
  • 'hngl' Hangul
  • 'hojo' Hojo Kanji Forms
  • 'hwid' Half Widths
  • 'init' Initial Forms
  • 'isol' Isolated Forms
  • 'ital' Italics
  • 'jalt' Justification Alternates
  • 'jp04' JIS2004 Forms
  • 'jp78' JIS78 Forms
  • 'jp83' JIS83 Forms
  • 'jp90' JIS90 Forms
  • 'kern' Kerning
  • 'lfbd' Left Bounds
  • 'liga' Standard Ligatures
  • 'ljmo' Leading Jamo Forms
  • 'lnum' Lining Figures
  • 'locl' Localized Forms
  • 'mark' Mark Positioning
  • 'med2' Medial Forms #2
  • 'medi' Medial Forms
  • 'mgrk' Mathematical Greek
  • 'mkmk' Mark to Mark Positioning
  • 'mset' Mark Positioning via Substitution
  • 'nalt' Alternate Annotation Forms
  • 'nlck' NLC Kanji Forms
  • 'nukt' Nukta Forms
  • 'numr' Numerators
  • 'onum' Oldstyle Figures
  • 'opbd' Optical Bounds
  • 'ordn' Ordinals
  • 'ornm' Ornaments
  • 'palt' Proportional Alternate Widths
  • 'pcap' Petite Capitals
  • 'pnum' Proportional Figures
  • 'pres' Pre-Base Substitutions
  • 'pstf' Post-base Forms
  • 'psts' Post-base Substitutions
  • 'pwid' Proportional Widths
  • 'qwid' Quarter Widths
  • 'rand' Randomize
  • 'rlig' Required Ligatures
  • 'rphf' Reph Forms
  • 'rtbd' Right Bounds
  • 'rtla' Right-to-left Alternates
  • 'ruby' Ruby Notation Forms
  • 'salt' Stylistic Alternates
  • 'sinf' Scientific Inferiors
  • 'size' Optical size
  • 'smcp' Small Capitals
  • 'smpl' Simplified Forms
  • 'ss01' to 'ss20' Stylistic Set 1 to 20
  • 'subs' Subscript
  • 'sups' Superscript
  • 'swsh' Swash
  • 'titl' Titling
  • 'tjmo' Trailing Jamo Forms
  • 'tnam' Traditional Name Forms
  • 'tnum' Tabular Figures
  • 'trad' Traditional Forms
  • 'twid' Third Widths
  • 'unic' Unicase
  • 'valt' Alternate Vertical Metrics
  • 'vatu' Vattu Variants
  • 'vert' Vertical Writing
  • 'vhal' Alternate Vertical Half Metrics
  • 'vjmo' Vowel Jamo Forms
  • 'vkna' Vertical Kana Alternates
  • 'vkrn' Vertical Kerning
  • 'vpal' Proportional Alternate Vertical Metrics
  • 'vrt2' Vertical Alternates and Rotation
  • 'zero' Slashed Zero

It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with canonical equivalence. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ligature (palaeography). ... Jamo redirects here. ... Italic can refer to: Italic languages Italic scripts Italic means Of or from Italy; the usage is most commonly restricted to talking about the people and languages of what is now Italy from the historic period before the Roman Empire. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ligature may refer to: Ligature (medicine) Ligature (music) Ligature (musical instrument) Ligature (orthodontic) Ligature (palaeography) Ligature (reinforced concrete) Ligature (typography) Category: ... Greek letters are used in mathematics, science, engineering, and other areas where mathematical notation is used as symbols for constants, special functions, and also conventionally for variables representing certain quantities. ... Nukta is a generic term for the diacritic mark in several Brahmic scripts, like Devanagari that is used to represent sounds from other languages by being applied to an existing character. ... A subscript is a number, figure, or indicator that appears below the normal line of type, typically used in a formula, mathematical expression, or description of a chemical compound. ... This article is about the term superscript as used in typography. ... A swash is a typographical flourish on a glyph, like an exaggerated serif. ... For the computer software, see Hangul (word processor). ... Japanese writing Kanji 漢字 Kana 仮名 Hiragana 平仮名 Katakana 片仮名 Manyogana 万葉仮名 Uses Furigana 振り仮名 Okurigana 送り仮名 Rōmaji ローマ字 For other meanings of Kana, see Kana (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Baseline tags

Baseline tags have a specific meaning when used in the horizontal writing direction (used in the 'BASE' table's HorizAxis table), vertical writing direction (used in the 'BASE' table's VertAxis table), or both.

Baseline Tag HorizAxis VertAxis
'hang' horizontal line from which the syllabograms seem to hang in the Tibetan script The same line in Tibetan vertical writing mode.
'icfb' Ideographic character face bottom edge baseline. Ideographic character face left edge baseline.
'icft' Ideographic character face top edge baseline. Ideographic character face right edge baseline.
'ideo' Ideographic em-box bottom edge baseline. Ideographic em-box left edge baseline.
'idtp' Ideographic em-box top edge baseline. Ideographic em-box right edge baseline.
'math' The baseline about which mathematical characters are centered. The baseline about which mathematical characters are centered in vertical writing mode.
'romn' The alphabetic baseline for characters rotated 90 degrees clockwise for vertical writing mode.

This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...

Features supported by Mac OS X

See also Datafork TrueType.

As of Mac OS X 10.4 (Tiger), Apple has started including support for OpenType features in the operating system itself, relieving application developers of the task. However there are many caveats: Datafork Truetype is a font format by Apple Computer, based on Adobes OpenType. ... Mac OS X version 10. ... Apple Inc. ... An Independent Software Vendor (ISV) is a business term for companies specializing in making or selling software, usually for niche markets. ...

  • If a font is detected to have OpenType tables, any AAT tables present are ignored by Mac OS 10.4.0 to 10.4.3 (subsequently, OpenType features take precedence over AAT features).
  • Only the following GDEF/GPOS/GSUB features (tags) are confirmed as supported:
    • liga: Common ligatures
    • dlig: Discretionary ligatures
    • sups: Superior/superscript position
    • tnum: Tabular numerals
    • pnum: Proportional numerals
    • onum: Oldstyle numerals
    • lnum: Lining numerals
    • sinf: Scientific inferiors
    • zero: Slashed zero
    • ss01 to ss20: Stylistic sets (but only supported as mutually exclusive)
    • ital: Italics
    • trad: Traditional CJK forms
    • jp78: JIS 1978 CJK forms
    • jp83: JIS 1983 CJK forms
    • expt: Expert CJK forms
    • nlck: NLC Kanji forms
    • ruby: Ruby notation forms
    • pwid: Proportional CJK widths
    • fwid: Full CJK widths
    • hwid: Half CJK widths
    • twid: Third CJK widths
    • qwid: Quarter CJK widths
    • palt: Alternate proportional CJK widths
    • halt: Alternate half CJK widths
    • vert or vrt2: Optimised kana vertical alternates
    • this list is incomplete
  • These features are known not to be supported:
    • calt: Connecting/contextual alternates
    • clig: Contextual ligatures
    • mark: Mark-to-base positioning
    • mkmk: Mark-to-mark positioning
    • mset: Mark positioning via substitution
    • nukt: Nukta form
    • akhn: Akhand ligature
    • rphf: Reph form
    • blwf: Below-base form
    • half: Half-form (pre-base form)
    • pstf: Post-base form
    • vatu: Vattu variants
    • pres: Pre-base substitution
    • blws: Below-base substitution
    • abvs: Above-base substitution
    • psts: Post-base substitution
    • haln: Halant form substitution
    • blwm: Below-base mark positioning
    • abvm: Above-base mark positioning
    • dist: Distances

Apple Computer has been attentive to the typefaces used in its marketing, operating systems and industrial design. ...

SING gaiji solution

In 2005, Adobe shipped a new technology in their Creative Suite applications bundle that offers a solution for the gaiji (Japanese for "outside character") problem. Ideographic writing scripts such as Chinese and Japanese do not have fixed collections of characters. They use thousands of glyphs commonly and tens of thousands less commonly. Not all glyphs ever invented and used in far eastern literature have even been catalogued. A typical font might contain 8,000 to 15,000 of the most commonly used glyphs. From time to time, though, an author needs a glyph not present in the font of choice. Such missing characters are known in Japan as gaiji, and they often disrupt work. Adobe Creative Suite is a collection of graphic design, video editing, and web development applications made by Adobe Systems. ... Japanese writing Kanji Kana Hiragana Katakana Hentaigana Manyōgana Uses Furigana Okurigana Rōmaji   ) are the Chinese characters that are used in the modern Japanese logographic writing system along with hiragana (平仮名), katakana (片仮名), and the Arabic numerals. ...


Another aspect of the gaiji problem is that of variant glyphs for certain characters. Often certain characters have been written differently over periods of time. It is not unusual for place names or personal family names to use a historical form of a character. Thus it is possible for an end user using standard fonts to be left unable to spell correctly either their own name or the name of the place where they live. The end user is a central concept in software engineering, referring to an abstraction of the group of persons who will ultimately use a piece of software (i. ...


Several ways to deal with gaiji have been devised. Solutions that treat them as characters usually assign arbitrary Unicode values to them in the Private Use Area (PUA). Such characters cannot be used outside the environment in which the association of the private Unicode to the glyph shape is known. Documents based on them are not portable. Other installations treat gaiji as graphics. This can be cumbersome because text layout and composition cannot apply to graphics. They cannot be searched for. Often their rendering looks different from surrounding characters because the machinery for rendering graphics usually is different from the machinery for rendering glyphs from fonts. Unicode’s Universal Character Set potentially supports over 1 million (1,114,112 = 220 + 216 or 17 × 216, hexadecimal 110000) code points. ...


The SING technology that made its debut with Adobe's Creative Suite 2 allows for the creation of glyphs, each packaged as a standalone font, after a fashion. Such a packaged glyph is called a glyphlet. The format, which Adobe has made public, is based on OpenType. The package consists of the glyph outline in TrueType or CFF (PostScript style outlines) form; standard OpenType tables declaring the glyph's metrics and behavior in composition; and metadata, extra information included for identifying the glyphlet, its ownership, and perhaps pronunciation or linguistic categorization. SING glyphlets can be created using Fontlab's SigMaker3 application. TrueType is an outline font standard originally developed by Apple Computer in the late 1980s as a competitor to Adobes Type 1 fonts used in PostScript. ... Compact Font Format (also known as, CFF font format, Type 2 font format, or, CFF/Type 2 font format,) is a font format specification developed by Adobe. ... FontLab is both the name of a company, FontLab Ltd, and the former name of their flagship font editor product, now called FontLab Studio. ...


The SING (Smart INdependent Glyphlets) specification states that glyphlets are to travel with the document they are used in. That way documents are portable, leaving no danger of characters in the document that cannot be displayed. Because glyphlets are essentially OpenType fonts, standard font machinery can render them. The SING specification also describes an XML format that includes all the data necessary for reconstituting the glyphlet in binary form. A typical glyphlet might require 1 to 2 kilobytes to represent. The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ...


See also

Uniscribe is the Microsoft Windows set of services for rendering Unicode-encoded text. ... This subsystem is a part of . ... The Apple Type Services for Unicode Imaging (ATSUI) is the Mac OS set of services for rendering Unicode-encoded text. ... WorldScript - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... This article is about computing. ... International Components for Unicode (ICU) is an open source project of mature C/C++ and Java libraries for Unicode support, software internationalization and software globalization. ... OpenType Typographic Features All Alternates [aalt] Alternate Annotation [nalt] Alternative Fractions [afrc] Capitals to Petite Caps [c2pc] Capitals to Small Caps [c2sc] Case Sensive Forms [case+cpsp] Contextual Alternates [calt] Contextual Ligatures [clig] Contextual Swash [cswh] Denominator [dnom] Discretionary Ligatures [dlig] Expert Forms (Asian) [expt] Fractions [frac] Full Widths (Asian... Embedded OpenType (EOT) fonts are a compact format of OpenType fonts designed by Microsoft for use as embedded fonts on web pages. ... A specimen of roman typefaces by William Caslon Typography is the art and techniques of type design, modifying type glyphs, and arranging type. ... TrueType is an outline font standard originally developed by Apple Computer in the late 1980s as a competitor to Adobes Type 1 fonts used in PostScript. ... Bitstream Panorama is a line layout and text composition engine to render text in various worldwide languages. ... FreeType is a software library that implements a font engine. ...

References

  1. ^ Suitcase Type Foundry Information Guide
  2. ^ ISO Standard Description

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
OpenType (230 words)
OpenType is a scalable computer font format jointly developed by Adobe Systems and Microsoft Corporation.
OpenType was intended by Adobe and Microsoft as the successor to their previous warring font formats, TrueType (developed by Apple and Microsoft) and PostScript Type 1 fonts[?] (created by Adobe).
OpenType is one of the many font formats supported by the FreeType Open Source font engine.
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