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Encyclopedia > OpenBSD
OpenBSD
OpenBSD logo with Puffy, the pufferfish.
"Free, Functional & Secure"
Website: www.openbsd.org
Company/
developer:
The OpenBSD Project
OS family: BSD
Source model: Open source
Latest stable release: 4.1 / May 1, 2007
Package manager: OpenBSD package tools and ports collection
Supported platforms: AMD64, Alpha, i386, MIPS, 68000, PowerPC, SPARC 32/64, VAX, Zaurus and others[1]
Kernel type: Monolithic
Default user interface: Modified pdksh, FVWM 2.2.5 for X11
License: Mostly BSD
Working state: Current
Prerequisites
Computer and operating system
Unix and Unix-like
Software licensing
Computer insecurity

OpenBSD is a Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley. It was forked from NetBSD by project leader Theo de Raadt in late 1995. The project is widely known for the developers' insistence on open source code and quality documentation; uncompromising position on software licensing; and focus on security and code correctness. The project is coordinated from de Raadt's home in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Its logo and mascot is Puffy, a pufferfish. Description: OpenBSD Logo Origin: http://www. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... It has been suggested that software publisher be merged into this article or section. ... A software developer is a person who is concerned with one or more facets of the software development process, a somewhat broader scope of computer programming or a specialty of project managing. ... Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD, sometimes called Berkeley Unix) is the Unix derivative distributed by the University of California, Berkeley, starting in the 1970s. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... Ports collections (or ports trees, or just ports) are the sets of makefiles and patches provided by the BSD-based operating systems, FreeBSD, NetBSD and OpenBSD, as a simple method of installing software or creating binary packages. ... AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ... DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor die photo Package for DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor Alpha AXP 21064 bare die mounted on a business card with some statistics The DEC Alpha, also known as the Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit RISC microprocessor originally developed and fabricated by Digital Equipment Corp... The Intel 80386 is a microprocessor which was used as the central processing unit (CPU) of many personal computers from 1986 until 1994 and later. ... A MIPS R4400 microprocessor made by Toshiba. ... The Motorola 68000 is a 32-bit CISC microprocessor core designed and marketed by Freescale Semiconductor (formerly Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector). ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... Sun UltraSPARC II Microprocessor Sun UltraSPARC T1 (Niagara 8 Core) SPARC (Scalable Processor Architecture) is a RISC microprocessor instruction set architecture originally designed in 1985 by Sun Microsystems. ... VAX is a 32-bit computing architecture that supports an orthogonal instruction set (machine language) and virtual addressing (i. ... Sharp Zaurus SL-5500 running OpenZaurus and OPIE, with docking cradle and stylus The Sharp Zaurus is the name of a series of Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) made by Sharp Corporation. ... A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer. ... It has been suggested that Monolithic system be merged into this article or section. ... The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ... Korn shell logo. ... FVWM with internationalization features and some additional modules. ... KDE 3. ... A software license is a legal agreement which may take the form of a proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software. ... The BSD daemon BSD licenses represent a family of permissive free software licenses. ... The NASA Columbia Supercomputer. ... // An operating system (OS) is a set of computer programs that manage the hardware and software resources of a computer. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... Diagram of the relationships between several Unix-like systems A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Software license. ... Many current computer systems have limited security precautions in place. ... Diagram of the relationships between several Unix-like systems A Unix-like operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. ... The NASA Columbia Supercomputer. ... // An operating system (OS) is a set of computer programs that manage the hardware and software resources of a computer. ... Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD, sometimes called Berkeley Unix) is the Unix derivative distributed by the University of California, Berkeley, starting in the 1970s. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... Sather tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... In software engineering, a project fork or branch happens when a developer (or a group of them) takes a copy of source code from one software package and starts to independently develop a new package. ... NetBSD is a freely redistributable, open source version of the Unix-like BSD computer operating system. ... Theo de Raadt, (IPA pronunciation: ), born May 19, 1968 in Pretoria, South Africa, is a software engineer who lives in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. ... Source code (commonly just source or code) is any series of statements written in some human-readable computer programming language. ... In general terms, documentation is any communicable material (such as text, video, audio, etc. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Software license. ... Many current computer systems have limited security precautions in place. ... Nickname: Motto: Onward Location of Calgary in Alberta Coordinates: , Country  Canada Province  Alberta Region Calgary Region Census division 6 Established 1875 Incorporated 1884 (town)   1894 (city) Government [1]  - Mayor Dave Bronconnier (Past mayors)  - Governing body Calgary City Council  - Manager Owen A. Tobert  - MPs List of MPs Diane Ablonczy Rob Anders... Motto: Fortis et liber(Latin) Strong and free Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Official languages English (see below) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong - Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 28 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (split from Northwest Territories) (8th [Province]) Area Ranked... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Millie, once mascot of the City of Brampton, is now the Brampton Arts Councils representative. ... Puffy, cartoon style Puffy is the mascot of the free operating system OpenBSD. Puffy is a porcupinefish, which is used to signify the intention of the developers to make an impregnably secure operating system. ... Genera Amblyrhynchotes Arothron Auriglobus Canthigaster Carinotetraodon Chelonodon Colomesus Contusus Ephippion Feroxodon Fugu Gastrophysus Javichthys Lagocephalus Liosaccus Marilyna Monotretus Omegaphora Pelagocephalus Polyspina Reicheltia Sphoeroides Takifugu Tetractenos Tetraodon Torquigener Tylerius Xenopterus For species see Genera articles. ...


OpenBSD includes a number of security features absent or optional in other operating systems and has a tradition of developers auditing the source code for software bugs and security problems. The project maintains strict policies on licensing and prefers the open source BSD licence and its variants—in the past this has led to a comprehensive licence audit and moves to remove or replace code under licences found less acceptable. A software code audit is a comprehensive analysis of source code in a programming project with the intent of discovering bugs, security breaches or violations of programming conventions. ... A software bug is an error, flaw, mistake, failure, or fault in a computer program that prevents it from behaving as intended (e. ... Open source refers to projects that are open to the public and which draw on other projects that are freely available to the general public. ... The BSD daemon BSD licenses represent a family of permissive free software licenses. ...


As with most other BSD-based operating systems, the OpenBSD kernel and userland programs, such as the shell and common tools like cat and ps, are developed together in a single source repository. Third-party software is available as binary packages or may be built from source using the ports collection. A kernel connects the application software to the hardware of a computer. ... For information on the company called UserLand, see UserLand Software. ... Screenshot of a sample Bash session, taken on Gentoo Linux. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ports collections (or ports trees, or just ports) are the sets of makefiles and patches provided by the BSD-based operating systems, FreeBSD, NetBSD and OpenBSD, as a simple method of installing software or creating binary packages. ...


The OpenBSD project currently maintains ports for 17 different hardware platforms, including the DEC Alpha, Intel i386, Hewlett-Packard PA-RISC, AMD AMD64 and Motorola 68000 processors, Apple's PowerPC machines, Sun SPARC and SPARC64-based computers, the VAX and the Sharp Zaurus.[1] Computer hardware is the physical part of a computer, including the digital circuitry, as distinguished from the computer software that executes within the hardware. ... In computing, a platform describes some sort of framework, either in hardware or software, which allows software to run. ... DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor die photo Package for DEC Alpha AXP 21064 Microprocessor Alpha AXP 21064 bare die mounted on a business card with some statistics The DEC Alpha, also known as the Alpha AXP, is a 64-bit RISC microprocessor originally developed and fabricated by Digital Equipment Corp... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... The Intel 80386 is a microprocessor which was used as the central processing unit (CPU) of many personal computers from 1986 until 1994 and later. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... PA-RISC is a microprocessor architecture developed by Hewlett-Packards Systems & VLSI Technology Operation. ... Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. ... AMD64 Logo AMD64 (also x86-64 or x64) is a 64-bit microprocessor architecture and corresponding instruction set designed by Advanced Micro Devices. ... The Motorola 68000 is a 32-bit CISC microprocessor core designed and marketed by Freescale Semiconductor (formerly Motorola Semiconductor Products Sector). ... Apple Inc. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... Sun UltraSPARC II Microprocessor Sun UltraSPARC T1 (Niagara 8 Core) SPARC (Scalable Processor Architecture) is a RISC microprocessor instruction set architecture originally designed in 1985 by Sun Microsystems. ... VAX is a 32-bit computing architecture that supports an orthogonal instruction set (machine language) and virtual addressing (i. ... Sharp Zaurus SL-5500 running OpenZaurus and OPIE, with docking cradle and stylus The Sharp Zaurus is the name of a series of Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) made by Sharp Corporation. ...

Contents

History and popularity

See also: OpenBSD timeline
The OpenBSD 2.3 CD-ROM cover with the original mascot, before Puffy appeared with release 2.7

In December 1994, NetBSD co-founder Theo de Raadt was asked to resign his position as a senior developer and member of the NetBSD core team, and his access to the source code repository was revoked. The reason for this is not wholly clear, although there are claims that it was due to personality clashes within the NetBSD project and on its mailing lists.[2] De Raadt has been criticized for having a sometimes abrasive personality: in his book, Free For All, Peter Wayner claims that de Raadt "began to rub some people the wrong way" before the split from NetBSD;[3] Linus Torvalds has described him as "difficult;"[4] and an interviewer admits to being "apprehensive" before meeting him.[5] Many have different feelings: the same interviewer describes de Raadt's "transformation" on founding OpenBSD and his "desire to take care of his team," some find his straightforwardness refreshing, and few deny he is a talented coder[6] and security "guru."[7] OpenBSD 2. ... Image File history File links Openbsd23cover. ... Image File history File links Openbsd23cover. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... Millie, once mascot of the City of Brampton, is now the Brampton Arts Councils representative. ... Puffy, cartoon style Puffy is the mascot of the free operating system OpenBSD. Puffy is a porcupinefish, which is used to signify the intention of the developers to make an impregnably secure operating system. ... Theo de Raadt, (IPA pronunciation: ), born May 19, 1968 in Pretoria, South Africa, is a software engineer who lives in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. ... An electronic mailing list, a type of Internet forum, is a special usage of e-mail that allows for widespread distribution of information to many Internet users. ... Linus Benedict Torvalds  ; born December 28, 1969 in Helsinki, Finland) is a Finnish software engineer best known for initiating the development of the Linux kernel. ... A programmer or software developer is someone who programs computers, that is, one who writes computer software. ...


In October 1995, de Raadt founded OpenBSD, a new project forked from NetBSD 1.0. The initial release, OpenBSD 1.2, was made in July 1996, followed in October of the same year by OpenBSD 2.0.[8] Since then, the project has followed a schedule of a release every six months, each of which is maintained and supported for one year. The latest release, OpenBSD 4.1, appeared[9] on May 1, 2007. A software release refers to the creation and availability of a new version of a computer software product. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

Pie chart showing the proportion of users of each BSD variant from a BSD usage survey. Each participant was permitted to indicate multiple BSD variants

On 25 July 2007, OpenBSD developer Bob Beck announced the formation of the OpenBSD Foundation,[10] a Canadian not-for-profit corporation formed to "act as a single point of contact for persons and organizations requiring a legal entity to deal with when they wish to support OpenBSD."[11] Image File history File links Smallbsdusage. ... Image File history File links Smallbsdusage. ... A pie chart is a circular chart divided into sectors, illustrating relative magnitudes or frequencies. ... Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD, sometimes called Berkeley Unix) is the Unix derivative distributed by the University of California, Berkeley, starting in the 1970s. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... The OpenBSD Foundation is a Canadian federal non-profit organization founded by the OpenBSD project as a single point of contact for persons and organizations requiring a legal entity to deal with when they wish to support OpenBSD.[1] It also serves as a legal safeguard over other projects which... A not-for-profit corporation is a corporation created by statute, government or judicial authority that is not intended to provide a profit to the owners or members. ...


Just how widely OpenBSD is used is hard to ascertain: the developers do not collect and publish usage statistics and there are few other sources of information. In September, 2005 the nascent BSD Certification project performed a usage survey which revealed that 32.8% of BSD users (1420 of 4330 respondents) were using OpenBSD,[12] placing it second of the four major BSD variants, behind FreeBSD with 77.0% and ahead of NetBSD with 16.3%.[13] The DistroWatch website, well-known in the Linux community and often used as a reference for popularity, publishes page hits for each of the Linux distributions and other operating systems it covers. As of April 14, 2007 it places OpenBSD in 55th place, with 121 hits per day. FreeBSD is in 16th place with 478 hits per day and a number of Linux distributions range between them. FreeBSD is a Unix-like free operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through the 386BSD and 4. ... Distrowatch is a website devoted to tracking, categorising and advertising Linux distributions. ... A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... Linux (IPA pronunciation: ) is a Unix-like computer operating system. ... A Linux distribution, often simply distribution or distro, is a member of the Linux family of Unix-like operating systems comprising the Linux kernel, the non-kernel parts of the GNU operating system, and assorted other software. ... April 14 is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 261 days remaining. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


Open source and open documentation

When OpenBSD was created, Theo de Raadt decided that the source should be available for anyone to read at any time, so, with the assistance of Chuck Cranor,[14] he set up a public, anonymous CVS server. This was the first of its kind in the software development world: at the time, the tradition was for only a small team of developers to have access to a project's source repository. This practice had downsides, notably that outside contributors had no way to closely follow a project's development and contributed work would often duplicate already completed efforts. This decision led to the name OpenBSD and signalled the project's insistence on open and public access to both source code and documentation. The Concurrent Versions System (CVS), also known as the Concurrent Versioning System, is an open-source version control system invented and developed by Dick Grune in the 1980s. ...


A revealing incident regarding open documentation occurred in March 2005, when de Raadt posted a message[15] to the openbsd-misc mailing list. He announced that after four months of discussion, Adaptec had yet to disclose the required documentation to improve the OpenBSD drivers for its AAC RAID controllers. As in similar circumstances in the past, he encouraged the OpenBSD community to become involved and express their opinion to Adaptec. Shortly after this, FreeBSD committer, former Adaptec employee and author of the FreeBSD AAC RAID support Scott Long[16] castigated de Raadt[17] on the OSNews website for not contacting him directly regarding the issues with Adaptec. This caused the discussion to spill over onto the freebsd-questions mailing list, where the OpenBSD project leader countered[18] by claiming that he had received no previous offer of help from Scott Long nor been referred to him by Adaptec. The debate was amplified[19] by disagreements between members of the two camps regarding the use of binary blob drivers and non-disclosure agreements (NDAs): OpenBSD developers do not permit the inclusion of closed source binary drivers in the source tree and are reluctant to sign NDAs. However, the policy of the FreeBSD project has been less strict and much of the Adaptec RAID management code Scott Long proposed as assistance for OpenBSD was closed source or written under an NDA. As no documentation was forthcoming before the deadline for release of OpenBSD 3.7, support for Adaptec AAC RAID controllers was removed from the standard OpenBSD kernel. Adaptec, Inc. ... Windows XP loading drivers during a Safe Mode bootup A device driver, or a software driver is a specific type of computer software, typically developed to allow interaction with hardware devices. ... In computing, a redundant array of inexpensive disks, also later known as redundant array of independent disks (commonly abbreviated RAID) is a system which uses multiple hard drives to share or replicate data among the drives. ... In open source projects, anyone is allowed to see the source code, but there is normally a much smaller group of people that is allowed to modify it. ... OSNews is a computing news site with a focus on operating systems and their related technologies that launched in 1997. ... An object file to be loaded into the kernel space of a free or open source operating system is called a binary blob if its source code is not publicly available. ... A non-disclosure agreement (NDA), also called a confidential disclosure agreement (CDA), confidentiality agreement or secrecy agreement, is a legal contract between at least two parties which outlines confidential materials or knowledge the parties wish to share with one another for certain purposes, but wish to restrict from generalized use. ... The text below is generated by a template, which has been proposed for deletion. ...


The OpenBSD policy on openness extends to hardware documentation: in the slides for a December 2006 presentation, de Raadt explained that without it "developers often make mistakes writing drivers," and pointed out that "the [oh my god, I got it to work] rush is harder to achieve, and some developers just give up."[20] He went on to say that vendor binary drivers are unacceptable, as they cannot be trusted and there is "no way to fix [them] ... when they break," that even vendor source is only "marginally acceptable" and still difficult to fix when problems occur, and further commented "if we cannot maintain a driver after the vendor stops caring, we ... have a broken hardware [sic]."


Licensing

OpenBSD 3.7 running X.Org with the JWM window manager
OpenBSD 3.7 running X.Org with the JWM window manager

A goal of the OpenBSD project is to "maintain the spirit of the original Berkeley Unix copyrights," which permitted a "relatively un-encumbered Unix source distribution."[21] To this end, the Internet Systems Consortium (ISC) licence, a simplified version of the BSD licence with wording removed that is unnecessary under the Berne convention, is preferred for new code, but the MIT or BSD licences are accepted. The widely used GNU General Public License is considered overly restrictive in comparison with these:[22] code licensed under it, and other licences the project sees as undesirable, is no longer accepted for addition to the base system. In addition, existing code under such licences is actively replaced or relicensed when possible, except in some cases, such as the GNU Compiler Collection (GCC), where there is no suitable replacement and creating one would be time-consuming and impractical. Despite this, OpenBSD has made some significant strides in this area: of particular note is the development of OpenSSH, based on the original SSH suite and developed further by the OpenBSD team. It first appeared in OpenBSD 2.6 and is now the single most popular SSH implementation, available as standard or as a package on many operating systems. Also worth mentioning is the development, after licence restrictions were imposed on IPFilter, of the pf packet filter, which first appeared[23] in OpenBSD 3.0 and is now available in DragonFly BSD, NetBSD and FreeBSD; more recently, OpenBSD releases have seen the GPL licensed tools bc, dc, diff, grep, gzip, nm, pkg-config, RCS, sendbug (part of GNATS) and size replaced with BSD licensed equivalents. OpenBSD developers are also behind OpenBGPD, OpenOSPFD, OpenNTPD and OpenCVS, BSD licensed alternatives to existing software. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 477 KB) Summary Screenshot of OpenBSD 3. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 477 KB) Summary Screenshot of OpenBSD 3. ... The X.Org Foundation Open Source Public Implementation of X11 (the XOrg Server) is the official reference implementation of the X Window System. ... JWM (Joes Window Manager) is a window manager for the X Window System. ... An X window manager is software that controls the placement and appearance of windows under the X Window System, a windowing system mainly used on Unix-like systems. ... Copyright symbol Copyright is a set of exclusive rights regulating the use of a particular expression of an idea or information. ... The ISC licence is a free software licence that is functionally equivalent to the BSD licence, with language deemed unnecessary removed. ... The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works, sometimes called the Berne Union or Berne Convention, adopted at Berne in 1986, first established the recognition of copyrights between sovereign nations. ... The MIT License, also called the X License or the X11 License, originated at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, is a license for the use of certain types of computer software. ... The GNU logo The GNU General Public License (GNU GPL or simply GPL) is a widely-used free software license, originally written by Richard Stallman for the GNU project. ... The GNU Compiler Collection (usually shortened to GCC) is a set of programming language compilers produced by the GNU Project. ... OpenSSH (Open Secure Shell) is a set of computer programs providing encrypted communication sessions over a computer network using the SSH protocol. ... Secure Shell or SSH is a network protocol that allows data to be exchanged over a secure channel between two computers. ... IPFilter (commonly referred to as ipf) is a software package that can be used to provide network address translation (NAT) or firewall services. ... PF (Packet Filter) is OpenBSDs stateful packet filter, written by Daniel Hartmeier. ... Packet filters are host-based or appliance-based applications, which block or allow network traffic based on a set of rules defined by the administrator. ... DragonFly BSD is a free, Unix-like operating system which was forked from FreeBSD 4. ... bc is an arbitrary precision calculator language with syntax similar to the C programming language. ... From the GNU Project dc man page: Dc is a reverse-polish desk calculator which supports unlimited precision arithmetic. It is one of the oldest Unix utilities, predating even the invention of the C programming language; like other utilities of that vintage, it has a powerful set of features but... At computing, diff is a file comparison utility that outputs the differences between two files. ... grep is a command line utility that was originally written for use with the Unix operating system. ... The correct title of this article is . ... The nm command ships with a number of later versions of Unix and similar operating systems. ... A linux specific command, pkg-config helps to handle which libraries someone has installed on the computer. ... The Revision Control System (RCS) is a software implementation of revision control that automates the storing, retrieval, logging, identification, and merging of revisions. ... Gnats may be: the plural of Gnat GNATS the GNU bug tracking system This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... size is a command line utility originally written for use with the Unix-like operating systems. ... OpenBPGD is a Unix system daemon that implements the Border Gateway Protocol version 4. ... OpenBGPD is a Unix system daemon that implements the Border Gateway Protocol version 4. ... OpenNTPD is a Unix system daemon implementing the Network Time Protocol to synchronize the local clock of a computer system with remote NTP servers. ... OpenCVS is a BSD-licensed implementation of the popular Unix version control software called Concurrent Versions System. ...


In June 2001, triggered by concerns over Darren Reed's modification of IPFilter's licence wording, a systematic licence audit of the OpenBSD ports and source trees was undertaken.[24] Code in more than a hundred files throughout the system was found to be unlicensed, ambiguously licensed or in use against the terms of the licence. To ensure that all licences were properly adhered to, an attempt was made to contact all the relevant copyright holders: some pieces of code were removed, many were replaced, and others, including the multicast routing tools, mrinfo and map-mbone,[25] which were licensed by Xerox for research only, were relicensed so that OpenBSD could continue to use them. Also of note during this audit was the removal of all software produced by Daniel J. Bernstein from the OpenBSD ports tree. At the time, Bernstein requested that all modified versions of his code be approved by him prior to redistribution, a requirement to which OpenBSD developers were unwilling to devote time or effort.[26] The removal led to a clash with Bernstein who felt the removal of his software to be uncalled for and cited the Netscape web browser as much less free, accusing the OpenBSD developers of hypocrisy for permitting Netscape to remain while removing his software.[27] The OpenBSD project's stance was that Netscape, although not open source, had licence conditions that could be more easily met;[28] they asserted that Bernstein's demand for control of derivatives would lead to a great deal of additional work and that removal was the most appropriate way to comply with his requirements. At present, Daniel J. Bernstein's software is still absent from the ports tree. Routing Schemes anycast broadcast multicast unicast Multicast is sometimes also used to refer to a multiplexed broadcast, although that is a very different thing and should not be confused. ... It has been suggested that Routing protocol be merged into this article or section. ... Xerox Corporation (NYSE: XRX) is an American document management company, which manufactures and sells a range of color and black-and-white printers, multifunction systems, photo copiers, digital production printing presses, and related consulting services and supplies. ... Daniel Julius Bernstein (sometimes known simply as djb; born October 29, 1971) is a professor at the University of Illinois at Chicago, a mathematician, a cryptologist, and a programmer. ... Netscape Communications Corporation (commonly known as Netscape), was an American computer services company, best known for its web browser. ... An example of a web browser (Internet Explorer), displaying the English Wikipedia main page. ...


Security and code auditing

For more details on this topic, see OpenBSD security features.

Shortly after OpenBSD's creation, Theo de Raadt was contacted by a local security software company named Secure Networks, Inc. or SNI.[29][30] They were developing a "network security auditing tool" called Ballista (later renamed to Cybercop Scanner after SNI was purchased by Network Associates) which was intended to find and attempt to exploit possible software security flaws. This coincided well with de Raadt's own interest in security, so the two agreed to cooperate, a relationship that was of particular use leading up to the release of OpenBSD 2.3[31] and helped to form the focal point of the project: OpenBSD developers would attempt to do what was right, proper or secure, even at the cost of ease, speed or functionality. As bugs within OpenBSD became harder to find and exploit, the security company found that it was too difficult, or not cost effective, to handle such obscure problems. After years of cooperation, the two parties decided that their goals together had been met and parted ways. The OpenBSD operating system is noted for its security focus and for the development of a number of security features. ... McAfee, Inc. ... In computer security, an exploit is a piece of software, a chunk of data, or sequence of commands that take advantage of a bug, glitch or vulnerability in order to get unintended or unanticipated behavior out of computer software, hardware, or something electronic (usually computerized). ...


Until June 2002, the OpenBSD website featured the slogan:

No remote computer hole in the default install, in nearly 6 years.

In June 2002, Mark Dowd of Internet Security Systems disclosed a bug in the OpenSSH code implementing challenge-response authentication.[32] This vulnerability in the OpenBSD default installation allowed an attacker remote access to the root account, and was extremely serious, partly due to the widespread use of OpenSSH by that time: the bug affected a considerable number of other operating systems.[33] This problem necessitated the adjustment of the slogan on the OpenBSD website to: Internet Security Systems NASDAQ: ISSX is a security software provider which was founded in 1994. ... In computer security, challenge-response authentication is a family of protocols in which one party presents a question (challenge) and another party must provide a valid answer (response) to be authenticated. ... Authentication (from Greek αυθεντικός; real or genuine, from authentes; author) is the act of establishing or confirming something (or someone) as authentic, that is, that claims made by or about the thing are true. ... In computer security, the word vulnerability refers to a weakness or other opening in a system. ... On many computer operating systems, superuser, or root, is the term used for the special user account that is controlled by the system administrator. ...

One remote hole in the default install, in nearly 6 years!

The page was updated as time passed, until on March 13, 2007 when Core Security Technologies[34] disclosed a network-related remote vulnerability,[35] it was altered to: is the 72nd day of the year (73rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is now the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

Only two remote holes in the default install, in more than 10 years!

This statement has been criticized because little is enabled in a default install of OpenBSD and releases have included software that was later found to have remote holes; however, the project maintains that the slogan is intended to refer to a default install and that it is correct by that measure. One of the fundamental ideas behind OpenBSD is a drive for systems to be simple, clean and secure by default. For example, OpenBSD's minimal defaults fit in with standard computer security practice of enabling as few services as possible on production machines, and the project uses open source and code auditing practices argued to be important elements of a security system.[36] Secure by default, in software, means that the default configuration settings are the most secure settings possible, which are not neccisarily always the most user friendly settings. ...

OpenBSD 3.8-current booting. 3.8 saw security changes to the malloc function
OpenBSD 3.8-current booting. 3.8 saw security changes to the malloc function

OpenBSD includes a large number of specific features designed to improve security, including API and toolchain alterations, such as the arc4random, issetugid, strlcat, strlcpy and strtonum functions and a static bounds checker; memory protection techniques to guard against invalid accesses, such as ProPolice, StackGhost, the W^X (W xor X) page protection features, as well as alterations to malloc; and cryptography and randomization features, including network stack enhancements and the addition of the Blowfish cipher for password encryption. To reduce the risk of a vulnerability or misconfiguration allowing privilege escalation, some programs have been written or adapted to make use of privilege separation, privilege revocation and chrooting. Privilege separation is a technique, pioneered on OpenBSD and inspired by the principle of least privilege, where a program is split into two or more parts, one of which performs privileged operations and the other—almost always the bulk of the code—runs without privilege.[37] Privilege revocation is similar and involves a program performing any necessary operations with the privileges it starts with then dropping them, and chrooting involves restricting an application to one section of the file system, prohibiting it from accessing areas that contain private or system files. Developers have applied these features to OpenBSD versions of common applications, including tcpdump and the Apache web server, which, due to licensing issues with the later Apache 2 series, is a heavily patched 1.3.29 release. Image File history File links Openbsd38boot. ... Image File history File links Openbsd38boot. ... In computing, booting (booting up) is a bootstrapping process that starts operating systems when the user turns on a computer system. ... In computing, malloc is a subroutine provided in the C programming languages and C++ programming languages standard library for performing dynamic memory allocation. ... In computer science, a subroutine (function, method, procedure, or subprogram) is a portion of code within a larger program, which performs a specific task and is relatively independent of the remaining code. ... An application programming interface (API) is a source code interface that a computer system or program library provides to support requests for services to be made of it by a Length. ... In computer programming, a toolchain is the set of computer programs (tools) that are used to create a product (typically another computer program or system of programs). ... The strlcpy function, developed by Todd C. Miller and Theo de Raadt for use in the C programming language, is intended to replace unsafe functions like strcpy and strncpy. ... The strlcpy function, developed by Todd C. Miller and Theo de Raadt for use in the C programming language, is intended to replace the function strcpy and provide a simpler and more robust interface than strncpy. ... In computer science, a subroutine (function, method, procedure, or subprogram) is a portion of code within a larger program, which performs a specific task and is relatively independent of the remaining code. ... Static analysis is the term applied to the analysis of computer software that is performed without actually executing programs built from that software (analysis performed on executing programs is known as dynamic analysis). ... Stack-smashing protection refers to various techniques for detecting buffer overflows on stack-allocated variables as they occur and preventing them from becoming serious security vulnerabilities. ... Stack-smashing protection refers to various techniques for detecting buffer overflows on stack-allocated variables as they occur and preventing them from becoming serious security vulnerabilities. ... W^X (pronounced W xor X[1]) is the name of a security feature present in the OpenBSD operating system. ... Exclusive disjunction (usual symbol xor) is a logical operator that results in true if one of the operands (not both) is true. ... In computer operating systems, paging memory allocation, paging refers to the process of managing program access to virtual memory pages that do not currently reside in RAM. It is implemented as a task that resides in the kernel of the operating system and gains control when a page fault takes... In computing, malloc is a subroutine provided in the C programming languages and C++ programming languages standard library for performing dynamic memory allocation. ... The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write or λεγειν legein to speak) is the study of message secrecy. ... Randomization is the process of making something random; this can mean: Generating a random permutation of a sequence (such as when shuffling cards). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with communications protocol. ... In cryptography, Blowfish is a keyed, symmetric block cipher, designed in 1993 by Bruce Schneier and included in a large number of cipher suites and encryption products. ... “Cipher” redirects here. ... A password is a form of secret authentication data that is used to control access to a resource. ... “Cipher” redirects here. ... Privilege escalation is the act of exploiting a bug in an application to gain access to resources which normally would have been protected from an application or user. ... Privilege separation is the technique of separating different user interface by the assigning rights/privileges to acess different resources. ... Privilege revocation is the act of an entity giving up some, or all of, the privileges they possess, or some authority taking those (privileged) rights away. ... A chroot on Unix operating systems is an operation which changes the root directory. ... In computer science and other fields the principle of minimal privilege, also known as the principle of least privilege or just least privilege, requires that in a particular abstraction layer of a computing environment every module (such as a process, a user or a program on the basis of the... It has been suggested that Crash counting be merged into this article or section. ... tcpdump is a common computer network debugging tool that runs under the command line. ... Apache HTTP Server is a free software/open source HTTP web server for Unix-like systems (BSD, Linux, and UNIX systems), Microsoft Windows, Novell NetWare and other platforms. ... The inside/front of a Dell PowerEdge web server The term Web server can mean one of two things: A computer program that is responsible for accepting HTTP requests from clients, which are known as Web browsers, and serving them HTTP responses along with optional data contents, which usually are... In computing, a patch is a small piece of software designed to update or fix problems with a computer program or its supporting data. ...


The project has a policy of continually auditing code for security problems, work developer Marc Espie has described as "never finished ... more a question of process than of a specific bug being hunted."[38] He went on to list several typical steps once a bug is found, including examining the entire source tree for the same and similar issues, "try[ing] to find out whether the documentation ought to be amended," and investigating whether "it's possible to augment the compiler to warn against this specific problem." Along with DragonFly, OpenBSD is one of the two open source operating systems with a policy of seeking out examples of classic, K&R C code and converting it to the more modern ANSI equivalent—this involves no functional change and is purely for readability and consistency reasons. A standard code style, the Kernel Normal Form, which dictates how code must look in order to be easily maintained and understood, must be applied to all code before it is considered for inclusion in the base operating system; existing code is actively updated to meet the style requirements. A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language, multi-target compiler. ... C is a general-purpose, block structured, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ... ANSI C (Standard C) is a variant of the C programming language. ... Kernel normal form, or KNF, is the normal form used in the development of code for the BSD operating systems. ...


Uses

OpenBSD's security enhancements, built-in cryptography and the pf firewall suit it for use in the security industry, particularly for firewalls, intrusion-detection systems and VPN gateways. It is also commonly used for servers which must resist cracking and DoS attacks, and due to including the spamd daemon, it sometimes is used in mail filtering applications. Firewall separating zones of trust A firewall is a hardware or software device which is configured to permit, deny or proxy data through a computer network which has different levels of trust. ... An Intrusion Detection System (or IDS) generally detects unwanted manipulations to systems. ... A virtual private network (VPN) is a communications network tunneled through another network, and dedicated for a specific network. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Gateway (telecommunications). ... A black-hat is a term in computing for someone who compromises the security of a system without permission from an authorized party, usually with the intent of accessing computers connected to the network. ... A denial-of-service attack (DoS attack) is an attempt to make a computer resource unavailable to its intended users. ... spamd is a BSD licensed daemon written by and shipped as part of the OpenBSD project. ... In Unix and other computer multitasking operating systems, a daemon is a computer program that runs in the background, rather than under the direct control of a user; they are usually instantiated as processes. ... Email filtering is the processing of electronic mail to organise it according to specified criterion. ...


Several proprietary systems are based on OpenBSD, including Profense from Armorlogic ApS,[39] AccessEnforcer from Calyptix Security,[40] GeNUGate and GeNUBox from GeNUA mbH,[41] RTMX O/S from RTMX Inc,[42] syswall from Syscall Network Solutions AG,[43] HIOBMessenger from topX, and various security appliances made by .vantronix GmbH.[44] Of these, both GeNUA and RTMX have contributed back to OpenBSD: GeNUA funded the development of SMP on the i386 platform and RTMX have sent patches to add further POSIX compliance to the system. Several open source operating systems have also been derived from OpenBSD, notably Anonym.OS and MirOS BSD, as well as the now defunct ekkoBSD, MicroBSD and Gentoo/OpenBSD. In addition, code from many of the OpenBSD system tools has been used in recent versions of Microsoft's Services for UNIX, an extension to the Windows operating system which provides some Unix-like functionality, originally based on 4.4BSD-Lite. Core force, a security product for Windows, is based on OpenBSD's pf firewall. There have also been projects which use OpenBSD as part of images for embedded systems, including OpenSoekris and flashdist; together with tools like nsh, these allow Cisco-like embedded devices to be created.[45] Proprietary software is software with restrictions on using, copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ... Symmetric Multiprocessing, or SMP, is a multiprocessor computer architecture where two or more identical processors are connected to a single shared main memory. ... POSIX or Portable Operating System Interface[1] is the collective name of a family of related standards specified by the IEEE to define the application programming interface (API) for software compatible with variants of the Unix operating system. ... Anonym. ... MirOS BSD (the original name MirBSD is deprecated) is a free operating system, which started as a fork of OpenBSD 3. ... ekkoBSD is a UNIX-like operating system based on OpenBSD 3. ... MicroBSD is a fork of the UNIX-like BSD operating system descendant OpenBSD 3. ... Gentoo/ALT is a Gentoo Linux project created to manage porting the Portage framework and other features to other operating systems, such as Mac OS X and the open source BSDs. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Windows Services for UNIX Microsoft Windows Services for UNIX (SFU) is a software package produced by Microsoft which provides a Unix subsystem and other parts of a full Unix environment on Windows NT and its successors. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, the lead section of this article may need to be expanded. ... Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD, sometimes called Berkeley Unix) is the Unix derivative distributed by the University of California, Berkeley, starting in the 1970s. ... Core Force is a free Personal firewall and execution access control product. ... It has been suggested that Embedded System Design in an FPGA be merged into this article or section. ... A Cisco ASM/2-32EM router deployed at CERN in 1987. ...

OpenBSD 3.8 running X.Org with the default FVWM 2.2.5 window manager
OpenBSD 3.8 running X.Org with the default FVWM 2.2.5 window manager

OpenBSD ships with the X window system. Following the XFree86 licence change, it includes a recent X.Org release; an older XFree86 3.3 release is also available for legacy video cards. With these, it is possible to use OpenBSD as a desktop or workstation, making use of a desktop environment, window manager or both to give the X desktop a wide range of appearances. The OpenBSD ports tree contains many of the most popular tools for desktop use, including desktop environments GNOME, KDE, and Xfce; web browsers Konqueror, Mozilla Firefox and Opera; and multimedia programs MPlayer, VLC media player and xine. In addition, graphical software for many uses is available from both the ports tree and by compiling POSIX compliant software. Also available are compatibility layers, which allow binary code compiled for other operating systems, including Linux, FreeBSD, SunOS and HP-UX, to be run. However, since hardware providers such as video card manufacturers ATI and NVIDIA refuse to release open source drivers or documentation for the 3D capabilities of their hardware, OpenBSD lacks accelerated 3D graphics support. Image File history File links Openbsd38defaultwm. ... Image File history File links Openbsd38defaultwm. ... The X.Org Foundation Open Source Public Implementation of X11 (the XOrg Server) is the official reference implementation of the X Window System. ... FVWM with internationalization features and some additional modules. ... An X window manager is software that controls the placement and appearance of windows under the X Window System, a windowing system mainly used on Unix-like systems. ... KDE 3. ... XFree86 is an implementation of the X Window System . ... XFree86 is an implementation of the X Window System . ... The X.Org Foundation Open Source Public Implementation of X11 (the XOrg Server) is the official reference implementation of the X Window System. ... A GeForce 4 4200-based graphics card A graphics card or video card is a component of a computer which is designed to convert a logical representation of an image stored in memory to a signal that can be used as input for a display medium, most often a monitor... It has been suggested that Desktop metaphor,Paper paradigm be merged into this article or section. ... An X window manager is software that controls the placement and appearance of windows under the X Window System, a windowing system mainly used on Unix-like systems. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... KDE (K Desktop Environment) (IPA: ) is a free software project which aims to be a powerful system for an easy-to-use desktop environment. ... Xfce ([1]) is a free software desktop environment for Unix and other Unix-like platforms, such as Linux, Solaris and BSD. Its configuration is entirely mouse-driven and the configuration files are hidden from the casual user. ... Konqueror is a file manager, web browser and file viewer, which was developed as part of the K Desktop Environment (KDE) by volunteers and runs on most Unix-like operating systems. ... Mozilla Firefox is a graphical web browser developed by the Mozilla Corporation, and a large community of external contributors. ... Opera is an Internet suite which handles common internet-related tasks, including visiting web sites, sending and receiving e-mail messages, managing contacts, and online chat. ... ... This article is about the open source media player. ... VLC media player is a free software (GPL) media player by the VideoLAN project. ... xine (officially pronounced [ksi:n], like the name Maxine without Ma[1]) is a multimedia playback engine for Unix-like operating systems released under the GNU General Public License. ... In software engineering, a compatibility layer allows binaries for an emulated system to run on a host system. ... SunOS was the version of the UNIX operating system developed by Sun Microsystems for their workstations and server systems until the early 1990s. ... HP-UX (Hewlett Packard UniX) is Hewlett-Packards proprietary implementation of the Unix operating system, based on System V (initially System III). ... The current version of the article or section is written like a magazine article instead of the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia. ... NVIDIA Corporation (NASDAQ: NVDA) (pronounced ) is an American corporation specializing in the manufacture of GPU technologies for video cards, graphics cards, workstations, desktop computers, handhelds and more. ...


OpenBSD's performance and usability is occasionally criticised. Felix von Leitner's performance and scalability tests,[46] indicated that OpenBSD lagged behind other operating systems. In response, OpenBSD users and developers criticised von Leitner's objectivity and methodology, and asserted that although performance is given consideration, security and correct design are prioritised, with developer Nick Holland commenting: "It all boils down to what you consider important."[47] OpenBSD is also a relatively small project, particularly when compared with FreeBSD and Linux, and developer time is sometimes seen as better spent on security enhancements than performance optimisations. Critics of usability often point out the lack of user-friendly configuration tools, the bare default installation,[48] and "spartan" and "intimidating" installer.[49] These see much the same rebuttals as performance: a preference for simplicity, reliability and security; as one reviewer admits, "running an ultra-secure operating system can be a bit of work."[50] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Scale (computing). ...


Distribution and marketing

OpenBSD is available freely in various ways: the source can be retrieved by anonymous CVS or CVSup, and binary releases and development snapshots can be downloaded either by FTP or HTTP. Prepackaged CD-ROM sets can be ordered online for a small fee, complete with an assortment of stickers and a copy of the release's theme song. These, with its artwork and other bonuses, are one of the project's few sources of income, funding hardware, bandwidth and other expenses. To encourage the sale of the official CD-ROMs, OpenBSD makes only a small install ISO image available for download rather than providing full release images. CVSup is a is a computer program which synchronises files and directories from one location to another while minimizing data transfer using file-type specific delta encoding when appropriate. ... “FTP” redirects here. ... Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a communications protocol used to transfer or convey information on the World Wide Web. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In common with several other operating systems, OpenBSD uses ports and packages systems to allow for easy installation and management of programs which are not part of the base operating system. Originally based on the FreeBSD ports tree, the system is now quite distinct. Additionally, major changes have been made since the 3.6 release, including the replacement of the package tools, the tools available to the user to manipulate packages, by more capable versions, written in Perl by Marc Espie. In contrast to FreeBSD, the OpenBSD ports system is intended as a source used to create the end product, the packages: installing a port first creates a package and then installs it using the package tools. Packages are built in bulk by the OpenBSD team and provided for download with each release. OpenBSD is also unique among the BSDs in that the ports and base operating system are developed and released together for each version: this means that the ports or packages released with, for example, 3.7 are not suitable for use with 3.6 and vice versa, a policy which lends a great deal of stability to the development process, but means that the software in ports for the latest OpenBSD release can lag somewhat from the latest version available from the author. Wikibooks has a book on the topic of Perl Programming Perl is a dynamic programming language created by Larry Wall and first released in 1987. ...

Puffy, painted

Around the time of the OpenBSD 2.7 release, the original mascot, a BSD daemon with a trident and aureola, was replaced by Puffy, traditionally said to be a pufferfish. In fact pufferfish do not possess spikes and images of Puffy are closer to a similar species, the porcupinefish. Puffy was selected because of the Blowfish encryption algorithm used in OpenSSH and the strongly defensive image of the porcupinefish with its spikes to deter predators. He quickly became very popular, mainly because of the appealing image of the fish and his distinction from the BSD daemon, also used by FreeBSD, and the horde of daemons then used by NetBSD. Puffy made his first public appearance in OpenBSD 2.6 and, since then, has appeared in a number of guises on tee-shirts and posters. These have included Puffiana Jones, the famed hackologist and adventurer, seeking out the Lost RAID; Puffathy, a little Alberta girl, who must work with Taiwan to save the day; Sir Puffy of Ramsay, a freedom fighter who, with Little Bob of Beckley, took from the rich and gave to all; and Puff Daddy, famed rapper and political icon. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x907, 421 KB) OpenBSD and OpenSSH mascot Puffy, painted. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1000x907, 421 KB) OpenBSD and OpenSSH mascot Puffy, painted. ... Puffy, cartoon style Puffy is the mascot of the free operating system OpenBSD. Puffy is a porcupinefish, which is used to signify the intention of the developers to make an impregnably secure operating system. ... BSD Daemon, aka Beastie BSD Daemon is the BSD operating systems mascot, named after a daemon, a type of software program common on Unix-like operating systems, but taking the (albeit less arcane) shape of the classic mythical demon. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Images of Mary, mother of Jesus are often surrounded by an aureole, as in this image of Our Lady of Guadalupe. ... Genera Allomycterus Chilomycterus(Burrfishes, Spiny Boxfishes) Cyclichthys(Swelltoads) Dicotylichthys Diodon(Porcupinefishes) Lophodiodon Lyosphaera Tragulichthys The Porcupinefish is a fish of the family Diodontidae (order Tetraodontiformes). ... T-Shirt A T-shirt (or tee shirt) is a shirt with short or long sleeves, a round neck, put on over the head, without pockets. ... 1942 US government war poster. ... For other uses, see Hacker (disambiguation). ...


After a number of releases, OpenBSD has become notorious for its catchy songs and interesting and often comical artwork. The promotional material of early OpenBSD releases did not have a cohesive theme or design but, starting with OpenBSD 3.0, the CD-ROMs, release songs, posters and tee-shirts for each release have been produced with a single style and theme, sometimes contributed to by Ty Semaka of the Plaid Tongued Devils. At first they were done lightly and only intended to add humour but, as the concept has evolved, they have become a part of OpenBSD advocacy, with each release expanding a moral or political point important to the project, often through parody. Past themes have included: in OpenBSD 3.8, the Hackers of the Lost RAID, a parody of Indiana Jones linked to the new RAID tools featured as part of the release; The Wizard of OS, making its debut in OpenBSD 3.7, based on the work of Pink Floyd and a parody of The Wizard of Oz related to the project's recent wireless work; and OpenBSD 3.3's Puff the Barbarian, including an 80s rock-style song and parody of Conan the Barbarian, alluding to open documentation. Plaid Tongued Devils is a Canadian band (that also does theatre). ... It has been suggested that Apple evangelist be merged into this article or section. ... In contemporary usage, a parody (or lampoon) is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ... Dr. Henry Indiana Jones, Jr. ... Pink Floyd are an English rock band that earned recognition for their psychedelic rock music, and, as they evolved, for their avant-garde progressive rock music. ... The Wonderful Wizard of Oz, see The Wizard of Oz (adaptations). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Hither came Conan, the Cimmerian, black-haired, sullen-eyed, sword in hand, a thief, a reaver, a slayer, with gigantic melancholies and gigantic mirth, to tread the jeweled thrones of the Earth under his sandalled feet. ...


In addition to the slogans used on tee-shirts and posters for releases, the project occasionally produces other material: over the years, catchphrases have included "Sending script kiddies to /dev/null since 1995," "Functional, secure, free - choose 3," "Secure by default," and a few insider slogans, only available on tee-shirts made for developer gatherings, such as "World class security for much less than the price of a cruise missile" and a crufty old octopus proclaiming "Shut up and hack!" A catch phrase is a phrase or expression that is popularized, usually through repeated use, by a real person or fictional character. ... In hacker culture, a script kiddie (occasionally script bunny, skidie, script kitty, script-running juvenile (SRJ), or similar) is (sometimes) a derogatory term used for an inexperienced malicious cracker who uses programs developed by others to attack computer systems, and deface websites. ... In Unix-like operating systems, /dev/null or the null device is a special file that discards all data written to it, and provides no data to any process that reads from it. ... A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the Luftwaffe A cruise missile is a guided missile which uses a lifting wing and most often a jet propulsion system to allow sustained flight. ...


Books

A number of books on OpenBSD have been published, including:

Written by Michael W. Lucas, writer of Absolute BSD and Cisco Routers for the Desperate, this practical guide to the Unix-like operating system OpenBSD is designed for seasoned UNIX users looking to add OpenBSD to their skill-set. ...

See also

Cryptography Portal
Free software Portal
Portal:Computer science
Computer science Portal

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Computer-aj_aj_ashton_01. ... BSD Authentication, otherwise known as BSD Auth, is an authentication framework and software API employed by some Unix-like operating systems, specifically OpenBSD and BSD/OS, and accompanying system and application software such as OpenSSH and Apache. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... There are a number of Unix-like operating systems based on, or descended from, the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) series of Unix variants. ... The following tables compare general and technical information for a number of widely used and currently available operating systems. ... This is a table comparing the various open source operating systems. ... A hackathon, a hacker neologism, is an event when programmers meet to do collaborative computer programming. ... The KAME project is a joint effort of six companies in Japan to provide a free IPv6 and IPsec (for both IPv4 and IPv6) stack for BSD variants to the world. ... OpenBSD developers gathered for the 2001 hackathon in Boston This is a list of OpenBSD developers. ... Portable Open Source Security Elements, or POSSE, was a co-operative venture among the University of Pennsylvania Distributed Systems Laboratory, the OpenBSD project, and others, to provide increased security for Open Source projects such as OpenBSD, OpenSSL, and others. ... This is an alphabetical list of operating systems with a sharp security focus. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b List of supported platforms on the OpenBSD website.
  2. ^ Glass, Adam. Message to netbsd-users: Theo De Raadt(sic), December 23, 1994. Visited January 8, 2006.
  3. ^ Wayner, Peter. Free For All: How Linux and the Free Software Movement Undercut the High Tech Titans, 18.3 Flames, Fights, and the Birth of OpenBSD, 2000. Visited January 6, 2006.
  4. ^ Forbes. Is Linux For Losers? June 16, 2005. Visited January 8, 2006.
  5. ^ NewsForge. Theo de Raadt gives it all to OpenBSD, January 30, 2001. Visited January 8, 2006.
  6. ^ In this message the NetBSD core team acknowledge de Raadt's "positive contributions" to the project despite its problems with him.
  7. ^ Tux Journal. A good morning with: Theo de Raadt, June 2, 2005. Visited April 21, 2006
  8. ^ de Raadt, Theo. Mail to openbsd-announce: The OpenBSD 2.0 release, October 18, 1996. Visited December 10, 2005.
  9. ^ Beck, Bob. Mail to announce@openbsd.org: OpenBSD 4.1 Released. Visited May 2, 2006.
  10. ^ Official OpenBSD Foundation site.
  11. ^ Beck, Bob. Mail to openbsd-misc: Announcing: The OpenBSD Foundation, July 25, 2007. Visited July 26, 2007.
  12. ^ The BSD Certification Group.; PDF of usage survey results.
  13. ^ Multiple selections were permitted as a user may use multiple BSD variants side by side.
  14. ^ Chuck Cranor's site.
  15. ^ de Raadt, Theo. Mail to openbsd-misc: Adaptec AAC raid support, March 18, 2005. Visited December 9, 2005.
  16. ^ Scott Long's site.
  17. ^ Long, Scott. Post to OSNews: From a BSD and former Adaptec person..., March 19, 2005. Visited December 9, 2005.
  18. ^ de Raadt, Theo. Mail to freebsd-questions: aac support, March 19, 2005. Visited December 9, 2005.
  19. ^ de Raadt, Theo. Mail to freebsd-questions: aac support, March 19, 2005. Visited December 9, 2005.
  20. ^ de Raadt, Theo. Presentation at OpenCON, December 2006. Visited December 7, 2006.
  21. ^ OpenBSD.org. Copyright Policy. Visited January 7, 2006.
  22. ^ NewsForge. BSD cognoscenti on Linux, June 15, 2005. Visited January 7, 2006.
  23. ^ Hartmeier, Daniel. Design and Performance of the OpenBSD Stateful Packet Filter (pf). Visited December 9, 2005.
  24. ^ NewsForge. OpenBSD and ipfilter still fighting over license disagreement, June 06, 2001. Visited November 23, 2005.
  25. ^ Man pages: mrinfo and map-mbone.
  26. ^ de Raadt, Theo. Mail to openbsd-misc: Re: Why were all DJB's ports removed? No more qmail?, August 24, 2001. Visited December 9, 2005.
  27. ^ Bernstein, DJ. Mail to openbsd-misc: Re: Why were all DJB's ports removed? No more qmail?, August 27, 2001. Visited December 9, 2005.
  28. ^ Espie, Marc. Mail to openbsd-misc: Re: Why were all DJB's ports removed? No more qmail?, August 28, 2001. Visited December 9, 2005.
  29. ^ The Age. Staying on the cutting edge, October 8, 2004. Visited January 8, 2006.
  30. ^ ONLamp.com. Interview with OpenBSD developers: The Essence of OpenBSD, July 17, 2003. Visited December 18, 2005.
  31. ^ Theo de Raadt on SNI: "Without their support at the right time, this release probably would not have happened." From the 2.3 release announcement. Visited December 19, 2005.
  32. ^ Internet Security Systems. OpenSSH Remote Challenge Vulnerability, June 26, 2002. Visited December 17, 2005.
  33. ^ A partial list of affected operating systems.
  34. ^ Core Security Technologies' homepage.
  35. ^ Core Security Technologies. Mail to bugtraq: OpenBSD's IPv6 mbufs remote kernel buffer overflow. March 13, 2007. Visited March 13, 2007.
  36. ^ Wheeler, David A. Secure Programming for Linux and Unix HOWTO, 2.4. Is Open Source Good for Security?, March 3, 2003. Visited December 10, 2005.
  37. ^ Provos, Niels. Privilege Separated OpenSSH. Visited January 30, 2006.
  38. ^ O'Reilly Network. An Interview with OpenBSD's Marc Espie, March 18, 2004. Visited January 24, 2006.
  39. ^ Armorlogic ApS's homepage.
  40. ^ Calyptix Security's website.
  41. ^ GeNUA mbH's homepage.
  42. ^ RTMX Inc homepage.
  43. ^ Syscall Network Solutions AG's site.
  44. ^ .vantronix GmbH's homepage.
  45. ^ OpenSoekris, flashdist and nsh.
  46. ^ Scalability test results and conclusions.
  47. ^ Holland, Nick. Mail to openbsd-misc: Re: OpenBSD Benchmarked... results: poor!, October 19, 2003. Visited January 8, 2006.
  48. ^ NewsForge. Trying out the new OpenBSD 3.8, November 2, 2005. Visited January 8, 2006.
  49. ^ NewsForge. Review: OpenBSD 3.5, July 22, 2004. Visited January 8, 2006.
  50. ^ DistroWatch. OpenBSD - For Your Eyes Only, 2004. Visited January 8, 2006.

PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ...

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OpenBSD (178 words)
OpenBSD is freely available from our FTP sites, and also available in an inexpensive 3-CD set.
The current release is OpenBSD 4.1 which was released May 1, 2007.
These finances ensure that OpenBSD will continue to exist, and will remain free for everyone to use and reuse as they see fit.
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