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Open source is a set of principles and practices that promote access to the design and production of goods and knowledge. The term is most commonly applied to the source code of software that is available to the general public with relaxed or non-existent intellectual property restrictions. This allows users to create software content through incremental individual effort or through collaboration. Open source may refer to: Open source, where the sourcecode of software and its related documentation is freely availible. ... Image File history File links Merge-arrows. ... Open source software is computer software which source code is available under a license (or arrangement such as the public domain) that meets the Open_source_definition. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Source code (commonly just source or code) is any series of statements written in some human-readable computer programming language. ... Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Collaboration is a process defined by the recursive interaction of knowledge[1] and mutual learning between two or more people working together[2] toward a common goal typically creative in nature. ...


The open source model of operation can be extended to open source culture in decision making, which allows concurrent input of different agendas, approaches and priorities, in contrast with more centralized models of development such as those typically used in commercial companies.[1] Open source culture is one where collective decisions or fixations are shared during development and made generally available to all, as done in Wikipedia. This collective approach moderates ethical concerns over a "conflict of roles" or conflict of interest. Participants in such a culture are able to modify the collective outcomes and share them with the community. Some consider open source as one of various possible design approaches, while others consider it a critical strategic element of their operations. Open source culture (OSC) is a term that derives from open source software and the open source movement. ... Decision making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. ... This article or section should be merged with Decision_making. ... Look up Fixation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the science (study) of morality. In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is good or right. ... A conflict of interest is a situation in which someone in a position of trust, such as a lawyer, a politician, or an executive or director of a corporation, has competing professional or personal interests. ... A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal, most often winning. Strategy is differentiated from tactics or immediate actions with resources at hand by its nature of being extensively premeditated, and often practically rehearsed. ... Business operations are those activities involved in the running of a business for the purpose of producing value for the stakeholders. ...


Before the term open source became popular, developers and producers used various phrases to describe the concept; the term gained popularity with the rise of the Internet which enabled diverse production models, communication paths and interactive communities.[2] Later, open source software became the most prominent face of open source practices. ...


History

Main article: Open Source history

Very similar to open standards, researchers with access to the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) used a process called Request for Comments to develop telecommunication network protocols. Characterized by contemporary open source work, this 1960's collaborative process led to the birth of the Internet in 1969. There are earlier instances of open source movements and free software such as IBM's source releases of its operating systems in the 1960s and the SHARE user group that formed to facilitate the exchange of such software. Open source history is tied to three operating systems: Unix, GNU, and Linux. ... Open standards are publicly available specifications for achieving a specific task. ... ARPANET logical map, March 1977. ... In internetworking and computer network engineering, Request for Comments (RFC) documents are a series of memoranda encompassing new research, innovations, and methodologies applicable to Internet technologies. ... // An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer. ... SHARE Inc. ...


The "open source" label came out of a strategy session[3] held at Palo Alto, California, in reaction to Netscape's January 1998 announcement of a source code release for Navigator. The group of individuals at the session included Christine Peterson who suggested "open source", Todd Anderson, Larry Augustin, Jon Hall, Sam Ockman, and Eric S. Raymond. They used the opportunity before the release of Navigator's source code to free themselves of the ideological and confrontational connotations of the term free software. Netscape licensed and released its code as open source under the Netscape Public License and subsequently under the Mozilla Public License.[4] Location of Palo Alto within Santa Clara County, California. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Netscape Communications Corporation was the publisher of the Netscape Navigator web browser as well as many other internet and intranet client and server software products. ... Netscape Navigator, also known as Netscape, was a proprietary web browser that was popular during the 1990s. ... Larry Augustin is the chairman and founder of VA Software. ... Jon maddog Hall is the Executive Director of Linux International [1], a non-profit organization of computer vendors who wish to support and promote the Linux operating system. ... Eric S. Raymond (FISL 6. ... This article is about free software as used in the sociopolitical free software movement; for non-free software distributed without charge, see freeware. ... Netscape Communications (formally known as Netscape Communications Corporation and commonly known as Netscape), is an American computer services company, best known for its web browser. ... The Netscape Public License (NPL) is a free software license, the license under which Netscape Communications Corporation originally released Mozilla. ... In computing, the Mozilla Public License (MPL) is an open source and free software license. ...


The term was given a big boost at an event organized in April 1998 by technology publisher Tim O'Reilly. Originally titled the "Freeware Summit" and later known as the "Open Source Summit",[5] the event brought together the leaders of many of the most important free and open source projects, including Linus Torvalds, Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Eric Allman, Guido van Rossum, Michael Tiemann, Paul Vixie, Jamie Zawinski of Netscape, and Eric Raymond. At that meeting, the confusion caused by the name "free software" was brought up. Tiemann argued for "sourceware" as a new term, while Raymond argued for "open source." The assembled developers took a vote, and the winner was announced at a press conference that evening. This milestone may be commonly seen as the birth of the Open Source Initiative.[citation needed] Tim OReilly at the MIX06 conference in Las Vegas, Nevada Tim OReilly (born 1954, Cork, Ireland) is the founder of OReilly Media (formerly OReilly & Associates) and supporter of the free software and open source movements. ... Linus Benedict Torvalds  ; born December 28, 1969 in Helsinki, Finland, is a Finnish software engineer best known for initiating the development of the Linux kernel. ... Larry Wall Larry Wall (born September 27, 1954) is a programmer, linguist, and author, most widely known for his creation of the Perl programming language in 1987. ... Brian Behlendorf (Born March 30, 1973) is one of the most respected leaders of the international open-source software movement. ... Eric Allman (born 1959) is a computer programmer. ... Guido van Rossum Guido van Rossum is a Dutch computer programmer who is best known as the author of the Python programming language. ... Michael Tiemann is Vice President, Open Source Affairs at Red Hat Inc. ... Paul Vixie is the author of several RFCs and well known UNIX system programs, among them SENDS, proxynet, rtty and Vixie cron. ... Jamie W. Zawinski (born 1971 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania), commonly known as jwz, is a computer programmer responsible for significant contributions to the free software projects Mozilla and XEmacs, and early versions of the proprietary Netscape Navigator web browser. ... Netscape Communications (formally known as Netscape Communications Corporation and commonly known as Netscape), is an American computer services company, best known for its web browser. ... The Open Source Initiative is an organization dedicated to promoting open source software. ...


The Open Source Initiative (OSI) formed in February 1998 by Raymond and Perens. With about 20 years of evidence from case histories of closed and open development already provided by the Internet, the OSI continued to present the 'open source' case to commercial businesses. They sought to bring a higher profile to the practical benefits of freely available source code, and wanted to bring major software businesses and other high-tech industries into open source. Perens adapted Debian's Free Software Guidelines to make the Open Source Definition.[6] Debian is a free operating system. ... The Open Source Definition is used by the Open Source Initiative to determine whether or not a software license can be considered open source. ...

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Critics have said that the term "open source" fosters an ambiguity between the mere availability of the source versus the freedom to use, modify, and redistribute it. Developers have used the term Free/Open-Source Software (FOSS), or Free/Libre/Open-Source Software (FLOSS), consequently, to describe open-source software that is freely available and free of charge.[citation needed] Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... FOSS is an acronym for free and open source software that is most often used in English-speaking military software communities. ... The term Free/Libre and Open Source Software (FLOSS or sometimes FOSS) is a hybrid term for both free software and open source software. ...


Society and culture

Open source culture is the creative practice of appropriation and free sharing of found and created content. Examples include collage, found footage film, music, and appropriation art. Open source culture is one in which fixations are made generally available. Participants in the culture can modify those products and redistribute them back into the community or other organizations. Informing and inspiring the open source movement are the African call-and-response traditions, Jazz and the free dance movements which emerged in the 20th Century. Late 20th Century open source strategies include Fluxus, web jams, Wigglism and the international Hip Hop culture. For other uses, see Collage (disambiguation). ... Found footage is a filmmaking term which describes a method of compiling films partly or entirely of footage which has not been created by the filmmaker, and changing its meaning by putting it into a new context. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Definition To appropriate something is to take possession of it. ... Look up Fixation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Fluxus – a name taken from a Latin word meaning to flow – is an international network of artists, composers and designers noted for blending different artistic media and disciplines in the 1960s. ... Hip hop is a cultural movement that began amongst urban African American youth in New York and has since spread around the world. ...


The rise of open-source culture in the 20th century resulted from a growing tension between creative practices that involve appropriation, and therefore require access to content that is often copyrighted, and increasingly restrictive intellectual property laws and policies governing access to copyrighted content. The two main ways in which intellectual property laws became more restrictive in the 20th century were extensions to the term of copyright (particularly in the United States) and penalties, such as those articulated in the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), placed on attempts to circumvent anti-piracy technologies. Not to be confused with copywriting. ... The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a United States copyright law which implements two 1996 WIPO treaties. ...


Although artistic appropriation is often permitted under fair use doctrines, the complexity and ambiguity of these doctrines creates an atmosphere of uncertainty among cultural practitioners. Also, the protective actions of copyright owners create what some call a "chilling effect" among cultural practitioners. For fair use in trademark law, see Fair use (US trademark law). ... It has been suggested that Legal terrorism be merged into this article or section. ...


In the late 20th century, cultural practitioners began to adopt the intellectual property licensing techniques of free software and open-source software to make their work more freely available to others, including the Creative Commons. This article is about free software as used in the sociopolitical free software movement; for non-free software distributed without charge, see freeware. ... Open source software is computer software which source code is available under a license (or arrangement such as the public domain) that meets the Open_source_definition. ... The Creative Commons (CC) is a non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative work available for others legally to build upon and share. ...


The idea of an "open source" culture runs parallel to "Free Culture," but is substantively different. Free culture is a term derived from the free software movement, and in contrast to that vision of culture, proponents of OSC maintain that some intellectual property law needs to exist to protect cultural producers. Yet they propose a more nuanced position than corporations have traditionally sought. Instead of seeing intellectual property law as an expression of instrumental rules intended to uphold either natural rights or desirable outcomes, an argument for OSC takes into account diverse goods (as in "the Good life") and ends. The Free Culture Movement is a student led movement that supports freedom of speech on the Internet and objects to overly restrictive copyright laws, which, members of the movement argue, hinders creativity. ... The free software movement, also known as the free software philosophy, began in 1983 when Richard Stallman announced the GNU Project. ...


One way of achieving the goal of making the fixations of cultural work generally available is to maximally utilize technology and digital media. As predicted by Moore's law, the cost of digital media and storage plummeted in the late 20th Century. Consequently, the marginal cost of digitally duplicating anything capable of being transmitted via digital media dropped to near zero. Combined with an explosive growth in personal computer and technology ownership, the result is an increase in general population's access to digital media. This phenomenon facilitated growth in open source culture because it allowed for rapid and inexpensive duplication and distribution of culture. Where the access to the majority of culture produced prior to the advent of digital media was limited by other constraints of proprietary and potentially "open" mediums, digital media is the latest technology with the potential to increase access to cultural products. Artists and users who choose to distribute their work digitally face none of the physical limitations that traditional cultural producers have been typically faced with. Accordingly, the audience of an open source culture faces little physical cost in acquiring digital media. Bold textDigital media (as opposed to analog media) usually refers to electronic media that work on digital codes. ... Gordon Moores original graph from 1965 Growth of transistor counts for Intel processors (dots) and Moores Law (upper line=18 months; lower line=24 months) For the observation regarding information retrieval, see Mooers Law. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... In economics and finance, marginal cost is the change in total cost that arises when the quantity produced changes by one unit. ...


Open source culture started as an idea without a name many years before the Internet. Richard Stallman codified the concept with the creation of the Free Software Foundation. However, even before Stallman and the Internet, as the public begain to communicate through Bulletin Board Systems (BBS) like FidoNet, places like Sourcery Systems BBS where dedicated to providing source code to Public Domain, Shareware and Freeware programs. Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often abbreviated rms,[1] is a software freedom activist, hacker,[2] and software developer. ... The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit corporation founded in October 1985 by Richard Stallman to support the free software movement (free as in freedom), and in particular the GNU project. ... A bulletin board system or BBS is a computer system running software that allows users to dial into the system over a phone line and, using a terminal program, perform functions such as downloading software and data, uploading data, reading news, and exchanging messages with other users. ... The FidoNet logo FidoNet is a worldwide computer network that is used for communication between bulletin board systems. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Look up shareware in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term Freeware refers to gratis proprietary software with closed source. ...


Essentially born out of a desire for increased general access to digital media, the Internet is open source culture's most valuable asset. It is questionable whether the goals of an open source culture could be achieved without the Internet. The global network not only fosters an environment where culture can be generally accessible, but also allows for easy and inexpensive redistribution of culture back into various communities. Some reasons for this are as follows.


First, the Internet allows even greater access to inexpensive digital media and storage. Instead of users being limited to their own facilities and resources, they are granted access to a vast network of facilities and resources, some for free. Sites such as Archive.org offer up free web space for anyone willing to license their work under a Creative Commons license. The resulting cultural product is then available to download for free (generally accessible) to anyone with an Internet connection. Internet Archive, San Francisco The Internet Archive (archive. ... The Creative Commons (CC) is a non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative work available for others legally to build upon and share. ...


Second, users are granted unprecedented access to each other. Older analog technologies such as the telephone or television have limitations on the kind of interaction users can have. In the case of television there is little, if any interaction between users participating on the network. And in the case of the telephone, users rarely interact with any more than a couple of their known peers. On the Internet, however, users have the potential to access and meet millions of their peers. This aspect of the Internet facilitates the modification of culture as users are able to collaborate and communicate with each other across international and cultural boundaries. The speed in which digital media travels on the Internet in turn facilitates the redistribution of culture. For other uses, see Telephone (disambiguation). ...


Through various technologies such as peer-to-peer networks and blogs, cultural producers can take advantage of vast social networks in order to distribute their products. As opposed to traditional media distribution, redistributing digital media on the Internet can be virtually costless. Technologies such as BitTorrent and Gnutella take advantage of various characteristics of the Internet protocol (TCP/IP) in an attempt to totally decentralize file distribution. A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is a network that relies on the computing power and bandwidth of the participants in the network rather than concentrating it in a relatively few servers. ... It has been suggested that Online diary be merged into this article or section. ... A social network is a map of the relationships between individuals, indicating the ways in which they are connected through various social familiarities ranging from casual acquaintance to close familial bonds. ... This article is about the protocol. ... Gnutella (pronounced: with a silent g, or alternatively ) is a file sharing network. ... The Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols that implement the protocol stack on which the Internet runs. ...


Government

  • Open source governmentprimarily refers to use of open source software technologies in traditional government organizations and government operations such as voting.
  • Open politics (sometimes known as Open source politics) — is a term used to describe a political process that uses Internet technologies such as blogs, email and polling to provide for a rapid feedback mechanism between political organizations and their supporters. There is also an alternative conception of the term Open source politics which relates to the development of public policy under a set of rules and processes similar to the Open Source Software movement.
  • Open source governance — is similar to open source politics, but it applies more to the democratic process and promotes the freedom of information.

Open source government primarily refers to use of open source software and technologies in traditional and non-traditional government organizations and government operations such as voting and email. ... The open politics combines traditions of the free software and open content movements with postmoderism, and promotes a decision making method claimed to be a more open, less antagonistic, and more capable of determining what is in the public interest with respect to public policy issues. ... Open source governance advocates the application of the philosophies of the open source movement to democratic principles, to enable any interested citizen to add to the creation of new policy—rather like a wiki document. ...

Ethics

Open Source ethics is split into two strands:

  • Open Source Ethics as an Ethical School - Charles Ess and David Berry are researching whether ethics can learn anything from an open source approach. Ess famously even defined the AoIR Research Guidelines as an example of open source ethics.[7]
  • Open Source Ethics as a Professional Body of Rules - This is based principally on the computer ethics school, studying the questions of ethics and professionalism in the computer industry in general and software development in particular.[8]

Media

Open source journalism — referred to the standard journalistic techniques of news gathering and fact checking, and reflected a similar term that was in use from 1992 in military intelligence circles, open source intelligence. It is now commonly used to describe forms of innovative publishing of online journalism, rather than the sourcing of news stories by a professional journalist. In the Dec 25, 2006 issue of TIME magazine this is referred to as user created content and listed alongside more traditional open source projects such as OpenSolaris and Linux. Open source journalism, a close cousin to citizen journalism or participatory journalism, is a term coined in the title of a 1999 article by Andrew Leonard of Salon. ... Open Source Intelligence (OSINT) is an intelligence gathering discipline that involves collecting information from open sources and analyzing it to produce usable intelligence. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... OpenSolaris is an open source project created by Sun Microsystems to build a developer community around Solaris Operating System technology. ... This article is about operating systems that use the Linux kernel. ...


Weblogs, or blogs, are another significant platform for open source culture. Blogs consist of periodic, reverse chronologically ordered posts, using a technology that makes webpages easily updatable with no understanding of design, code, or file transfer required. While corporations, political campaigns and other formal institutions have begun using these tools to distribute information, many blogs are used by individuals for personal expression, political organizing, and socializing. Some, such as LiveJournal or WordPress, utilize open source software that is open to the public and can be modified by users to fit their own tastes. Whether the code is open or not, this format represents a nimble tool for people to borrow and re-present culture; whereas traditional websites made the illegal reproduction of culture difficult to regulate, the mutability of blogs makes "open sourcing" even more uncontrollable since it allows a larger portion of the population to replicate material more quickly in the public sphere. This article is about a type of web application. ... FTP or file transfer protocol is a commonly used protocol for exchanging files over any network that supports the TCP/IP protocol (such as the Internet or an intranet). ... LiveJournal (often abbreviated LJ) is a virtual community where Internet users can keep a blog, journal, or diary. ... This article is about the self-hosted blog software. ...


Messageboards are another platform for open source culture. Messageboards (also known as discussion boards or forums), are places online where people with similar interests can congregate and post messages for the community to read and respond to. Messageboards sometimes have moderators who enforce community standards of etiquette such as banning users who are spammers. Other common board features are private messages (where users can send messages to one another) as well as chat (a way to have a real time conversation online) and image uploading. Some messageboards use phpBB, which is a free open source package. Where blogs are more about individual expression and tend to revolve around their authors, messageboards are about creating a conversation amongst its users where information can be shared freely and quickly. Messageboards are a way to remove intermediaries from everyday life - for instance, instead of relying on commercials and other forms of advertising, one can ask other users for frank reviews of a product, movie or CD. By removing the cultural middlemen, messageboards help speed the flow of information and exchange of ideas. An Internet forum, also known as a message board or discussion board, is a web application that provides for online discussions, and is the modern descendant of the bulletin board systems and existing Usenet news systems that were widespread in the 1980s and 1990s. ... A KMail folder full of spam emails collected over a few days. ... phpBB is a popular internet forum package written in the PHP programming language. ...


OpenDocument is an open document file format for saving and exchanging editable office documents such as text documents (including memos, reports, and books), spreadsheets, charts, and presentations. Organizations and individuals that store their data in an open format such as OpenDocument avoid being locked in to a single software vendor, leaving them free to switch software if their current vendor goes out of business, raises their prices, changes their software, or changes their licensing terms to something less favorable. Semi-official ODF logo The OpenDocument format (ODF, ISO/IEC 26300, full name: OASIS Open Document Format for Office Applications) is a file format for electronic office documents, such as spreadsheets, charts, presentations, databases and word processing documents (e. ... An open format is a published specification for storing digital data, usually maintained by a non-proprietary standards organization, and free of legal restrictions on use. ... A document file format is a text or binary file format for storing documents on a storage media, especially for use by computers. ... A spreadsheet is a rectangular table (or grid) of information, often financial information. ... In economics, vendor lock-in, also known as proprietary lock-in, customer lock-in, lock-in is where a customer is dependent on a vendor for products and services and cannot move to another vendor without substantial switching costs, real and/or perceived. ... A software license is a legal agreement which may take the form of a proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software. ...


Open source movie production is either an open call system in which a changing crew and cast collaborate in movie production, a system in which the end result is made available for re-use by others or in which exclusively open source products are used in the production. The 2006 movie Elephants Dream is said to be the "world's first open movie"[9], created entirely using open source technology. A concept borrowed from software development, Open Source Movie production features: 1. ... Elephants Dream is a computer-generated short film made primarily[1] using free software applications and premiered on March 24, 2006, after about 8 months of work. ...


Open Source Technology Good Stoves - a movement that each individual or organization /s develop technology for common good with out expecting profit (or patenting). It is an idea to design efficient stoves for the millions using traditional or less efficient biomass stoves, so that these clean stoves if adopted would help in mitigating the Climate change / global warming too. www.goodstove.com


An open source documentary film has a production process allowing the open contributions of archival material, footage, and other filmic elements, both in unedited and edited form. By doing so, on-line contributors become part of the process of creating the film, helping to influence the editorial and visual material to be used in the documentary, as well as its thematic development. The first open source documentary film to go into production "The American Revolution" [10]," which will examine the role that WBCN-FM in Boston played in the cultural, social and political changes locally and nationally from 1968 to 1974, is being produced by Lichtenstein Creative Media and the non-profit The Fund for Independent Media. Open Source Cinema is a website to create Basement Tapes, a feature documentary about copyright in the digital age, co-produced by the National Film Board of Canada. Open Source Filmmaking refers to a form of filmmaking that takes a method of idea formation from open source software, but in this case the 'source' for a film maker is raw unedited footage rather than programming code. It can also refer to a method of filmmaking where the process of creation is 'open' i.e. a disparate group of contributors, at different times contribute to the final piece. In film and video, footage is the raw, unedited material as it has been recorded by the camera, which usually must be edited to create a motion picture, video clip, television show or similar completed work. ... Open Source Filmmaking refers to a form of filmmaking that takes a method of idea formation from open source software, but in this case the source for a film maker is raw unedited footage rather than programming code. ...


Open-IPTV is IPTV that is not limited to one recording studio, production studio, or cast. Open-IPTV uses the Internet or other means to pool efforts and resources together to create an online community that all contributes to a show. This article is about internet protocol television. ...


Education

Within the academic community, there is discussion about expanding what could be called the "intellectual commons" (analogous to the Creative Commons). Proponents of this view have hailed the Connexions Project at Rice University, OpenCourseWare project at MIT, Eugene Thacker's article on "Open Source DNA", the "Open Source Cultural Database", openwebschool, and Wikipedia as examples of applying open source outside the realm of computer software. The Creative Commons (CC) is a non-profit organization devoted to expanding the range of creative work available for others legally to build upon and share. ... For the British agency, see Connexions agency For the middle school in Baltimore, Maryland of the same name see, ConneXions Leadership Academy Connexions (cnx. ... Lovett Hall William Marsh Rice University (commonly called Rice University and opened in 1912 as The William Marsh Rice Institute for the Advancement of Letters, Science and Art) is a private, comprehensive research university located in Houston, Texas, USA, near the Museum District and adjacent to the Texas Medical Center. ... MIT OpenCourseWare (MIT OCW) is an initiative of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to put all of the educational materials from MITs undergraduate- and graduate-level courses online, free and openly available to anyone, anywhere, by the year 2007. ... “MIT” redirects here. ... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ...


Open source curricula are instructional resources whose digital source can be freely used, distributed and modified. An open source curriculum (OSC) is an online instructional resource that can be freely used, distributed and modified. ...


Another strand to the academic community is in the area of research. Many funded research projects produce software as part of their work. There is an increasing interest in making the outputs of such projects available under an open source license. In the UK the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) has developed a policy on open source software. JISC also funds a development service called OSS Watch which acts as an advisory service for higher and further education institutions wishing to use, contribute to and develop open source software. JISC (the Joint Information Systems Committee) is a publicly-funded UK-wide body supporting the use of ICT and related technology for learning, teaching, research and administration in further and higher education. ... OSS Watch is the UKs advisory service for issues relating to open source software in the Further Education and Higher Education sectors. ...


Innovation communities

The principle of sharing predates the open source movement; for example, the free sharing of information has been institutionalized in the scientific enterprise since at least the 19th century. Open source principles have always been part of the scientific community. The sociologist Robert K. Merton described the four basic elements of the community - universalism (an international perspective), communism (sharing information), disinterestedness (removing one's personal views from the scientific inquiry) and organized skepticism (requirements of proof and review) that accurately describe the scientific community today. These principles are, in part, complemented by US law's focus on protecting expression and method but not the ideas themselves. There is also a tradition of publishing research results to the scientific community instead of keeping all such knowledge proprietary. One of the recent initiatives in scientific publishing has been open access - the idea that research should be published in such a way that it is free and available to the public. There are currently many open access journals where the information is available for free online, however most journals do charge a fee (either to users or libraries for access). The Budapest Open Access Initiative is an international effort with the goal of making all research articles available for free on the Internet. The National Institutes of Health has recently proposed a policy on "Enhanced Public Access to NIH Research Information." This policy would provide a free, searchable resource of NIH-funded results to the public and with other international repositories six months after its initial publication. The NIH's move is an important one because there is significant amount of public funding in scientific research. Many of the questions have yet to be answered - the balancing of profit vs. public access, and ensuring that desirable standards and incentives do not diminish with a shift to open access. Editing Robert K. Merton This article is about the sociologist. ... Open access (OA) means immediate, free and unrestricted online access to digital scholarly material[1], primarily peer-reviewed research articles in scholarly journals. ... National Institutes of Health Building 50 at NIH Clinical Center - Building 10 The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services and is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical research. ...


Benjamin Franklin was an early contributor eventually donating all his inventions including the Franklin stove, bifocals and the lightning rod to the public domain after successfully profiting off their sales and patents. Benjamin Franklin (January 17 [O.S. January 6] 1706 – April 17, 1790) was one of the most well known Founding Fathers of the United States. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Bifocals are eyeglasses whose corrective lenses each contain regions with two distinct optical powers. ... An example of a standard, pointed-tip air terminal The term lightning rod is also used as a metaphorical term to describe those who attract controversy. ...


New NGO communities are starting to use the open source technology as a tool. One example is the Open Source Youth Network started in 2007 in Lisboa by ISCA members[11].


Arts and recreation

Copyright protection is used in the performing arts and even in athletic activities. Groups have attempted to protect such practices from being fettered by copyright.[12] The performing arts are those forms of art which differ from the plastic arts insofar as the former uses the artists own body, face and presence as a medium, and the latter uses materials such as clay, metal or paint which can be molded or transformed to create some...


Criticism

Critics of “Open Source” publishing cite the need for direct compensation for the work of creation. For example, the act of writing a book, building a complex piece of software, or producing a motion picture requires a substantial amount of labor. Retaining intellectual property rights over such works greatly increases the feasibility of obtaining financial compensation which covers the labor costs. The critics argue that without this compensation, many socially desirable and useful works would never be created in the first place. Some critics draw distinctions between areas where Open Source collaborations have successfully created useful products, such as general-purpose software, and areas where they see compensation as more important and collaboration as less important, such as highly specialized complex software projects, entertainment, or news. Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... Shortcut: WP:-( Vandalism is indisputable bad-faith addition, deletion, or change to content, made in a deliberate attempt to compromise the integrity of the encyclopedia. ... For the 2006 film, see Intellectual Property (film). ...


Another criticism of the Open Source movement is that these projects are not really as self-organizing as their proponents claim. This argument holds that Open Source projects succeed only when they have a strong central manager, even if that manager is a volunteer. The article Open Source Projects Manage Themselves? Dream On. by Chuck Connell explains this viewpoint. Eric Raymond responded to this criticism, and Chuck Connell answered.


The Free Software Foundation (FSF) opposes the term “Open Source” being applied to what they refer to as “free software”.[13] They also oppose the professed pragmatism of the Open Source Initiative, as they fear that the free software ideals of freedom and community are threatened by compromising on the FSF's idealistic standards for software freedom.[14][15] The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a non-profit corporation founded in October 1985 by Richard Stallman to support the free software movement (free as in freedom), and in particular the GNU project. ... The Open Source Initiative is an organization dedicated to promoting open source software. ...


Business models

There are a number of commonly recognized barriers to the adoption of open source software by enterprises. These barriers include the perception that open source licenses are viral, lack of formal support and training, the velocity of change, and a lack of a long term roadmap. The majority of these barriers are risk-related. Many business models exist around open source software to provide a 'whole product' to help reduce these risks. The 'whole product' typically includes support, professional services, training, certification, partner programs, references and use cases. These business models range from 'services only' organisations that do not participate in the development of the software to models where the majority of the software is created by full-time committers that are employed by a central organization. These business models have come into existence recently and their operation is not commonly understood. One model that has been developed to explain this is the Bee Keeper Model Open source software is widely used for private and non-commercial applications. ...


See also

Free software Portal

Image File history File links Free_Software_Portal_Logo. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to the patterns of everyday speech. ... Asemic writing is an open semantic form of writing. ... Aristotles Poetics aims to give an account of poetry. ... CodePlex is an open source project hosting website from Microsoft. ... Commons-based peer production is a term coined by Yales Law professor Yochai Benkler to describe a new model of economic production in which the creative energy of large numbers of people is coordinated (usually with the aid of the internet) into large, meaningful projects, mostly without traditional hierarchical... Open source software is widely used for private and non-commercial applications. ... Community source builds upon the open source production and development models but introduces more formal commitments and coordination to the work and strategic directions. ... Microsoft, like many other companies in their heyday, has publicly stated that it aims to embrace and extend popular standards and existing work. ... // Free software is the term introduced by Richard Stallman in 1983 for software which the user can use for any purpose, study the source code of, adapt to their needs, and redistribute - modified or unmodified. ... This article is about free software as used in the sociopolitical free software movement; for non-free software distributed without charge, see freeware. ... A gift economy is an economic system in which goods and services are given without any explicit agreement for immediate or future quid pro quo. ... The legal aspects of technology involve many different terms. ... A hackathon, a hacker neologism, is an event when programmers meet to do collaborative computer programming. ... JExamples provides the ability to search for Java examples extracted from open source projects. ... Koders is a search engine for source code. ... This is a list of open-source software packages: computer software licensed under an open-source license. ... A list of websites that list free software projects. ... This is a list of notable software packages which were formerly published under a proprietary software license but were subsequently released as free or open source software (as defined by the Free Software Foundation and Open Source Initiative, respectively). ... Open source games are computer games assembled out of, and are themselves, open-source software and open content. ... A network effect is a characteristic that causes a good or service to have a value to a potential customer which depends on the number of other customers who own the good or are users of the service. ... Open access (OA) means immediate, free and unrestricted online access to digital scholarly material[1], primarily peer-reviewed research articles in scholarly journals. ... Open content, coined by analogy with open source, (though technically it is actually share-alike) describes any kind of creative work including articles, pictures, audio, and video that is published in a format that explicitly allows the copying of the information. ... Open Data is a philosophy and practice requiring that certain data are freely available to everyone, without restrictions from copyright, patents or other mechanisms of control. ... Open Design is a term that applies to the investigation and potential of open source and the collaborative nature of the internet to create physical objects. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Semi-official ODF logo The OpenDocument format (ODF, ISO/IEC 26300, full name: OASIS Open Document Format for Office Applications) is a file format for electronic office documents, such as spreadsheets, charts, presentations, databases and word processing documents (e. ... An open format is a published specification for storing digital data, usually maintained by a non-proprietary standards organization, and free of legal restrictions on use. ... Open implementation is a term used to describe computing systems where the implementation is accessible to users. ... Modern blueprint of the French galleon La Belle. ... OpenRank is an open source ranking algorithm that is designed to be able to rank items such as web pages, photos, books, etc in a way that the ranking tries to predict users interests and tastes. ... In the spirit of free and open source software (F/OSS), open research is conducted in much the same way. ... The [Open Source Health Care Alliance]http://www. ... The Open Source Initiative is an organization dedicated to promoting open source software. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with open design. ... An open-source license is a copyright license for computer software that makes the source code available under terms that allow for modification and redistribution without having to pay the original author. ... Open source record labels are a reaction against what some musicians see as corporate control of music via means of copyright. ... Open source religions attempt to employ open source methodologies in the creation of religious belief systems. ... Open source software is computer software which source code is available under a license (or arrangement such as the public domain) that meets the Open_source_definition. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Open systems are computer systems that provide either interoperability, portability, or freedom from proprietary standards, depending on users perspective. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... // Open source teaching Open source teaching (OST) is a platform that utilizes emerging technologies to facilitate shared learning and the development of communities. ... Openness is related to open source and is a philosophy that is being used as the basis of how various groups and organizations operate. ... Shared software is a different term used to describe free software and open source software, and possibly also software that is not formally covered by the definition of either, but that is in some other way shared rather than owned. ... Shared source is Microsoft’s framework for sharing computer program source code with individuals and organizations, which has been imitated by other companies such as RISC OS Open Limited. ... SourceForge is a collaborative revision control and software development management system. ... In economics, vendor lock-in, also known as proprietary lock-in, customer lock-in, lock-in is where a customer is dependent on a vendor for products and services and cannot move to another vendor without substantial switching costs, real and/or perceived. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Raymond, Eric S. The Cathedral and the Bazaar. ed 3.0. 2000.
  2. ^ The complexity of such communication relates to Brooks' law, and is described by Eric S. Raymond, "Brooks predicts that as your number of programmers N rises, work performed scales as N but complexity and vulnerability to bugs rises as N-squared. N-squared tracks the number of communications paths (and potential code interfaces) between developers' code bases." —"The Revenge of the Hackers". 2000.
  3. ^ History of the OSI. Open Source Initiative. 2006.
  4. ^ Muffatto, Moreno (2006). Open Source: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Imperial College Press. 1860946658. 
  5. ^ Open Source Summit Linux Gazette. 1998.
  6. ^ Perens, Bruce. Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution. O'Reilly Media. 1999.
  7. ^ Berry (2004) Internet Ethics: Privacy, Ethics and Alienation - An Open Source Approach. (PDF file)
  8. ^ El-Emam, K (2001). Ethics and Open Source. Empirical Software Engineering 6(4).
  9. ^ http://www.elephantsdream.org/
  10. ^ "The American Revolution
  11. ^ http://www.isca-web.org/english/youth/yource/thenetwork
  12. ^ http://www.yogaunity.org
  13. ^ Stallman, Richard (2007-06-16). Why “Open Source” misses the point of Free Software. Philosophy of the GNU Project. GNU Project. Retrieved on 2007-07-23. “As the advocates of open source draw new users into our community, we free software activists have to work even more to bring the issue of freedom to those new users' attention. We have to say, “It's free software and it gives you freedom!”—more and louder than ever. Every time you say “free software” rather than “open source,” you help our campaign.”
  14. ^ Stallman, Richard (2007-06-19). Why “Free Software” is better than “Open Source”. Philosophy of the GNU Project. GNU Project. Retrieved on 2007-07-23. “Sooner or later these users will be invited to switch back to proprietary software for some practical advantage. Countless companies seek to offer such temptation, and why would users decline? Only if they have learned to value the freedom free software gives them, for its own sake. It is up to us to spread this idea—and in order to do that, we have to talk about freedom. A certain amount of the “keep quiet” approach to business can be useful for the community, but we must have plenty of freedom talk too.”
  15. ^ Stallman, Richard (2007-06-16). Why “Open Source” misses the point of Free Software. Philosophy of the GNU Project. GNU Project. Retrieved on 2007-07-23. “Under the pressure of the movie and record companies, software for individuals to use is increasingly designed specifically to restrict them. This malicious feature is known as DRM, or Digital Restrictions Management (see DefectiveByDesign.org), and it is the antithesis in spirit of the freedom that free software aims to provide. [...] Yet some open source supporters have proposed “open source DRM” software. Their idea is that by publishing the source code of programs designed to restrict your access to encrypted media, and allowing others to change it, they will produce more powerful and reliable software for restricting users like you. Then it will be delivered to you in devices that do not allow you to change it. This software might be “open source,” and use the open source development model; but it won't be free software, since it won't respect the freedom of the users that actually run it. If the open source development model succeeds in making this software more powerful and reliable for restricting you, that will make it even worse.”

Eric S. Raymond (FISL 6. ... The Cathedral and the Bazaar (abbreviated CatB) is an essay by Eric S. Raymond on software engineering methods, based on his observations of the Linux kernel development process and his experiences managing an open source project, fetchmail. ... Brooks law was stated by Fred Brooks in his 1975 book The Mythical Man-Month as Adding manpower to a late software project makes it later. ... Eric S. Raymond (FISL 6. ... The Open Source Initiative is an organization dedicated to promoting open source software. ... Bruce Perens is a leader in the Open Source and Free Software community. ... Programming Perl is a classic OReilly book. ... Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often abbreviated rms,[1] is a software freedom activist, hacker,[2] and software developer. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often abbreviated rms,[1] is a software freedom activist, hacker,[2] and software developer. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Richard Matthew Stallman (born March 16, 1953), often abbreviated rms,[1] is a software freedom activist, hacker,[2] and software developer. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has more about this subject:
Look up open source in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Open Source Definition (Annotated) | Open Source Initiative (985 words)
Open source doesn't just mean access to the source code.
The source code must be the preferred form in which a programmer would modify the program.
Rationale: The major intention of this clause is to prohibit license traps that prevent open source from being used commercially.
What Business Can Learn from Open Source (4175 words)
Ironically, though open source and blogs are done for free, those worlds resemble market economies, while most companies, for all their talk about the value of free markets, are run internally like communist states.
So these, I think, are the three big lessons open source and blogging have to teach business: (1) that people work harder on stuff they like, (2) that the standard office environment is very unproductive, and (3) that bottom-up often works better than top-down.
That may be the greatest effect, in the long run, of the forces underlying open source and blogging: finally ditching the old paternalistic employer-employee relationship, and replacing it with a purely economic one, between equals.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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