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Encyclopedia > Open rescue
Activists
Greg Avery
David Barbarash
Steven Best  · Rod Coronado
Barry Horne  · Ronnie Lee
Keith Mann
Ingrid Newkirk
Alex Pacheco
Robin Webb
Organizations
Animal Aid
Animal Liberation Front
BUAV
Great Ape Project
Justice Department
PETA  · SPEAK
SHAC
Issues
Animal rights · Animal testing
Covance
Declaration on Great Apes
Factory farming  · Fur farming
Huntingdon Life Sciences
Speciesism  · Vivisection
Writers
Steven Best
Jeremy Bentham
Stephen Clark  · Tom Regan
Richard D. Ryder
Peter Singer
Category
Animal liberation movement

Open rescue is a term for a form of direct action practiced by certain animal rights and animal welfare activists. The aim of open rescue is to rescue animals perceived to be in pain and suffering, generally and to give these animals veterinary treatment and humane living conditions while also documenting the living conditions at the place they were held. Open rescue puts the emphasis on the openness of their actions, as opposed to the traditional clandestine activities of animal rights-related direct actions, and as such the activists always act openly, upfront, without masks (except as required by health reasons) and publish their full identities. Open rescue is nonviolent towards humans and other animals, although some groups practice property damage. ImageMetadata File history File links Monkeyinbilebearcage. ... The Great Ape Project is campaigning for a Declaration on Great Apes. ... Greg Avery is a British animal rights activist and co-founder in November 1999 of Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty (SHAC), an international campaign to force the closure of Huntingdon Life Sciences (HLS), a controversial animal-testing company with bases in Huntingdon, England, and New Jersey in the United States. ... David Barbarash is the North American press officer for the Animal Liberation Front. ... Dr. Steven Best Steven Best (born December 1955) is an American animal rights activist, author, talk-show host, and associate professor of philosophy at the University of Texas at El Paso. ... Rod Coronado Rodney Adam Coronado is an eco-anarchist, animal rights activist, editor of the environmentalist Earth First! Journal, and convicted arsonist[1]. In 1985, at the age of 19, Coronado joined the crew of the conservation ship, Sea Shepherd, [2] and on November 9, 1986, he and another activist... Barry Horne Barry Horne was a British animal rights activist who died of kidney failure in Ronkswood Hospital, Worcester on November 5, 2001, following a series of four hunger strikes while serving an 18-year sentence for planting incendiary devices. ... Ronnie Lee is a British animal rights activist, and founder of the Animal Liberation Front. ... Keith Mann is a British animal-rights campaigner, believed to be a senior Animal Liberation Front activist. ... Ingrid Newkirk (born July 11, 1949) is a British-born animal rights activist, author, and the president of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), the worlds largest animal rights organization. ... Alex Pacheco is an animal rights activist and co-founder (and former chairman) of People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA). ... Robin Webb appearing on Channel 4s Dispatches Robin Webb is the press officer for the Animal Liberation Front (ALF) in the UK. He was previously a member of the ruling council of the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA), and a director of Animal Aid. ... Alternative meaning: Organisation (band). ... Animal Aid is the United Kingdoms largest animal rights group and one of the longest established in the world, having been founded in 1977. ... For other uses of the abbreviation ALF, see ALF (disambiguation) Beagles removed by British ALF activists from a testing laboratory owned by Boots the Chemists. ... The British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection is a pressure group based near Highbury Corner in North London, United Kingdom that campaigns peacefully against vivisection. ... Founded in 1993, the Great Ape Project (GAP), calls for an extension of moral equality to encompass all great apes (both species of chimpanzee, gorillas, and orangutans), not just human beings. ... The Justice Department is a militant animal-rights organization, set up in Britain in 1993, and active there and in the United States. ... For the SI unit of measurement, see Peta People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) is the largest animal rights organization in the world. ... SPEAK is a British animal rights campaign that aims to end animal experimentation and vivisection in the UK. The campaign was born out of Stop Primate Experimentation at Cambridge (SPEAC), [1] a campaign set up to oppose the construction at the University of Cambridge of a new primate testing facility... A primate in Huntingdon Life Sciences, covertly photographed by SHAC Stop Huntingdon Animal Cruelty (SHAC) is an international animal rights campaign against Huntingdon Life Sciences (HLS), the UKs largest animal-testing laboratory, which is based in Huntingdon, England and in New Jersey in the United States. ... The Great Ape Project is campaigning for a Declaration on Great Apes. ... Filmed by PETA, Covance primate-testing lab, Vienna, Virginia, 2004-5. ... Covance (NYSE: CVD), with headquarters in Princeton, New Jersey, is one of the worlds largest and most comprehensive drug development services companies, according to its own website, with annual revenues over $1 billion, global operations in 17 countries, and approximately 6,700 employees worldwide. ... The Great Ape Project, founded by Australian philosopher Peter Singer, is campaigning to have the United Nations endorse a Declaration on Great Apes. ... Female pigs used for breeding are confined most of their lives in gestation crates, which are too small to enable them to turn around. ... Image:Furblueboxpelts1. ... Huntingdon Life Sciences (HLS) is a controversial animal-testing laboratory based in Huntingdon, England, and New Jersey in the United States. ... Speciesism involves assigning different values or rights to beings on the basis of their species. ... Anaesthetised rat in a stereotaxic restraining device about to undergo brain surgery. ... Dr. Steven Best Steven Best (born December 1955) is an American animal rights activist, author, talk-show host, and associate professor of philosophy at the University of Texas at El Paso. ... Jeremy Bentham (IPA: ) (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English gentleman, jurist, philosopher, and legal and social reformer. ... Stephen Richard Lyster Clark (born October 30, 1945) is a British philosopher and international authority on animal rights, currently professor of philosophy and Leverhulme Research Fellow at the University of Liverpool. ... Dr. Tom Regan Tom Regan (born November 28, 1938 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) is an American philosopher and animal-rights activist. ... Richard D. Ryder (born 1940) is a British psychologist who, after performing psychology experiments on animals, began to speak out against the practice, and became one of the pioneers of the modern animal liberation and animal rights movements. ... Prof. ... Direct action is a method and a theory of stopping objectionable practices or creating more favorable conditions using immediately available means, such as strikes, boycotts, workplace occupations, sit-ins, intimidation, harassment or sabotage, and less oppositional methods such as establishing radical social centres, although these are often squatted. ... The Great Ape Project is campaigning for a Declaration on Great Apes. ... Animal welfare is the viewpoint that some or all animals, especially those under human care, should be treated in such a way that they do not suffer unnecessarily. ... Animal rights activism is a form of activism that attempts to bring about both a public awareness of the lack of consideration of rights for all animals, and a change in law to prevent this lack of consideration from negatively affecting animals. ... The Great Ape Project is campaigning for a Declaration on Great Apes. ... Nonviolence (or non-violence) is a set of assumptions about morality, power and conflict that leads its proponents to reject the use of violence in efforts to attain social or political goals. ... Property damage is damage or destruction done to public or private property, caused either by a person who is not its owner or by natural phenomena. ...

Contents


History

The open rescue method was largely developed by Animal Liberation Victoria (ALV) Rescue Team, based in Melbourne. Inspired by satyagraha, the method and philosophy used by Mahatma Gandhi in the struggle for independence for India, the ALV developed this method in the 1980s and has since the been conducting investigations and open rescue operations, actions which reportedly have been well-received by the public. At one point an Australian MP joined in the rescue operation of factory farmed piglets.[1] City of Melbourne Local Government Area State Victoria Lord Mayor John So (since 2001) Area 36 km² Population (2001) 57,960 Density 1,601/km² (1999) Greater Melbourne Subdivisions Local Government Areas Area 7,694 km² (1999) Population 2001 census (2nd in Australia) 3,555,321 Density 462. ... See Satyagraha (opera) for an account of the opera of that title by Philip Glass. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869–January 30, 1948) (Devanagari, Hindi: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी,Gujarati:મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી) was the spiritual and political leader of India who led the struggle for Indias independence from the British Empire, empowered by tens of millions of Indians. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to a parliament; in the Westminster system, specifically to the lower house. ... Hardy Meyers chicken operation near Petal, Mississippi. ... Species Sus barbatus Sus bucculentus Sus cebifrons Sus celebensis Sus domesticus Sus heureni Sus philippensis Sus salvanius Sus scrofa Sus timoriensis Sus verrucosus Pigs are ungulates native to Eurasia collectively grouped under the genus Sus within the Suidae family. ...


In 1999, Patty Mark of the ALV presented this method of direct action at the United Poultry Concern's Direct Action for Animals Conference. Displaying the positive results of the open rescue actions in Australia and by comparing videos from an open rescue action and a cladenstine action, she managed to convince a number of people of the usefulness of open rescue both on the grounds of compassions for animals and on the grounds of the reception by the general public, opening for the open rescue method on the international arena. Soon after this, Compassionate Action for Animals (US) adopted the method, and other organisations followed. 1999 (MCMXCIX) is a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ...


Currently, openrescue.org lists 18 different open rescue organisations, with varying level of activity, in five different countries on three continents - Australia (Oceania), Austria, Germany and Sweden (Europe) and USA (North America). Oceania is a geographical (often geopolitical) region consisting of numerous countries and territories – mostly islands – in the Pacific Ocean, usually including Australia and New Zealand. ... Europe forms the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America North America is a continent in the northern hemisphere bordered on the north by the Arctic Ocean, on the east by the North Atlantic Ocean, on the south by the Caribbean Sea, and on the west by the...


Criminality

Some practitioners of open rescue claim to not be guilty of any crime, claiming to have acted in defense of others, especially if the rescued animals have not been kept in accordance with laws regulating animal husbandry. Similarily, others cite the disregard of the owner's violations of such laws as sufficient justification, and point out the hypocrisy of the strict enforcement of the law against open rescue activists. This article and defense of property deal with the legal concept of justified acts that might otherwise be illegal. ...


Majja Carlsson of Räddningstjänsten, a Swedish open rescue organisation, was one of four activists that rescued 120 hens in the largest open rescue operation to date. In her description of the action, she writes the following (translated from Swedish):

It is possible that there will be legal consequences after this action. Of course, I realise that according to some I commited a crime, even if I don't consider it to be one myself. It's sad that we are seen as criminals in this society. Not the egg industry which has broken against the animal protection laws for fifteen years. That the laws which were created to protect the animals are completely ignored while they view any crime against property rights as grave.[2]

Similarily, Räddningstjänsten writes in a comment to the legal proceedings that followed the action (translated from Swedish) "We intervened and saved 120 individuals from unnecessary suffering and a certain premature death [...] It is not we, but the animal industry, that commit the true crimes."[3]


It is doubtful that any court has accepted this line of reasoning.


Arguments for open rescue

Photo from a clandestine rescue operation by the Animal Liberation Front (ALF)
Photo from a clandestine rescue operation by the Animal Liberation Front (ALF)

Open rescue "puts a face on animal liberation" [4]. By being open, proponents claim that they get a more positive response from the media and the general population, and thet by not wearing masks they reduce the distance between themselves and the public, they become a normal everyday person whom the public can identify with and not an abstract masked "terrorist". Being open removes or tones down the militant edge of direct actions. This work is copyrighted. ... This work is copyrighted. ... For other uses of the abbreviation ALF, see ALF (disambiguation) Beagles removed by British ALF activists from a testing laboratory owned by Boots the Chemists. ... Look up terrorist in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Open rescue proponents also claim that their method of operation in conducive to their compassion for the rescued animals. One of the things reportedly shown by the video comparison at the aforementioned United Poultry Concern's forum on Direct Actions was that the open rescue activist displayed more compassion and care for the animals compared to the clandestine activists (which is not to say that the clandestine activists did not display compassion and care). Whether this is due to that the operations are unmasked, that the operations are open or some other quality is still open for argument.


Criticism

One can divide the criticism against open rescue into two general categories: Criticism against open rescue as a method of direct action, which often comes from other practitioners of direct action, and criticism of the use of direct action, which can come both from other animal rights activists and from outside the animal rights movements.


Criticism against open rescue as a method

Because open rescue virtually guarantees that the activists will be found and convicted due to the publication of their identities, open rescue can be construed as a more resource-demanding method compared to clandestine method. Open rescue requires more money, as the resulting convictions following the actions means that fines have to be paid and damages have to be compensated for, and it also requires more manpower as the activists are more likely to be rendered incapable due to prison sentences. Hence it is argued that being open is an unnecessary risk to take as it is simply a waste of resources and people which could be used to rescue even more animals.


It is also argued that open rescue is not a reasonable alternative for everyone. Some activists are on probation, and being sentenced for another crime could mean that their previous sentences would be transformed to jailtime. Some activists have or will have careers which require the lack of a criminal record, careers or dreams which would effectively be over if they used the open rescue method, and regardless for most professions and careers a criminal record - in particular an extensive one - will be a hindrance both in regards to getting employed and getting promotions.


Criticism of the use of direct action

Some who sympathise with the goal of animal rights consider direct actions to be counter-productive. While they may sympathise with the activists and what they wish to achieve, they think that the groups should abide the laws and by extension the democractic system that they live in. It is argued that the activists have a democratic and civic responsibility to operate within the confines of the law and that to do otherwise would be undemocratic, possibly even tyrannical. Others argue that direct actions are not well-received by neither the public nor the authorities, and that by committing them the activists spend the political capital of the entire animal rights and animal welfare movements.


A common response from practitioners of all types of animal rights direct action to the criticism that the activists must abide by the law and the democratic system is that the argument suffers a fundamental flaw: We live in a democracy, but it is a democracy of man, for man, by man. The laws are written by humans for humans, making it an androcentric system which does not represent animals. If our system of governance is looked at from an interspecies perspective, it is something to be likened to apartheid rather than a full democracy, with humans taking the place of whites. A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ...


See also

The Great Ape Project is campaigning for a Declaration on Great Apes. ... Animal rights activism is a form of activism that attempts to bring about both a public awareness of the lack of consideration of rights for all animals, and a change in law to prevent this lack of consideration from negatively affecting animals. ... Animal welfare is the viewpoint that some or all animals, especially those under human care, should be treated in such a way that they do not suffer unnecessarily. ... An anti-war activist is arrested for civil disobedience on the steps of the Supreme Court on February 9, 2005. ... Ecotage is sabotage motivated by environmentalism, including the prevention of ecocide. ... See Satyagraha (opera) for an account of the opera of that title by Philip Glass. ... The logo of the worlds first Vegan Society, registered in 1944 [1] Veganism is a lifestyle characterized by abstaining from the use or ingestion of animal products, and by avoiding the use of products that have been tested on animals. ... Vegetarianism is the practice of not eating meat, poultry, fish or their by-products, with or without the use of dairy products or eggs [2]. The exclusion may also extend to products derived from animal carcasses, such as lard, tallow, gelatin, rennet and cochineal. ...

External links

  • openrescue.org - a network of open rescue organisations.

  Results from FactBites:
 
openrescue.org >> about open rescue (509 words)
Open Rescue is based on giving aid, rescue and veterinary treatment to any animal known to be suffering and in pain, yet trapped in confined conditions where they have been neglected and/or abandoned to slowly die.
The immediate aim of open rescue is to save lives and secondly to document the cruel conditions forced upon literally billions of animals around the world.
Open Rescue is based on the moral premise that it is wrong to knowingly let any individual, regardless of their species, die an unnecessarily slow, agonizing and painful death.
PADI Rescue Diver (261 words)
You can enroll in the Rescue Diver Course as a certified Open Water Diver (or have a qualifying certification from another training organization) and participate in the Rescue Diver knowledge development and rescue training sessions, in confined water only, while working on your Advanced Open Water Diver certification.
To participate in the rescue training sessions in open water, and to participate in the open water rescue scenarios, you must be certified as a PADI Advanced Open Water Diver or have a qualifying certification from another training organization.
The PADI Rescue Diver certification is a prerequisite for all Professional level PADI courses, beginning with the PADI Divemaster certification.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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