FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
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Encyclopedia > Open heart surgery
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Cardiac surgery is surgery on the heart, typically to treat complications of ischemic heart disease (e.g. coronary artery bypass grafting), correct congenital heart disease, or treat valve problems created by various causes including endocarditis. A typical modern surgery operation For other meanings of the word, see Surgery (disambiguation) Surgery (from the Greek cheirourgia - lit. ... The heart and lungs (from an older edition of Grays Anatomy) The heart (Latin cor) is a hollow, muscular organ that pumps blood through the blood vessels by repeated, rhythmic contractions. ... Coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease (CAD) and atherosclerotic heart disease, is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium (the muscle of the heart). ... A coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) or heart bypass is a surgical procedure performed in patients with coronary artery disease (see atherosclerosis) for the relief of angina and possible improved heart muscle function. ... Congenital heart disease is heart disease in the newborn, and includes congenital heart defects, congenital arrythmias, and cardiomyopathies. ... Endocarditis is an inflammation of the inner layer of the heart, the endocardium. ...


The earliest operations that might be considered cardiac surgery were limited to the pericardium, and were pioneered by, among others, Francisco Romero[1], Dominique Jean Larrey, Henry Dalton, and Daniel Hale Williams. The first successful surgery on the heart itself, performed without any complications, was by Dr. Ludwig Rehn of Frankfurt, Germany, who repaired a stab wound to the right ventricle on September 7, 1896. The pericardium is a double-walled sac that contains the heart and the roots of the great vessels. ... Dominique Jean Larrey, portrait by Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson, beginning of 19th century. ... Dr Henry C. Dalton was professor of abdominal and clinical surgery at Marion Sims College of Medicine, now part of the School of Medicine at Washington University in St. ... Dr Daniel Hale Williams ( January 18, 1856 - August 4, 1931) was an African American surgeon. ... Jump to: navigation, search Frankfurt am Main ▶(?) [ˈfraŋkfʊrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany. ... In anatomy, a ventricle is a part of the body filled with fluid. ... Jump to: navigation, search September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search 1896 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...

It was soon discovered that the repair of intracardiac pathologies necessitated a bloodless and motionless environment, which means that the heart should be stopped and by-passed by use of an extracorporeal circulation technique, hence the term of cardiopulmonary bypass. The first successful intracardiac correction of a congenital heart defect using hypothermia was performed by Dr. F. John Lewis and Dr. C. Walton Lillehei at the University of Minnesota on September 2, 1952. Dr. J.H.Gibbon at Jefferson Medical School in Philadelphia reported in 1953 the first successful use of extracorporeal circulation by means of a pump-oxygenator, but he abandoned the method, disappointed by subsequent failures. In 1954 Dr. Lillehei realized a successful series of operations with the controlled cross-circulation technique in which the patient's mother or father was used as a 'heart-lung machine'. Dr. John W. Kirklin at the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota started using a Gibbon type pump-oxygenator in a series of successful operations, and was soon followed by surgeons in various parts of the world. Jump to: navigation, search Hypothermia is a medical condition in which the victims core body temperature has dropped to significantly below normal and normal metabolism begins to be impaired. ... Dr. C. Walton Lillehei (October 23, 1918–July 5, 1999) is known as the Father of Open-Heart Surgery. ... Jump to: navigation, search The entrance to the Gonda Building in downtown Rochester. ...

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