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Encyclopedia > Oolong
Rolled Oolong tea leaves
Rolled Oolong tea leaves

Oolong (Chinese: ; Pinyin: wūlóng) is a traditional Chinese tea somewhere between green and black in oxidation. It ranges from 10% to 70% oxidation.[1] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (832x624, 88 KB) ja: ウーロン茶の茶葉。投稿者自身による撮影 (削除) (最新版) 2005å¹´3月26æ—¥ (土) 07:07 . ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (832x624, 88 KB) ja: ウーロン茶の茶葉。投稿者自身による撮影 (削除) (最新版) 2005å¹´3月26æ—¥ (土) 07:07 . ... Hanyu Pinyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), commonly called Pinyin, is the most common variant of Standard Mandarin romanization system in use. ... Tea leaves in a Chinese gaiwan. ... Green tea (绿茶) is tea that has undergone minimal oxidation during processing. ... Black tea Black tea is more oxidized than the green, oolong and white varieties; all four varieties are made from leaves of Camellia sinensis. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ...


In Chinese tea culture, semi-oxidized oolong teas are collectively grouped as qīngchá (青茶, literally: blue-green tea).[2] Oolong has a taste more akin to green tea than to black tea: it lacks the rosy, sweet aroma of black tea but it does not have the stridently grassy vegetal notes that typify green tea. The best Oolong has a nuanced flavor profile. It is commonly brewed to be strong, with the bitterness leaving a sweet and pleasant aftertaste. Oolongs produced in the Wuyi Mountains of Fujian Province and in the Central Mountains of Taiwan, are world famous.


Oolong tea leaves are often processed and rolled into long curly leaves or into ball-like form similar to gunpowder tea.[1] It is commonly served in Chinese restaurants, to accompany dim sum and other Chinese food. Gunpowder tea (珠茶; pinyin: zhÅ« chá) is a form of green Chinese tea produced in Zhejiang Province of China in which each leaf has been rolled into a small round pellet. ... Dim sum (Chinese: 點心; Cantonese IPA: dɪm2sɐm1; Pinyin: diǎnxīn; Wade-Giles: tien-hsin; literally dot heart or order heart, meaning order to ones hearts content; also commonly translated as touch the heart, dotted heart, or snack), a Cantonese term... China has one of the richest culinary heritages on Earth. ...

Contents

Etymology

The word oolong means "black dragon" in Chinese; various legends describe the origin of this curious name. In one legend, the owner of a tea plantation was scared away from his drying tea leaves by the appearance of a black serpent; when he cautiously returned several days later, the leaves had been oxidized by the sun and gave a delightful brew. Another tale tells of a man named Wu Liang (later corrupted to Wu Long, or Oolong) who discovered oolong tea by accident when he was distracted by a deer after a hard day's tea-picking, and by the time he remembered about the tea it had already started to oxidize.[3] Others say that the tea is called "oolong" because the leaves look like little black dragons that wake when hot water is poured on them. It has been suggested that European dragon be merged into this article or section. ...


Processing of Oolong

Oolong tea undergoes a few delicate processes in order to produce the unique aroma and taste. Typical Oolong tea is processed according to the following steps:[4]

  1. Wilting (萎凋; pinyin: wěidiāo): Sun dry or air dry to remove some moisture.
  2. Yaoqing (摇青; pinyin: yáoqīng): To bruise the edge of the tea leaf to create more contacting surface for oxidation.
  3. Rouqing (揉青; pinyin: róuqīng): The tea leaves are tumbled or rubbed for the next stage.
  4. Shaqing (杀青; pinyin: shāqīng): Process to stop further oxidation. Depending on the quality of the leaves, they will be dried in a large pan over heat and stirred by hand (for premium tea) or by machinery.
  5. Cooling:
  6. Drying: To remove excessive moisture.
  7. Grading
  8. Packaging

Classification and grade

Tea connoisseurs classify the tea by its aroma (often fragrant or flowery), taste and aftertaste (often melony). Oolongs comes in either roasted (炭焙) or light (密香 or 清香).[5][6] While most oolongs can be consumed immediately postproduction, like pu-erh tea, many oolong can benefit from long aging with regular light roasting with a low charcoal fire (烘培, pinyin:hōngpeì, literally: bake cultivation or 焙火, pinyin:peìhǔo, dry roasting by fire).[4] Before roasting, Oolong tea leaves are necessitated through cracking the cells in the leaves and left to a ratio between 1% and 99% "oxidized"..[7] The process of roasting removes unwanted odours from the tea and reduces any sour or astringent tastes; in addition, the process is believed to make the oolong tea more gentle on the stomach.[6] Pu-erh or Puer tea (Traditional Chinese and Simplified Chinese: 普洱茶; pinyin: pǔěr chá, Cantonese pou2 lei5 (bou2 lei5) or pou2 nei5 (bou2 nei5) tea (Jyutping romanization)) is a type of tea made from a large leaf variety of the tea plant Camellia sinensis and named after Puer... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ...


Varieties of Oolong Tea

Chinese Oolong teas

Wǔ-Yí mountain (武夷山茶) Fújiàn province

Wuyi Huang Guan Yin tea leaves
Wuyi Qi Lan Oolong tea leaves
Wuyi Qi Lan Oolong tea leaves

The most famous and expensive Oolong teas are made here but the production is still usually accredited as organic. Falsification is rare as the teas generally have a very distinctive aroma, but Shui Hsien is mostly grown elsewhere in Fujian. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x687, 110 KB) Summary Huang Guan Yin Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x687, 110 KB) Summary Huang Guan Yin Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Huang Guan Yin is a Wuyi Oolong with a creamy taste. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x687, 54 KB) Summary I made the picture. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x687, 54 KB) Summary I made the picture. ... Qi Lan is a very mild Wuyi Oolong tea, it has an obvious sweet and nutty aroma. ... Shui Hsien is a Oolong tea from Mount Wuyi, it has a heavy honey fragrance. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ...

Da Hong Pao
Also known as Big Red Robe, a highly prized tea and a Si Da Ming Cong (四大名樅, literally: The Four Great Firs). This tea is also one of the two Oolongs that make it to the list of Chinese famous teas.
Shui Jin Gui
Also known as Golden Marine Turtle, a Si Da Ming Cong.
Tieluohan
Also known as Iron Arhat, a Si Da Ming Cong.
Bai Ji Guan
Also known as White Cockscomb,a Si Da Ming Cong. A special light tea with very distinctive lightly colored leaves.
Rou Gui
Also known as Cinnamon, a dark tea with a spicy aroma.
Shui Hsien
Also known as Water Sprite, a very dark tea, often grown elsewhere.
Jin Fo
Also known as Golden Buddha this is a very new tea that produces a light brew.
Huang Guanyin 
Also known as Yellow Goddess of Mercy, this is a very new but already famous tea. Guan Yin (Avalokitesvara) is a goddess of mercy and the household.
Huang Mei Gui 
Also known as Yellow Rose, this is a very new tea that produces a floral infusion with a very light taste.
Qi Lan
Also known as Rare Orchid is a popular light tea.
Jin Suo Chi
Also known as Golden Key.
Ban Tian Yao
Also known as Waist Halfway to the Sky.
Fo Shou
Also known as Buddha Hands.
Bu Zhi Chun
Also known as Knows Not of Spring.

Da Hong Pao is a very important Wuyi Oolong whose name comes from the fact it helped cure an owner of a Large Red Robe which was hung on the bush, hence earning it the name. ... Si Da Ming Cong refers to 4 famous Wuyi Oolong tea bushes, namely: Da Hong Pao Shui Jin Gui Tieluohan Bai Ji Guan References Seven Cups Tea, on the 4 famous Jing Tea Shop, on the 4 famous Categories: Tea | Chinese tea grown in Fujian ... China Famous Tea refers to a finite list of Chinese tea, thought different sources will cite slightly different teas, this is a list from Chinese Tea Culture Research Centre of the 10 famous teas. ... Shui Jin Gui is a very charectaristic Wuyi Oolong tea, whose name literally means Golden Marine Turtle. ... Si Da Ming Cong refers to 4 famous Wuyi Oolong tea bushes, namely: Da Hong Pao Shui Jin Gui Tieluohan Bai Ji Guan References Seven Cups Tea, on the 4 famous Jing Tea Shop, on the 4 famous Categories: Tea | Chinese tea grown in Fujian ... Tieluohan is a Si Da Ming Cong and a light Wuyi tea. ... Si Da Ming Cong refers to 4 famous Wuyi Oolong tea bushes, namely: Da Hong Pao Shui Jin Gui Tieluohan Bai Ji Guan References Seven Cups Tea, on the 4 famous Jing Tea Shop, on the 4 famous Categories: Tea | Chinese tea grown in Fujian ... Bai Ji Guan is a Si Da Ming Cong and a very light Wuyi tea. ... Si Da Ming Cong refers to 4 famous Wuyi Oolong tea bushes, namely: Da Hong Pao Shui Jin Gui Tieluohan Bai Ji Guan References Seven Cups Tea, on the 4 famous Jing Tea Shop, on the 4 famous Categories: Tea | Chinese tea grown in Fujian ... Rou Gui is a very charectaristic Wuyi Oolong tea, whose name literally means Cinnamon. ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... Shui Hsien is a Oolong tea from Mount Wuyi, it has a heavy honey fragrance. ... Jin Fo is a very new Wuyi Oolong tea, developed around 10 years ago at the Wuyi Shan Tea Researching Center. ... Media:Example. ... Huang Guan Yin is a Wuyi Oolong with a creamy taste. ... Huang Mei Gui Oolong tea (黃玫瑰烏龍茶)(黄烏龍乌龙茶) is a very new Wuyi Oolong tea, developed about 3 years ago. ... Qi Lan is a very mild Wuyi Oolong tea, it has an obvious sweet and nutty aroma. ... Jin Suo Chi is a very rare Wuyi Oolong with a light taste. ... Fo Shou is a very rare Wuyi Oolong with a light smokey taste. ... Fo Shou is a Yong Chun and Wuyi Oolong with a light peciliar taste. ... Bu Zhi Chun is a Wuyi Oolong with a light taste. ...

Fújiàn province

Tiě Guān Yīn
Tiě Guān Yīn
Tiě Guān Yīn or Ti Kuan Yin (鐵觀音)
Also known as 'Iron Buddha' this is a tea from Anxi in South Fujian. It is very famous, in fact a Chinese famous tea and very popular, hence there are many other teas that resemble its tight pelleted form.
Huang Jin Gui: A tightly curled tea from Anxi in South Fujian.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 1. ... Tieguanyin (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Min Nan POJ: Thih-koan-im; Cantonese Jyutping: tit8 gwun1 yam1; literally meaning iron guanyin) is a premium variety of Chinese oolong tea associated with Anxi in the Fujian province. ... Anxi County, Fujian Province, China, is well-known for an ancient and famous tea, the Ti Kuan Yin Oolong. ... A compass rose with South highlighted South is most commonly a noun, adjective, or adverb indicating direction or geography. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... China Famous Tea refers to a finite list of Chinese tea, thought different sources will cite slightly different teas, this is a list from Chinese Tea Culture Research Centre of the 10 famous teas. ... Anxi County, Fujian Province, China, is well-known for an ancient and famous tea, the Ti Kuan Yin Oolong. ... A compass rose with South highlighted South is most commonly a noun, adjective, or adverb indicating direction or geography. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ...

Guangdong province

Dān-Cōng (单枞) 
A highly floral flat tea with large undamaged leaves that is often scented with various aromas.

Taiwan

Tea cultivation only began in Taiwan in the mid 19th century and many teas that were produced in Fujian have been since also produced there.[5] Since the 1970s, teas and the industry in Taiwan has developed swiftly and substantially, alongside with the emerging economy. Accordingly, the major buyers of Taiwan tea are usually in the domestic market, with very small quantity left for foreign market. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ...


Qualities of the teas in Taiwan are usually affected by the year and season, growers and areas of production. Different areas have different weather patterns, temperatures, altitudes and soil that ultimately result in the differences of teas. In some mountain areas, teas have been cultivated at ever higher elevations to produce a unique sweet taste that fetches a price premium.[5]


There is usually an extremely wide variation in the prices of Taiwan tea. Affordable teas usually cost around dozens of dollars per kilogram, while quality teas produced by reputed grower and superior areas can cost up to several hundreds dollars[citation needed]. Some very rare awarded teas--also called "champion tea", which are graded as best selections in official contests, may reach thousands dollars in auctions[citation needed].

Dòng Dǐng (凍頂)
The name means Cold Summit. Dong Ding is a mountain in Nantou County, Central Taiwan. This is a tightly rolled tea with a light, distinctive fragrance.
Dong Fang Mei Ren (東)
The name means Oriental (Eastern) Beauty. Also known as Bai Hao Oolong. This tea is tippy, with natural fruity aromas and a sweet tasting bright red tea liquor.
Alishan (阿里)
This has large rolled leaves that have a purple-green appearance when dry. It is grown in Chiayi County, Taiwan at an elevation of from 3000 to 4500 feet. There is a short period of the day with full sun and this produces a sweeter and less astringent brew. It produces a golden yellow liquid which has a unique fruity aroma.[8]
Pouchong
Also romanized as Baozhong, the lightest and most floral Oolong[citation needed], with unrolled leaves of a light green to brown color. Originally grown in Fujian it is now widely cultivated and produced in Pinglin Township near Taipei, Taiwan.

Dong Ding is an Oolong from Taiwan, it comes from a few plants that were taken from Wuyi Mountain in the Fujian province of China. ... Hehuanshan is one of the higher mountains in Nantou County. ... Dong Fang Mei Ren tea (Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as Oriental Beauty or Bai Hao Oolong tea, is an Oolong tea produced in Hsinchu, Taiwan. ... The Alishan National Scenic Area (阿里山國家風景區) is a mountain resort and natural preserve located in the mountains of Chiayi County in Taiwan. ... Chiayi County (嘉義縣, pinyin: Jiāyì Xiàn) is a county in southwestern Taiwan encompassing Chiayi City and administered as part of Taiwan Province of the Republic of China. ... Pouchong (包種茶 pinyin Baozhong) is a very lightly oxidized tea somewhere between green tea and what is usually considered Oolong. ...   (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Fu-chien; Postal map spelling: Fukien, Foukien; local transliteration Hokkien from Min Nan Hok-kiàn) is one of the provinces on the southeast coast of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Pinglin (坪林) is a rural township in south-eastern Taipei County, Taiwan. ... For other uses, see Taipei (disambiguation). ...

Other oolong teas

Darjeeling Oolong refers to a lighter than usual Darjeeling black tea which some people refer to as an Oolong. ...

Brewing

Generally, 2.25 grams of tea per 6 ounces of water, or about two teaspoons of oolong tea per cup, should be used. Oolong teas should be prepared with 180°F to 190°F water (not boiling) and steeped 3-4 minutes.[9]


See also

Turning the cups in a Chinese tea ceremony Chinese tea culture refers to the methods of preparation of tea, the equipment used to make tea and the occasions in which tea is consumed in China. ... The Fujian tea ceremony (Chinese: 功夫茶; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kung-fu cha), is a specific way of preparing tea -- specifically oolong, although sometimes used also for black teas. ... Pouchong (包種茶 pinyin Baozhong) is a very lightly oxidized tea somewhere between green tea and what is usually considered Oolong. ... Chiuchow cuisine, Teochew cuisine or Chaozhou cuisine (潮州菜; pinyin: Cháozhōu cài) originates from Chiuchow (now called Chaozhou), a city of China in Guangdong Province, not far from Canton. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Seven Cups, "All About Oolong Tea at Seven Cups"., www.sevencups.com
  2. ^ The Best Tea House Co. Ltd. (2005). 茶葉分類與製作. Retrieved on 2006-12-21.
  3. ^ Fergus Ray-Murray, "Oolong (Wu Long) Tea"., oolong.co.uk
  4. ^ a b 有記名茶, "烏龍茶初製方法"., www.wangtea.com.tw
  5. ^ a b c Guang Chung Lee (2006). "The Varieties of Formosa Oolong". Art of Tea. Retrieved on 2006-12-12., Issue 1 www.the-art-of-tea.com
  6. ^ a b 陳國義, "烏龍專區"., www.besttea.com
  7. ^ What is Oolong http://www.artoftea.com, Art of Tea
  8. ^ The Tea Cup, "Oolong Tea"., theteacup.co.uk
  9. ^ Upton Tea Imports, "A Brief Guide to Tea".

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


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