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Encyclopedia > Onion
Onion
Onions
Onions
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Liliopsida
Order: Asparagales
Family: Alliaceae
Genus: Allium
Species: A. cepa
Binomial name
Allium cepa
L.

Many plants in the genus Allium are known by the common name onion but, used without qualifiers, it usually refers to Allium cepa. Allium cepa is also known as the 'garden onion' or 'bulb' onion and 'shallot'. Look up onion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 130 KB) Onions on a neutral, mostly white background. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Hemerocallis flower, with three flower parts in each whorl Wheat, an economically important monocot The monocotyledons or Monocots are a group of flowering plants, (angiosperms) dominating great parts of the earth. ... Families according to the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group Agapanthus Agavaceae Alliaceae Amaryllidaceae Aphyllanthaceae Asparagaceae Asphodelaceae Asteliaceae Blandfordiaceae Boryaceae Doryanthaceae Hemerocallidaceae Hyacinthaceae Hypoxidaceae Iridaceae Ixioliriaceae Lanariaceae Laxmanniaceae Orchidaceae Ruscaceae Tecophilaeaceae Themidaceae Xanthorrhoea Xeronema Asparagales is an order of monocots which includes a number of families of non-woody plants. ... Genera See text Alliaceae is a family of herbaceous perennial flowering plants. ... Species Some important species: Allium acuminatum - tapertip onion Allium ampeloprasum var. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Species Some important species: Allium acuminatum - tapertip onion Allium ampeloprasum var. ... Shallot bulbs A bulb is an underground vertical shoot that has modified leaves (or thickened leaf bases) that is used as food storage organs by a dormant plant. ... Binomial name Allium oschaninii O. Fedtsch For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Origin and distribution

Allium cepa is known only in cultivation, but related wild species occur in Central Asia. The most closely-related species include Allium vavilovii Popov & Vved. and Allium asarense R.M. Fritsch & Matin from Iran.[1] However Zohary and Hopf warn that "there are doubts whether the vavilovii collections tested represent genuine wild material or only feral derivatives of the crop."[2]


Uses

Onions are used in salsa.

Onions are available in fresh, frozen, canned, pickled, and dehydrated forms. Onions can be used, usually chopped or sliced, in almost every type of food, including cooked foods and fresh salads, and as a spicy garnish; they are rarely eaten on their own but usually act as accompaniment to the main course. Depending on the variety, an onion can be sharp, spicy, tangy and pungent or mild and sweet. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Onions pickled in vinegar are eaten as a snack. These are often served as a side serving in fish and chip shops throughout the United Kingdom. Onions are a staple food in India, and are therefore fundamental to Indian cooking. They are commonly used as a base for curries, or made into a paste and eaten as a main course or as a side dish. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Indian cuisine is distinguished by its sophisticated use of spices and herbs and the influence of the longstanding and widespread practice of vegetarianism in Indian society. ... This article is about the dish. ... Look up paste in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Tissue from onions is frequently used in science education to demonstrate microscope usage, because they have particularly large cells which are readily observed even at low magnifications.[citation needed] Science education is the field concerned with sharing science content and process with individuals not traditionally considered part of the scientific community. ... Robert Hookes microscope (1665) - an engineered device used to study living systems. ...


Historical uses

Onion fields near Elba, New York

It is thought that bulbs from the onion family have been used as a food source for millennia. In Caananite Bronze Age settlements, traces of onion remains were found alongside fig and date stones dating back to 5000 BC.[citation needed] However, it is not clear if these were cultivated onions. Archaeological and literary evidence suggests cultivation probably took place around two thousand years later in ancient Egypt, at the same time that leeks and garlic were cultivated. Workers who built the Egyptian pyramids may have been fed radishes and onions.[3] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1800x1200, 817 KB)Onion fields on muckland; Elba, New York Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 03:55, Nov 9, 2004 (UTC) ( ) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1800x1200, 817 KB)Onion fields on muckland; Elba, New York Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL Pollinator 03:55, Nov 9, 2004 (UTC) ( ) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev... Elba, New York is the name of two places in Genesee County, New York: Village of Elba Town of Elba This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Species About 800, including: Ficus altissima Ficus americana Ficus aurea Ficus benghalensis- Indian Banyan Ficus benjamina- Weeping Fig Ficus broadwayi Ficus carica- Common Fig Ficus citrifolia Ficus coronata Ficus drupacea Ficus elastica Ficus godeffroyi Ficus grenadensis Ficus hartii Ficus lyrata Ficus macbrideii Ficus macrophylla- Moreton Bay Fig Ficus microcarpa- Chinese... Binomial name L. The Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera) is a palm in the genus Phoenix, extensively cultivated for its edible fruit. ... (6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – other millennia) Events 4713 BC – The epoch (origin) of the Julian Period described by Joseph Justus Scaliger occurred on January 1, the astronomical Julian day number zero. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... Binomial name Allium ampeloprasum (Linnaeus) J. Gay The Leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. ... Binomial name L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ... All Giza Pyramids Map of Giza pyramid complex. ... This article is about the vegetable. ...


The onion is easily propagated, transported and stored. Egyptians worshipped it, believing that its spherical shape and concentric rings symbolized eternal life. Onions were even used in Egyptian burials as evidenced by onion traces being found in the eye sockets of Ramesses IV. They believed that if buried with the dead, the strong scent of onions would bring breath back to the dead. Heqamaatre Ruler of Justice like Re[1] Nomen Ramesses Re bore him Consort(s) Duatentopet Issue Ramesses V Died 1149 BC Burial KV2 Major Monuments Temple of Khonsu at Karnak Heqamaatre Ramesses IV (also written Ramses or Rameses) was the third pharaoh of the Twentieth Dynasty of the New Kingdom...


In ancient Greece, athletes ate large quantities of onion because it was believed that it would lighten the balance of blood. Roman gladiators were rubbed down with onion to firm up their muscles. In the Middle Ages onions were such an important food that people would pay for their rent with onions and even give them as gifts.[citation needed] Doctors were known to prescribe onions to relieve headaches, snakebite and hair loss. The onion was introduced to North America by Christopher Columbus on his 1492 expedition to Haiti. Onions were also prescribed by doctors in the early 1500s to help with infertility in women, and even dogs and cattle and many other household pets. For other uses, see Gladiator (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and colonialist who is one of the first Europeans to discover the Americas, after the Vikings. ...


Medicinal properties and health benefits

Raw Onions
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 40 kcal   170 kJ
Carbohydrates     9.34 g
- Sugars  4.24 g
- Dietary fiber  1.7 g  
Fat 0.1 g
- saturated  0.042 g
- monounsaturated  0.013 g  
- polyunsaturated  0.017 g  
Protein 1.1 g
Water 89.11 g
Vitamin A equiv.  0 μg  0%
Thiamin (Vit. B1)  0.046 mg   4%
Riboflavin (Vit. B2)  0.027 mg   2%
Niacin (Vit. B3)  0.116 mg   1%
Vitamin B6  0.12 mg 9%
Folate (Vit. B9)  19 μg  5%
Vitamin B12  0 μg   0%
Vitamin C  7.4 mg 12%
Vitamin E  0.02 mg 0%
Vitamin K  0.4 μg 0%
Calcium  23 mg 2%
Iron  0.21 mg 2%
Magnesium  0.129 mg 0% 
Phosphorus  29 mg 4%
Potassium  146 mg   3%
Sodium  4 mg 0%
Zinc  0.17 mg 2%
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

Evidence suggests that onions may be effective against the common cold, heart disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, and other diseases. They contain anti-inflammatory, anticholesterol, anticancer, and antioxidant components such as quercetin.[4] Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... Dietary fibers are the indigestible portion of plant foods that move food through the digestive system, absorbing water and making defecation easier. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... The structure of retinol, the most common dietary form of vitamin A Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... Thiamine mononitrate Thiamine or thiamin, also known as vitamin B1, is a colorless compound with chemical formula C12H17ClN4OS. It is soluble in water and insoluble in alcohol. ... Riboflavin (E101), also known as vitamin B2, is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in animals. ... Niacin, also known as nicotinic acid or vitamin B3, is a water-soluble vitamin whose derivatives such as NADH, NAD, NAD+, and NADP play essential roles in energy metabolism in the living cell and DNA repair. ... Pyridoxine Pyridoxal phosphate Vitamin B6 is a water-soluble vitamin. ... Folic acid (the anion form is called folate) is a B-complex vitamin (once called vitamin M) that is important in preventing neural tube defects (NTDs) in the developing human fetus. ... Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Tocopherol, or Vitamin E, is a fat-soluble vitamin in eight forms that is an important antioxidant. ... Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone). ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... Introduction Magnesium is an essential element in biological systems. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... R-phrases 36 S-phrases none Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Other anions NaF, NaBr, NaI Other cations LiCl, KCl, RbCl, CsCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 Related salts Sodium acetate Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Osteoporosis is a disease of bone in which the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture is disrupted, and the amount and variety of non-collagenous proteins in bone is altered. ... Anti-inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Quercetin is a flavonoid that forms the backbone for many other flavonoids, including the citrus flavonoids rutin, hesperidin, naringin and tangeritin. ...


In many parts of the world, onions are used to heal blisters and boils. A traditional Maltese remedy for sea urchin wounds is to tie half a baked onion to the afflicted area overnight. In the morning, the spikes will be in the onion.[citation needed] In the United States, products that contain onion extract (such as Mederma) are used in the treatment of topical scars.[citation needed] Boil or furuncle is a skin disease caused by the inflammation of hair follicles, thus resulting in the localized accumulation of pus and dead tissues. ... Subclasses Euechinoidea Superorder Atelostomata Order Cassiduloida Order Spatangoida (heart urchins) Superorder Diadematacea Order Diadematoida Order Echinothurioida Order Pedinoida Superorder Echinacea Order Arbacioida Order Echinoida Order Phymosomatoida Order Salenioida Order Temnopleuroida Superorder Gnathostomata Order Clypeasteroida (sand dollars) Order Holectypoida Perischoechinoidea Order Cidaroida (pencil urchins) Sea urchins are small spiny sea creatures...


In homeopathy, Allium cepa is used for rhinorrhea and hay fever.[5] Homeopathy starring at the horrors of Allopathy by Alexander Beydeman, 1857 Homeopathy (also spelled homœopathy or homoeopathy), from the Greek words όμοιος, hómoios (similar) and πάθος, páthos (suffering, disease),[1] is a highly controversial type of alternative medicine that aims to treat like with like. ...


Onions, like garlic, are members of the Allium family, and both are rich in powerful sulfur-containing compounds that are responsible for their pungent odors and for many of their health-promoting effects. Onions contain allyl propyl disulphide, while garlic is rich in allicin, diallyl disulphide, diallyl trisulfide and others. In addition, onions are very rich in chromium, a trace mineral that helps cells respond to insulin, plus vitamin C, and numerous flavonoids, most notably, quercetin. Binomial name L. Allium sativum L., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion family Alliaceae. ... Species Some important species: Allium acuminatum - tapertip onion Allium ampeloprasum var. ... Quercetin is a flavonoid that forms the backbone for many other flavonoids, including the citrus flavonoids rutin, hesperidin, naringin and tangeritin. ...


The higher the intake of onion, the lower the level of glucose found during oral or intravenous glucose tolerance tests. Experimental and clinical evidence suggests that allyl propyl disulfide is responsible for this effect and lowers blood sugar levels by increasing the amount of free insulin available. Allyl propyl disulfide does this by competing with insulin, which is also a disulphide, to occupy the sites in the liver where insulin is inactivated. This results is an increase in the amount of insulin available to usher glucose into cells causing a lowering of blood sugar.


In addition, onions are a very good source of chromium, the mineral component in glucose tolerance factor, a molecule that helps cells respond appropriately to insulin. Clinical studies of diabetics have shown that chromium can decrease fasting blood glucose levels, improve glucose tolerance, lower insulin levels, and decrease total cholesterol and triglyceride levels, while increasing HDL-cholesterol levels. Marginal chromium deficiency is common in the United States, not surprising since chromium levels are depleted by the consumption of refined sugars and white flour products as well as the lack of exercise. One cup of raw onion contains over 20% of the Daily Value for this important trace mineral. General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... Example of an unsaturated fat triglyceride. ... High density lipoproteins (HDL) form a class of lipoproteins, varying somewhat in their size and contents, that carry cholesterol from the bodys tissues to the liver. ...


The regular consumption of onions has, like garlic, been shown to lower high cholesterol levels and high blood pressure, both of which help prevent atherosclerosis and diabetic heart disease, and reduce the risk of heart attack or stroke. These beneficial effects are likely due to onions' sulfur compounds, its chromium and its vitamin B6, which helps prevent heart disease by lowering high homocysteine levels, another significant risk factor for heart attack and stroke. Onions have been singled out as one of the small number of vegetables and fruits that contributed to the significant reduction in heart disease risk seen in a meta-analysis of seven prospective studies. Of the more than 100,000 individuals who participated in these studies, those who diets most frequently included onions, tea, apples and broccoli-the richest sources of flavonoids-gained a 20% reduction in their risk of heart disease.


Quercetin, an antioxidant in onions, and curcumin, a phytonutrient found in the curry spice turmeric, reduce both the size and number of precancerous lesions in the human intestinal tract, suggests research published in Clinical Gasteroenterology and Hepatology. Quercetin is a flavonoid that forms the backbone for many other flavonoids, including the citrus flavonoids rutin, hesperidin, naringin and tangeritin. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Phytochemicals are sometimes referred to as phytonutrients and these terms are often used interchangeably. ...


A compound newly identified in onions called gamma-L-glutamyl-trans-S-1-propenyl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (GPCS) inhibits the activity of osteoclasts (the cells that break down bone). The more GPCS given in this animal study, the more the bone resorptive (breakdown) action of osteoclasts was inhibited.


Onions may be especially beneficial for women,[citation needed] who are at increased risk for osteoporosis as they go through menopause. Fosamax (Alendronate), the drug typically prescribed to prevent excessive bone loss, works in a similar manner, by destroying osteoclasts, so they do not break down bone. Potential negative side effects of Fosamax include irritation of the upper gastrointestinal mucosa, acid regurgitation, esophageal ulcers and erosions. Osteoporosis is a disease of bone in which the bone mineral density (BMD) is reduced, bone microarchitecture is disrupted, and the amount and variety of non-collagenous proteins in bone is altered. ...


Several anti-inflammatory agents in onions render them helpful in reducing the severity of symptoms associated with inflammatory conditions such as the pain and swelling of osteo- and rheumatoid arthritis, the allergic inflammatory response of asthma, and the respiratory congestion associated with the common cold. Both onions and garlic contain compounds that inhibit lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase (the enzymes that generate inflammatory prostaglandins and thromboxanes), thus markedly reducing inflammation. Onions' anti-inflammatory effects are due not only to their vitamin C and quercetin, but to other active components called isothiocyanates. These compounds work synergistically to provide relief from inflammation. In addition, quercetin and other flavonoids found in onions work with vitamin C to help kill harmful bacteria, making onions an especially good addition to soups and stews during cold and flu season. Anti-inflammatory refers to the property of a substance or treatment that reduces inflammation. ... This article is about the nutrient. ... Quercetin is a flavonoid that forms the backbone for many other flavonoids, including the citrus flavonoids rutin, hesperidin, naringin and tangeritin. ...


Onions and eye irritation

As onions are sliced, cells are broken, allowing enzymes called alliinases to break down sulfides and generate sulfenic acids (amino acid sulfoxides). Sulphenic acids are unstable and decompose into a volatile gas called syn-propanethial-S-oxide. The gas diffuses through the air and eventually reaches the eye, where it reacts with the water to form a diluted solution of sulfuric acid. This acid irritates the nerve endings in the eye, making them sting. Tear glands produce tears to dilute and flush out the irritant.[6] Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... Neuraminidase ribbon diagram An enzyme (in Greek en = in and zyme = blend) is a protein, or protein complex, that catalyzes a chemical reaction and also controls the 3D orientation of the catalyzed substrates. ... Alliinases are a class of enzymes found in plants of the genus Allium, such as garlic and onions. ... In chemistry, a sulfide (sulphide in British and Canadian English) is a combination of sulfur with an oxidation number of -2, with another chemical element or a radical thereof. ... The general structure of a sulfenic acid A sulfenic acid is a sulfur compound and oxoacid with the general formula RSOH, where R ≠ H. Sulfenic acids are generally unstable. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... A sulfoxide is a chemical compound containing a sulfinyl functional group with a sulfur oxygen double bond attached to two carbon atoms. ... Gas can also refer to gasoline and natural gas and also hydrogen. ... Syn-propanethial-S-oxide is the gas released by onions. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , , Flash point Non-flammable Related Compounds Related strong acids Selenic acid Hydrochloric acid Nitric acid Related compounds Hydrogen sulfide Sulfurous acid Peroxymonosulfuric acid Sulfur trioxide Oleum Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Nerves (yellow) Nerves redirects here. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ...


Supplying ample water to the reaction prevents the gas from reaching the eyes. Eye irritation can, therefore, be avoided by cutting onions under running water or submerged in a basin of water. Rinsing the onion and leaving it wet while chopping may also be effective. Another way to avoid irritation is by not cutting off the root of the onion, or by doing it last, as the root of the onion has a higher concentration of enzymes.[7] Chilling or freezing onions prevents the enzymes from activating, limiting the amount of gas generated. Using a sharp blade to chop onions will limit the cell damage and the release of enzymes that drive the irritation response. Having a fire, such as a candle or a burner, will help as the heat and flames will draw in the onion gas, burn it, and then send it up with the rest of the flame exhaust. In the heat, the chemical changes such that it no longer irritates the eyes.


The volume of sulphenic acids released, and the irritation effect, differs among Allium species.


A firm in Toronto, Canada, attempted to utilize this property of onions in the manufacture of a form of tear gas for civilian use. It was marketed in 1991 but was unsuccessful as it had an effective shelf life of only three months.[citation needed] A riot control agent is a type of lachrymatory agent (or lacrimatory agent). ...


Propagation

Onion and shallot output in 2005
Onion and shallot output in 2005

Onions may be grown from seed or, most commonly, from sets. Onion sets are produced by sowing seed very thickly one year, resulting in stunted plants which produce very small bulbs. These bulbs are very easy to set out and grow into mature bulbs the following year, but they have the reputation of producing a less durable bulb than onions grown directly from seed and thinned. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 61 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of onion and shallot output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 19,793,000 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 61 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of onion and shallot output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (China - 19,793,000 tonnes). ... Binomial name Allium oschaninii O. Fedtsch For other uses, see Shallot (disambiguation). ...


Either planting method may be used to produce spring onions or green onions, which are onions harvested while immature. Green onion is a name also used to refer to Allium fistulosum, the Welsh onion, which is said not to produce dry bulbs.


Varieties

  • Bulb onion - Grown from seed (or onion sets), bulb onions range from the pungent varieties used for dried soups and onion powder to the mild and hearty sweet onions, such as the Vidalia from Georgia or Walla Walla from Washington that can be sliced and eaten on a sandwich instead of meat.
  • Multiplier onions - Raised from bulbs which produce multiple shoots, each of which forms a bulb.
  • Tree onion or Egyptian onion - Produce bulblets in the flower head; a hybrid of Allium cepas.

Shallots and ten other onion (Allium cepa L.) varieties commonly available in the United States were evaluated: Western Yellow, Northern Red, New York Bold, Western White, Peruvian Sweet, Empire Sweet, Mexico, Texas 1015, Imperial Valley Sweet, and Vidalia. Sweet onion is a varity of onion that is not pungent. ... A Vidalia onion is a sweet onion of certain varieties, grown in a production area defined by law in Georgia and by the United States Code of Federal Regulations (CFR). ... The Potato Onion (also known as an old-Time Hill Onion)is a type of Multiplier Onion. ... Tree onions Tree onions, also commonly called top onions or Egyptian onions, are a strong-growing onion with a bunch of bulblets where a normal onion would have flowers. ... This article is about a biological term. ...


In general, the most pungent onions delivered many times the benefits of their milder cousins.


Shallots had the most phenols, six times the amount found in Vidalia onion, the variety with the lowest phenolic content. Shallots also had the most antioxidant activity, followed by Western Yellow, New York Bold, Northern Red, Mexico, Empire Sweet, Western White, Peruvian Sweet, Texas 1015, Imperial Valley Sweet, and Vidalia.


Western Yellow onions had the most flavonoids, eleven times the amount found in Western White, the variety with the lowest flavonoid content.


For all varieties of onions, the more phenols and flavonoids they contained, the more antioxidant and anti-cancer activity they provided.


When tested against liver and colon cancer cells, Western Yellow, New York Bold and shallots were most effective in inhibiting their growth. The milder-tasting varieties, Western White, Peruvian Sweet, Empire Sweet, Mexico, Texas 1015, Imperial Valley Sweet, and Vidalia, showed little cancer-fighting ability.


Production trends

Top Ten Onions Producers — 2005
(1000 tonnes)
Flag of the People's Republic of China China 19,793
Flag of India India 5,500
Flag of the United States United States 3,346
Flag of Turkey Turkey 2,220
Flag of Pakistan Pakistan 1,764
Flag of Russia Russia 1,758
Flag of South Korea South Korea 1,750
Flag of Japan Japan 1,637
Flag of Egypt Egypt 1,302
Flag of Spain Spain 1,149
World Total 64,101
Source:
UN Food & Agriculture Organisation (FAO)
[1]

Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... FAO emblem With its headquarters in Rome, the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that works to raise levels of nutrition and standards of living; to improve the production, processing, marketing, and distribution of food and agricultural products; to promote rural development; and...

Onions in language

In the English vernacular, "an onion" is a difficult situation, the use stemming from the onion's tendency to irritate or inflame the eyes.[citation needed] Conversely, the term "onion" can be used to describe any state of being, as in the phrase, "[someone] really dices my onion!" It may also represent an object of many layers. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... This article refers to the sight organ. ...


In some Scots dialects, onion is pronounced 'Ingin'.


The expression "Layers of the onion" is used to describe a situation in which it is possible to go deeper and deeper revealing seemingly similar layers until a central core is reached. It has been used as a metaphor in mysticism to describe the supposed layers of reality. More recently, the phrase "Onions have layers, Ogres have layers!" is said by the character Shrek in the first Shrek movie, by Dreamworks LLC, when he tries to explain to his partner, Donkey, that he is a complex person. For other uses, see Shrek (disambiguation). ... This article is about the film studio. ...

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

In other languages too the onion has acquired different connotations, eg., amongst the Khasi tribe in North East India, Onion or "piat" in the local dialect refers to someone who is present everywhere or in every social gathering. Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...


References

  1. ^ Grubben, G.J.H. & Denton, O.A. (2004) Plant Resources of Tropical Africa 2. Vegetables. PROTA Foundation, Wageningen; Backhuys, Leiden; CTA, Wageningen.
  2. ^ Daniel Zohary and Maria Hopf, Domestication of plants in the Old World, third edition (Oxford: University Press, 2000), p. 198
  3. ^ Onions Allium cepa. selfsufficientish.com. Retrieved on 2006-04-02.
  4. ^ World's Healthiest Foods
  5. ^ Morrsion, MD, Roger (1993). Desktop guide to keynotes and comfirmatory symptoms. Grass Valley, CA: Hahnemann Clinic Publishing. 
  6. ^ Scott, Thomas. What is the chemical process that causes my eyes to tear when I peel an onion?. Ask the Experts: Chemistry. Scientific American. Retrieved on 2007-04-28.
  7. ^ Onions-USA.org FAQ

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published (first weekly and later monthly) since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

See also


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The State of the Onion 9 (6 tags)
Onion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1421 words)
Onions (usually but not exclusively the bulbs) are edible with a distinctive strong flavour and pungent odour which is mellowed and sweetened by cooking.
Onions can be used, usually chopped or sliced, in almost every type of food, including cooked foods and fresh salads, and as a spicy garnish; they are rarely eaten on their own but usually act as accompaniment to the main course.
In the English vernacular, "an onion" is a difficult situation, the use stemming from the onion's tendancy to irritate or inflame the eyes.
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