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Encyclopedia > Oneida tribe
Oneida
Total population

Ballpark: Between 50000 and 100000. Oneida is the name of several places in the United States of America, derived from the Oneida tribe of the Iroquois: Oneida, Illinois Oneida, Kansas Oneida, Kentucky in Clay County, Kentucky, home of Oneida Baptist Institute Oneida, New York Oneida, Pennsylvania Oneida, Tennessee Oneida (town), Wisconsin in Outgamie County Oneida... Image File history File links Bandera_Oneida. ...

Regions with significant populations
Flag of the United States United States (Wisconsin, New York)
Flag of Canada Canada (Ontario)
Languages
English, Oneida
Religions
Christianity, Oneida Longhouse
Related ethnic groups
other Iroquoian peoples

The Oneida (Onyota'a:ka or Onayotekaono, meaning the People of the Upright Stone, or standing stone) are a Native American/First Nations people and are one of the five founding nations of the Iroquois Confederacy in the area of upstate New York. The Iroquois call themselves Haudenosaunee ("The people of the longhouses") in reference to their communal lifestyle and the construction of their dwellings. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to 92° 53′ W Population  Ranked... This article is about the state. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Oneida is an Iroquoian language spoken primarily in the American states of New York and Wisconsin, and the Canadian province of Ontario. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... The Iroquoian languages are a Native American language family. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... First Nations is a Canadian term of ethnicity which refers to the aboriginal peoples located in what is now Canada, and their descendants who are neither Inuit nor Métis. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ...


Originally the Oneida inhabited the area that later became central New York, particularly around Oneida Lake and Oneida County. This article is about the state. ... Oneida Lake is a large lake in central New York, northeast of Syracuse. ... Oneida County is a county located in the state of New York. ...

Contents

=

The Oneida

 tribe and the American Revolution === 

The Oneidas, along with the five other tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy, initially maintained a policy of neutrality in the American Revolution. This policy allowed the Confederacy increased leverage against both sides in the war, because they could threaten to join one side or the other in the event of any provocation. Neutrality quickly crumbled, however. The preponderance of the Mohawks, Senecas, Cayugas, and Onondagas sided with the loyalists. For some time, the Oneidas continued advocating neutrality and attempted to restore consensus among the six tribes of the Confederacy. But ultimately the Oneidas, as well, had to choose a side. Because of their closer proximity to rebel communities, most Oneidas favored the colonists (in contrast, the pro-British tribes were located closer to the British stronghold at Fort Niagara). In addition, the Oneidas were influenced by the Protestant missionary Samuel Kirkland, who had spent several decades among them and through whom they had begun to form stronger cultural links to the colonists. The Oneidas officially joined the rebel side and contributed in many ways to the war effort. Their warriors were often used as scouts on both offensive campaigns and in detecting enemy operations around Fort Stanwix (also known as Fort Schuyler). The Oneidas also provided an open line of communication between the rebels and their Iroquois foes. In 1777 at the Battle of Oriskany about fifty Oneida fought alongside the American militia. Many Oneidas formed friendships with Philip Schuyler, George Washington, and the Marquis de La Fayette and other prominent rebel leaders. These men recognized their contributions during and after the war and Congress declared, "sooner should a mother forget her children" than we should forget you.[1] The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the League of Peace and Power) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... Mohawk is: A tribe of Native Americans: see Mohawk nation The Mohawk language spoken by the Mohawk people. ... The Seneca Tribe, or Onodowohgah (People of the Hill Top), traditionally lived in New York State between the Genesee River and Canandaigua Lake. ... The Cayuga nation (Guyohkohnyo or the People of the Great Swamp) was one of the five original constituents of the Iroquois, a confederacy of Indians in New York. ... The Onondaga (Onundagaono or the People of the Hills) are one of the original five constituent tribes of the League of the Iroquois (Hodenosaunee). ... [[ This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Historical recreation actors at Old Fort Niagara Fort Niagara is a three hundred-year-old fortification originally built to protect the interests of New France in northern North America. ... Rev. ... Fort Stanwix was a colonial fort erected in 1758 by British General John Stanwix, at the location of present-day Rome, New York. ... Fort Schuyler is a preserved 19th century fortification housing a museum in New York City. ... Combatants 800 New York militia 3rd Battalion Tryon County Militia 40 Oneida Indians Kings Royal Regiment of New York Butlers Rangers Seneca Indians Natives of the Seven Nations of Canada: Mohawks, Abenakis, Algonquins, Nipissings and Hurons Commanders Nicholas Herkimer † Sir John Johnson, John Butler, Chief Joseph Brant Strength... Philip Schuyler Philip John Schuyler (November 10, 1733 – November 18, 1804) was a general in the American Revolution and a United States Senator from New York. ... George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)[1] led Americas Continental Army to victory over Britain in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), and in 1789 was elected the first President of the United States of America. ... Lieutenant General & National Guard Commander-in-Chief Lafayette in 1792 at ~35yrs. ...


Although the tribe had taken the colonists' side, individuals within the Oneida nation possessed the right to make their own choices and a minority supported the British. As the war progressed and the Oneida position became more dire, this minority grew more numerous. When the important Oneida settlement at Kanonwalohale was destroyed, a large number of Oneidas defected and relocated to Fort Niagara to live under British protection.


1794 Treaty of Canandaigua

After the war they were displaced by retaliatory and other raids. In 1794 they, along with other Haudenosaunee nations, signed the Treaty of Canandaigua with the United States. They were granted 6 million acres (24,000 km²) of lands, primarily in New York; this was effectively the first Indian reservation in the United States. Subsequent treaties and actions by the State of New York drastically reduced this to 32 acres (0.1 km²). In the 1830s many of the Oneida relocated into Canada and Wisconsin, due to the rising tide of Indian Removal. 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Treaty of Canandaigua, a treaty establishing peace and friendship between the United States of America and the Six Nations of the Iroquois (Haudenosaunee), and affirming Haudenosaunee land rights in New York State, was the first diplomatic agreement entered into by the United States of America under its current Constitution. ... For the song, see Indian Reservation (song) BIA map of reservations in the United States Tribal sovereignty: Map of the United States, with non-reservation land highlighted. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to 92° 53′ W Population  Ranked... Indian Removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States that sought to relocate Native American tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. ...


Recent litigation

The Oneida Indian Nation of New York, Oneida Nation of Wisconsin, and the Oneida Nation of the Thames commenced actions to reclaim land that allegedly was taken from them without the approval of the United States in 1970 and 1974 in the United States District Court for the Northern District of New York. In 1998, the United States intervened in the lawsuits on behalf of the plaintiffs in the claim in order for the claim to proceed against New York State in light of its assertion of its immunity from suit under the Eleventh Amendment to the United States Constitution [1]. The Defendants moved for summary judgmenet based on the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in Sherrill v. Oneida Indian Nation and the U.S. Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit's decision in Cayuga Indian Nation v. New York [2] on May 21, 2007 Judge Kahn dismissed the Oneida's possessory land claims and allowed the non-possessory claims to proceed[3]. The Oneida Nation of Wisconsin is an Indian reservation of the Oneida tribe near Oneida, Wisconsin in Brown County, Wisconsin. ... The Onyotaa:ka people (Oneida) reside in a rural area commonly referred to as the Oneida Settlement, which is about a 20-minute drive from London, Ontario, Canada. ... The United States District Court for the Northern District of New York serves one of the 94 judicial districts in the United States and one of four in the state of New York. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... Amendment XI in the National Archives Amendment XI (the Eleventh Amendment) of the United States Constitution was passed by the U.S. Congress on March 4, 1794, and was ratified on February 7, 1795. ...


More recent litigation has formalized the split between the Oneida tribe that stayed in New York and the Oneida tribe that left to live in Wisconsin. These litigations focused around the Wisconsin Oneida tribe's desire to reacquire lands in their ancestral homelands as a part of the settlement of the aforementioned litigation. An additional part of that proposed settlement is land for a casino of their own in New York, in lieu of a large cash settlement; these proposals are also a part of the ongoing litigation.


Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin

The Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin is a sovereign nation, enjoying the same tribal sovereignty as all recognized Indian tribes in the United States. Theirs is a limited sovereignty--the tribes are recognized as "domestic dependent nations" within the United States--but to the degree permitted by that sovereignty, they are an independent nation outside of state law. The tribe's sovereignty means the state of Wisconsin is limited in the extent to which it can intervene legally in tribal matters. Tribal sovereignty map of the United States, with non-reservation land highlighted. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... Official language(s) None Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Area  Ranked 23rd  - Total 65,498 sq mi (169,790 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 310 miles (500 km)  - % water 17  - Latitude 42° 30′ N to 47° 05′ N  - Longitude 86° 46′ W to 92° 53′ W Population  Ranked...


With a series of casinos near Green Bay, Wisconsin, the Oneida tribe has, in a manner of only a few decades, gone from being a destitute people to enjoying a fair amount of social prosperity by investing a large portion of their profits back into their community, including a sponsorship of the Green Bay Packers. The means by which the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin betters its community has raised controversy, as has Indian gaming throughout the country. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Green Bay is the county seat of Brown County in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. ... “Packers” redirects here. ... In 1987 the U.S. Supreme Court recognized that as sovereign political entities, Native American tribes could operate gaming facilities free of state regulation. ...


The new wealth generated by the tribe's gaming and other enterprises has enabled the tribe to provide many benefits for the members on the tribal rolls. Oneidas have free dental, medical and optical insurance, and $800 every October. As with all other tribes, the Oneidas themselves define who qualifies to be on those rolls. The Oneidas' requirements are fairly liberal, based entirely on blood quantum: members are those with at least 1/4 Oneida blood. There is no additional requirement of matrilineality, as with the New York Oneidas and other tribes. Blood Quantum Laws is an umbrella term that describes legislation enacted to define membership in Native American groups. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Many citizens of Green Bay, and many members of the Oneida tribe itself, have voiced concerns about the long-term detrimental effects a casino could have on the social structure and economy of Green Bay and within the tribe itself.


Oneida Bands and First Nations today

The Oneida Indian Nation is the Oneida tribe that resides in New York and currently owns a number of businesses and own tribal land in Verona, NY, Oneida, NY, and Canastota, NY. // In the early 1990s, the Oneida tribe originally opened a bingo house and one of its more active... The Oneida Nation of Wisconsin is an Indian reservation of the Oneida tribe near Oneida, Wisconsin in Brown County, Wisconsin. ... Green Bay is the county seat of Brown County in the U.S. state of Wisconsin. ... Southwold is a township in Elgin County, in Ontario, Canada located on the north shore of Lake Erie. ... Six Nations of the Grand River is the name applied to two contiguous Indian reserves southeast of Brantford, Ontario, Canada – Six Nations reserve no. ...

Notable Oneida

  • Ohstahehte, the original Oneida Chief who accepted the Message of the Great Law of Peace.
  • Graham Green, actor.
  • Cody McCormick, NHL hockey player for Colorado Avalanche.
  • Joanne Shenandoah, award-winning singer and performer.
  • Dr. Roland Chrisjohn, academic, author, healer, debunker of Residential School Syndrome and Indian Faux-Pathologies.
  • Tehaliwaskenhas Bob Kennedy (Turtle Island)
  • Moses Schuyler, co-founder of the Oneida Nation of the Thames Settlement.
  • Garrison Chrisjohn, X-Files actor.
  • Alex Elijah I (Pine Tree Chief & Haudenosaunee Expert)
  • Charlie Hill, comedian, entertainer.
  • Mary Wheeler, land claims activist.
  • Evan John I, oral historian, traditional agriculture and horticulture expert.
  • Demus Elm, oral historian, Haudenosaunee expert.
  • Polly Cooper, leader, friend of Washington.
  • Venus Walker, oral historian, Haudenosaunee ceremonies expert.
  • Loretta Metoxin, leader, Oneida historian.
  • Dr. Eileen Antone, academic, adult education expert.
  • Harley Elijah Sr., President of Ironworkers Union Local 700.
  • Gino Odjick, NHL hockey player for Vancouver Canucks, New York Islanders, Flyers, Canadians.
  • Chief Skenandoah, Oneida leader during the American Revolution.
  • Carl J. Artman, Assistant Secretary of the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Graham Greene Graham Greene (born June 22, 1952) is an Academy Award-nominated Canadian actor. ... Cody McCormick (born April 18, 1983 in London, Ontario) is an ice hockey player who currently plays for the Colorado Avalanche of the NHL. McCormick was drafted 144th overall by the Avalance in the 2001 NHL Entry Draft. ... The X-Files is a Peabody- and Emmy Award-winning science fiction television series created by Chris Carter, which first aired on September 10, 1993, and ended on May 19, 2002. ... The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) is an agency of the federal government of the United States within the Department of the Interior charged with the administration and management of 55. ...

Bibliography

  • Glatthaar, Joseph T. and James Kirby Martin. Forgotten Allies: the Oneida Indians and the American Revolution. New York: Hill and Wang, 2006.
  • Levinson, David. "An Explanation for the Oneida-Colonist Alliance in the American Revolution." Ethnohistory 23, no. 3. (Summer, 1976), pp. 265-289. Online via JSTOR (account required)

References

  1. ^ Glathaar, Martin.

External links

For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Seneca. ... The Cayuga nation (Guyohkohnyo or the People of the Great Swamp) was one of the five original constituents of the Iroquois, a confederacy of Indians in New York. ... For other uses, see Onondaga. ... This article is about the people known as Mohawk. For other uses, see Mohawk. ... The Tuscarora are an American Indian tribe originally in North Carolina, which moved north to New York, and then partially into Canada. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Iroquois_Confederacy. ... The Iroquois are a confederation of variously five or six tribes of Native Americans. ... Gayanashagowa or the Great Law of Peace of the Iroquois (or Haudenosaunee) Six Nations is the oral constitution that created the Iroquois Confederacy. ... The Great Peacemaker, sometimes referred to as Deganawida or Dekanawida (although as a mark of respect the Iroquois avoid referring to him by this name except in special circumstances), was the traditional founder, with Hiawatha, of the Haudenosaunee (commonly called the Iroquois) confederacy, a political and cultural union of Native...

References

  1. ^ Glathaar, Martin.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Oneida tribe - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (360 words)
The Oneida (Onayotekaono or the People of the Upright Stone) are a Native American/First Nations people and comprise one of the five founding nations of the Iroquois Confederacy.
Originally the Oneida inhabited the area that later became central New York, particularly around Oneida Lake and Oneida County.
In 1974 and 1985 the US Supreme Court ruled that the treaties between the State of New York and the Oneida that had deprived them of these lands were illegal.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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