FACTOID # 8: Bookworms: Vermont has the highest number of high school teachers per capita and third highest number of librarians per capita.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church
Part of a series of articles on
Christianity
Christianity

Foundations
Jesus Christ
Church · Christian Theology
New Covenant · Supersessionism
Dispensationalism
Apostles · Kingdom · Gospel
History of Christianity · Timeline
Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Christ is the English translation of the Greek word (Christós), which literally means The Anointed One. ... Christian theology is reasoned discourse concerning Christian faith. ... Christians believe that Jesus is the mediator of the New Covenant (see Hebrews 8:6). ... Supersessionism (sometimes referred to as replacement theology by its critics) is a belief that Christianity is the fulfillment and continuation of the Old Testament, and that Jews who deny that Jesus is the Messiah are not being faithful to the revelation that God has given them, and they therefore fall... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... “Apostle” redirects here. ... The Kingdom of God or Reign of God (Greek basileia tou theou,[1]) is a foundational concept in Christianity, as it is the central theme of Jesus of Nazareths message in the synoptic Gospels. ... For other uses, see Gospel (disambiguation). ... The history of Christianity concerns the history of the Christian religion and the Church, from Jesus and his Twelve Apostles to contemporary times. ... Christianity was around before it was actually refered to as Christianity. Before Christ was born, there were believers descended from Adam and Eve that knew who God was and had a connection (faith) with Him. ...


Bible
Old Testament · New Testament
Books · Canon · Apocrypha
Septuagint · Decalogue
Birth · Resurrection
Sermon on the Mount
Great Commission
Translations · English
Inspiration · Hermeneutics This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... The canonical list of the Books of the Bible differs among Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, even though there is a great deal of overlap. ... A biblical canon is a list published by a religious authority of those books of the Bible that are considered inspired by God. ... The biblical apocrypha includes texts written in the Jewish and Christian religious traditions that either were accepted into the biblical canon by some, but not all, Christian faiths, or are frequently printed in Bibles despite their non-canonical status. ... The Septuagint: A page from Codex vaticanus, the basis of Sir Lancelot Charles Lee Brentons English translation. ... This 1768 parchment (612x502 mm) by Jekuthiel Sofer emulated the 1675 Decalogue at Amsterdam Esnoga synagogue. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The death and resurrection of Jesus are two events in the New Testament in which Jesus is crucified on one day (the Day of Preparation, i. ... The Sermon on the Mount was, according to the Gospel of Matthew 5-7, a particular sermon given by Jesus of Nazareth (estimated around AD 30) on a mountainside to his disciples and a large crowd. ... In Christian tradition, the Great Commission is the instruction of the resurrected Jesus Christ to his disciples, that they spread the faith to all the world. ... The Bible has been translated into many languages. ... The efforts of translating the Bible from its original languages into over 2,000 others have spanned more than two millennia. ... Biblical inspiration is the doctrine in Christian theology concerned with the divine origin of the Bible and what the Bible teaches about itself. ... Biblical Hermeneutics, part of the broader hermeneutical question, relates to the problem of how one is to understand Holy Scripture. ...


Christian Theology
Trinity (Father, Son, Holy Spirit)
History of · Theology · Apologetics
Creation · Fall of Man · Covenant · Law
Grace · Faith · Justification · Salvation
Sanctification · Theosis · Worship
Church · Sacraments · Eschatology
Christian theology is reasoned discourse concerning Christian faith. ... For other uses, see Trinity (disambiguation). ... In many religions, the supreme God is given the title and attributions of Father. ... Christian views of Jesus consist of the teachings and beliefs held by Christian groups about Jesus, including his divinity, humanity, and earthly life. ... In Christian religions that trace their roots to belief in the Nicene Creed, the Holy Spirit (Hebrew: Ruah haqodesh; Greek: ; Latin: ; also called the Holy Ghost) is the third consubstantial Person of the Holy Trinity or the Godhead. ... This is an overview of the history of theology in Greek thought, Christianity, Judaism and Islam from the time of Christ to the present. ... Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογια, logia, words, sayings, or discourse) is reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Christian apologetics is the field of study concerned with the systematic defense of Christianity. ... Creation (theology) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... In Abrahamic religion, The Fall of Man or The Story of the Fall, or simply The Fall, refers to humanitys purported transition from a state of innocent bliss to a state of sinful understanding. ... Covenant, meaning a solemn contract, oath, or bond, is the customary word used to translate the Hebrew word berith (ברית, Tiberian Hebrew bərîṯ, Standard Hebrew bərit) as it is used in the Hebrew Bible. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh. ... In Christianity, divine grace refers to the sovereign favour of God for humankind — especially in regard to salvation — irrespective of actions (deeds), earned worth, or proven goodness. ... Faith in Christianity centers on faith in the Resurrection of Christ (1 Corinthians 15:1-4) ... the gospel I preached to you. ... In Christian theology, justification is Gods act of making or declaring a sinner righteous before God. ... In theology, salvation can mean three related things: freed forever from the punishment of sin Revelation 1:5-6 NRSV - also called deliverance;[1] being saved for something, such as an afterlife or participating in the Reign of God Revelation 1:6 NRSV - also called redemption;[2]) and a process... Sanctification or in its verb form, sanctify, literally means to set apart for special use or purpose, that is to make holy or sacred (compare Latin sanctus holy). Therefore sanctification refers to the state or process of being set apart, i. ... In Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic theology, theosis (Greek: , meaning divinization (or deification, or to make divine) is the call to man to become holy and seek union with God, beginning in this life and later consummated in the resurrection. ... Monument honoring the right to worship, Washington, D.C. In Christianity, worship has been considered by most Christians to be the central act of Christian identity throughout history. ... In Christian theology, ecclesiology is the study of doctrine pertaining to the Church itself as a community or organic entity, and with the understanding of what the church is —ie. ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


History and Traditions
Early · Councils
Creeds · Missions
Great Schism · Crusades · Reformation
Great Awakenings · Great Apostasy
Restorationism · Nontrinitarianism
Thomism · Arminianism
Congregationalism The term Early Christianity here refers to Christianity of the period after the Death of Jesus and the foundation of the churches of Jerusalem and Antioch in the 30s and before the First Council of Nicaea in 325. ... In Christianity, an Ecumenical Council or general council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ... A creed is a statement or confession of belief — usually religious belief — or faith. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For the later Papal Schism in Avignon, see Western Schism. ... The Siege of Antioch, from a medieval miniature painting, during the First Crusade. ... The Reformation was a movement in the years of the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Revivalism. ... The Great Apostasy is a disparaging term used by some religious groups to allege a general fallen state of traditional Christianity, or especially of Catholicism, magisterial Protestantism and Eastern Orthodoxy, that it is not representative of the faith founded by Jesus and promulgated through his twelve Apostles: in short, that... For other usages, see Dispensationalism, Restoration Movement, and Restoration Restorationism refers to unaffiliated religious movements that attempted to circumvent Protestant denominationalism and orthodox Christian creeds to restore Christianity to their constructions of its original form. ... Nontrinitarianism is any of various Christian beliefs that reject the doctrine that God is three distinct persons in one being, (the Trinity). ... Thomism is the philosophical school that followed in the legacy of Thomas Aquinas. ... For the Armenian nationality, see Armenia or the Armenian language. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation indepedently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ...


Eastern Christianity
Eastern Orthodox · Oriental Orthodox
Syriac Christianity · Eastern Catholic
Eastern Christianity refers collectively to the Christian traditions and churches which developed in Greece, Russia, Armenia, the Balkans, Eastern Europe, Asia Minor, the Middle East, northeastern Africa and southern India over several centuries of religious antiquity. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only the first three ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus — and reject the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. ... Syriac Christianity is a culturally and linguistically distinctive community within Eastern Christianity. ... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ...


Western Christianity
Western Catholicism · Protestantism
Anabaptism · Lutheranism · Calvinism
Anglicanism · Baptist · Methodism
Evangelicalism · Fundamentalism
Unitarianism . Liberalism
Adventism · Pentecostalism
Latter Day Saints · Christian Science
Jehovah's Witnesses · Unity Church
Western Christianity is a form of Christianity that consists of the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church and Protestantism. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Anabaptists (Greek ανα (again) +βαπτιζω (baptize), thus, re-baptizers [1], German: Wiedertäufer) are Christians of the Radical Reformation. ... Lutheranism is a movement within Christianity that began with the theological insights of Martin Luther in the 16th century. ... Calvinism is a theological system and an approach to the Christian life that emphasizes Gods sovereignty in all things. ... The term Anglican (from Medieval Latin ecclesia anglicana, meaning the English Church) is used to describe how the people, institutions and churches as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the state established Church of England, the Anglican Communion. ... Baptist is a term describing a tradition within Christianity and may also refer to individuals belonging to a Baptist church or a Baptist denomination. ... For the Methodist school of ancient Greek medicine, see Methodism (history of medicine) Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... The word evangelicalism usually refers to a broad collection of religious beliefs, practices, and traditions which are found among conservative Protestant Christians. ... Fundamentalist Christianity, or Christian fundamentalism, is a movement that arose mainly within British and American Protestantism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by conservative evangelical Christians, who, in a reaction to modernism, actively affirmed a fundamental set of Christian beliefs: the inerrancy of the Bible, Sola Scriptura, the... It has been suggested that Unitarian Christianity be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The term Adventist can refer to One who believes in the Second Advent (usually known as the Second coming) of Jesus. ... The Pentecostal movement within Evangelical Christianity places special emphasis on the direct personal experience of God through the baptism of the Holy Spirit, as shown in the Biblical account of the Day of Pentecost. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the largest attraction in the citys Temple Square. ... Christian Science is a religious teaching regarding the efficacy of spiritual healing according to the interpretation of the Bible by Mary Baker Eddy, in her book Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (First published in 1875). ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


Topics in Christianity
Movements · Denominations
Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer
Music · Liturgy · Calendar
Symbols · Art · Criticism
Christian movements are theological, political, or philosophical intepretations of Christianity that are not generally represented by a specific church, sect, or denomination. ... A denomination, in the Christian sense of the word, is an identifiable religious body under a common name, structure, and/or doctrine. ... The word ecumenism (also oecumenism, Å“cumenism) is derived from Greek (oikoumene), which means the inhabited world, and was historically used with specific reference to the Roman Empire. ... A sermon is an oration by a prophet or member of the clergy. ... This article is about the many forms of prayer within Christianity. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... // Partial list of Christian liturgies (past and present) Roman Catholic church (churches in communion with the Holy See of the Bishop of Rome) Latin Rite Novus Ordo Missae Tridentine Mass Anglican Use Mozarabic Rite Ambrosian Rite Gallican Rite Eastern Rite, e. ... The liturgical year, also known as the Christian year, consists of the cycle of liturgical seasons in some Christian churches which determines when Feasts, Memorials, Commemorations, and Solemnities are to be observed and which portions of Scripture are to be read. ... Christian art is art that spans many segments of Christianity. ... Throughout the history of Christianity, a wide range of Christians and non-Christians alike have offered criticisms of Christianity, the Church, and Christians themselves. ...


Important Figures
Apostle Paul · Church Fathers
Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine
Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe
Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley
Arius · Marcion of Sinope
Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Paul of Tarsus (b. ... The Church Fathers or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian Church, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. ... The relationship between Constantine I and Christianity entails both the nature of the conversion of the emperor to Christianity, and his relations with the Christian Church. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (Greek: Αθανάσιος) (also spelled Athanasios) (c. ... “Augustinus” redirects here. ... Saint Anselm of Canterbury (1033 or 1034 – April 21, 1109) was an Italian medieval philosopher and theologian, who held the office of Archbishop of Canterbury from 1093 to 1109. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ... Gregory Palamas Gregory Palamas (Γρηγόριος Παλαμάς) (1296 - 1359) was a monk of Mount Athos in Greece and later Archbishop of Thessalonica known as a preeminent theologian of Hesychasm. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... William Tyndale (sometimes spelled Tindale,Tindall or Tyndall) (ca. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... John Wesley (June 17, 1703 – March 2, 1791) was an 18th-century Anglican clergyman and Christian theologian who was an early leader in the Methodist movement. ... Arius (AD/CE 256 - 336, poss. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Marcionism. ... The Pope (or Pope of Rome) (from Latin: papa, Papa, father; from Greek: papas / = priest originating from πατήρ = father )[1] is the Bishop of Rome and the spiritual leader of the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ...

Christianity Portal

This box: view  talk  edit

The phrase One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church appears in the Nicene Creed (μίαν, ἁγίαν, καθολικὴν καὶ ἀποστολικὴν Ἐκκλησίαν) and, in part, in the Apostles' Creed ("the holy catholic church", sanctam ecclesiam catholicam). The phrase sets out the four marks, or identifying signs, of the Christian Church — unity, holiness, universality, and apostolicity — and is based on the premise that all true Christians form a single united group, the body of Christ (cf. 1 Cor 12:27), founded by the apostles and innately holy. Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... The Apostles Creed (Latin: Symbolum Apostolorum), sometimes titled Symbol of the Apostles, is an early statement of Christian belief, a creed or symbol. ... Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The term Christian Church, or Catholic Church, as it was known beginning in 110 AD,[1] expresses the idea that organised Christianity (the Christian religion) is seen as an institution. ... The Body of Christ is a term used by Christians to describe believers in Christ. ... “Apostle” redirects here. ...


Conflicting boundaries and definitions

The Catholic Church, comprising 23 particular Churches, namely the Latin or Western Church, which is the largest, and 22 Eastern Catholic Churches, teaches that the "one, holy, catholic and apostolic" Church subsists in it. [1] The Eastern Orthodox Church, comprising about 14 or 15 mutually recognizing autocephalous hierarchical Churches, similarly teaches that it is the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church.[2] Before the East-West Schism of 1054, both sides saw themselves as belonging to the same One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church. Oriental Orthodoxy shares this view, seeing the Churches of the Oriental Orthodox communion as constituting the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church founded by Christ. The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... A particular Church, in Catholic theology and Canon law, is any of the individual constituent ecclesial communities in full communion with Rome that are part of the Catholic Church as a whole. ... Latin Rite, in the singular and accompanied, in English, by the definite article (the Latin Rite), designates the particular Church, within the Catholic Church, which developed in western Europe and northern Africa, when Latin was the language of education and culture, and so also of the liturgy. ... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ... The Latin phrase subsistit in appears in the eighth paragraph of Lumen Gentium, a landmark document of the Second Vatican Council of the Catholic Church, with important implications for how the Catholic Church views its relations with other Christian Churches and other religions. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ... In hierarchical Christian churches, especially Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox churches, autocephaly is the status of a hierarchical church whose head bishop does not report to any higher-ranking bishop. ... For the later Papal Schism in Avignon, see Western Schism. ... Events Cardinal Humbertus, a representative of Pope Leo IX, and Michael Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, decree each others excommunication. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only the first three ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus — and reject the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. ...


These Churches believe that the term "one" in the Nicene Creed describes and prescribes a visible institutional unity, not only geographically (throughout the world), but also historically (throughout history). They see unity as one of the four marks that the Creed attributes to the genuine Church, and the essence of a mark is that it be visible. A Church whose identity and belief varied from country to country and from age to age would not be "one". In the New Testament, the word "Church" or "assembly" - ἐκκλησία (ekklesia) in the original language - normally refers to believers on earth, and they conclude that the Creed's description "one" must be applicable to the Church on earth and must not be reserved for some eschatological reality. The only exception to the normal New Testament use of the word "ἐκκλησία" is the mention of the "ἐκκλησία of the firstborn who are enrolled in heaven" in Hebrews 12:23; and even there the Christians to whom the letter is addressed are associated with that heavenly Church ("you have come to..."). In line with this passage, the ancient Churches mentioned see the saints too - that is, the holy dead - as part of the one Church and not as ex-members, so that Christians both in the present life and the afterlife form a single Church. Icon depicting the Holy Fathers of the First Council of Nicaea holding the Nicene Creed. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... For the book by Pope Benedict XVI, see Eschatology (book). ... In traditional Christian iconography, Saints are often depicted as having halos. ...


Many Anglicans, Lutherans, Old Catholics, and Independent Catholics view unity as a mark of catholicity, but see the institutional unity of the Catholic Church as manifested in the shared Apostolic Succession of their episcopacies, rather than a shared episcopal hierarchy or rites. The term Anglican (from Medieval Latin ecclesia anglicana, meaning the English Church) is used to describe how the people, institutions and churches as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the state established Church of England, the Anglican Communion. ... Lutheranism is a movement within Christianity that began with the theological insights of Martin Luther in the 16th century. ... The Old Catholic Church is a community of Christian churches. ... Independent Catholic is a term used by many small groups who are not in communion with the Roman Catholic Church or other traditional Episcopally governed Churches such as Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, Anglican or Old Catholic; all of whom function as small (frequently tiny) episcopally-governed Church bodies in many... In Christianity, the doctrine of Apostolic Succession (or the belief that the Church is apostolic) maintains that the Christian Church today is the spiritual successor to the original body of believers in Christ composed of the Apostles. ...


Protestant Christians hold that every person justified by faith in the Gospel committed to the Apostles is a member of "One, Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church". From this perspective, the real unity and holiness of the whole church established through the Apostles is yet to be revealed; and meanwhile, the extent and peace of the church on earth is imperfectly realized in a visible way. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Meaning of the words catholic and apostolic

Catholic

Main article: Catholicism

The term "catholic" is derived from the Greek adjective καθολικός (katholikos), which means "general", "universal".[1] Outside of a religious context, the word "catholic" is commonly used to mean no more than all-embracing in interests, sympathies, ideas and the like. In contrast, when the word "catholic" or "universal" is applied to the Church, it indicates that the Church is intended by God for the whole human race, all of whose members are called to belong to the Church, which, while remaining one and only one, is to be spread throughout the whole world and to all ages. And, even abstracting from this mission to the whole of humanity, the Church is inwardly catholic or universal in that, being one with Christ, the Church is endowed with all the means of salvation. (These two meanings of the catholicity or universality of the Church are explained at greater length in the Catechism of the Catholic Church, paragraphs 830-831.) As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic - from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1] - is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Catholic Church, first published in French in 1992 by the authority of Pope John Paul II.[1] Subsequently, in 1997, a Latin text was issued which is now the official text of reference...


Saint Ignatius of Antioch, the earliest known writer to use the phrase "the Catholic Church", excluded from it heterodox groups whose teaching and practice conflicted with those of the bishops of the Catholic Church. In keeping with this idea, the Roman Catholic Church sees groups that it judges to be in a state of heresy or schism as not part of the Catholic Church. Saint Ignatius of Antioch (also known as Theophorus)(c. ... Look up Heresy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about a title or office in religious bodies. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... Look up Heresy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The word schism (IPA: or ), from the Greek σχίσμα, skhísma (from σχίζω, skhízō, to tear, to split), means a division or a split, usually in an organization or a movement. ...


Others have, since the Protestant Reformation, used the word "Catholic" to designate instead adherence to the doctrines and essential practices of the historical institutional Churches, in contrast to those propounded by the Reformers. In all the senses indicated in this paragraph, Catholic tends to be written with an upper-case 'C'. The Reformation was a movement in the years of the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ...


The Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the Oriental Orthodox Churches all see themselves as fully "catholic" in all the foregoing senses. Some Anglicans see their Communion as a component part of the Catholic Church, albeit not subject to the Holy See of Rome, and maintain beliefs and practices akin to those of the Roman Catholic Church. The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The term Anglican (from Medieval Latin ecclesia anglicana, meaning the English Church) is used to describe how the people, institutions and churches as well as the liturgical traditions and theological concepts developed by the state established Church of England, the Anglican Communion. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban...


Some Protestant denominations interpret "catholic", especially in its creedal context, as referring to the concept of the eternal church of Christ and the Elect, which they see referenced in 1 Cor 12:27's "body of Christ" and Heb 12:1's "great cloud of witnesses." Expressed in the language of traditional Roman Catholicism this Protestant interpretation of the words "one holy, catholic, and Apostolic church" identifies the "one holy, catholic, and Apostolic church" exclusively with the Church Triumphant - i.e. the church that exists "in heaven" or in eternity as opposed to the Church Militant which is the communion of the faithful here on Earth. They view this understanding of "catholic" as necessarily distinct from any concrete expression in an institutional Church. In this last sense, catholic tends to be written with a lower-case 'c'. Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Body of Christ is a term used by Christians to describe believers in Christ. ... The church militant comprises Christians who are living; the church triumphant comprises those who are in Heaven. ... The church militant comprises Christians who are living; the church triumphant comprises those who are in Heaven. ...


This is not to say that the visible unity of the Catholic Church was not an important and essential doctrine of the Protestant Reformation. The Magisterial Reformers, such as Martin Luther, John Calvin, and Ulrich Zwingli, believed that they were reforming a corrupt and heretical Catholic Church. Each of them took very seriously the charges of schism and innovation, denying these charges and maintaining that it was the medieval church that had left them. Because of this the fundamental Unity of the Catholic Church remained a very important doctrine in the churches of the Reformation. Dr. James Walker wrote in "The Theology of Theologians of Scotland":

The visible church, in the idea of the Scottish theologians, is catholic. You have not an indefinite number of Parochial, or Congregational, or National churches, constituting, as it were, so many ecclesiastical individualities, but one great spiritual republic, of which these various organizations form a part. The visible church is not a genus, so to speak, with so many species under it. It is thus you may think of the State, but the visible church is a totum integrale, it is an empire. The churches of the various nationalities constitute the provinces of this empire; and though they are so far independent of each other, yet they are so one, that membership in one is membership in all, and separation from one is separation from all... This conception of the church, of which, in at least some aspects, we have practically so much lost sight, had a firm hold of the Scottish theologians of the seventeenth century. [3]

Wherever the Magisterial Reformation, which received support from the ruling authorities, took place, the result was a reformed national church envisioned to be a part of the whole visible Holy Catholic Church described in the creeds, but disagreeing, in certain important points of doctrine and doctrine-linked practice, with what had until then been considered the normative reference point on such matters, namely the See of Rome. The Reformed Churches thus believed in a form of Catholicity, founded on their doctrines of the five solas and a visible ecclesiastical organization based on the 14th and 15th century Conciliar movement, rejecting the Papacy and Papal Infallibility in favor of Ecumenical councils, but rejecting the Council of Trent. The Five Solas are five Latin phrases (or slogans) that emerged during the Protestant Reformation and summarize the Reformers basic beliefs and emphasis in contradistinction to the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church of the day. ... This article should be transwikied to wiktionary Ecclesiastical means pertaining to the Church (especially Christianity) as an organized body of believers and clergy, with a stress on its juridical and institutional structure. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... In the history of Christianity, the Conciliar movement or Conciliarism was a reform movement in the 14th and 15th century Catholic Church which held that final authority in spiritual matters resided with the Church as corporation of Christians, embodied by a general church council, not with the pope. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... In Catholic theology, papal infallibility is the dogma that, by action of the Holy Spirit, the Pope is preserved from even the possibility of error when he solemnly declares or promulgates to the Church a dogmatic teaching on faith or morals as being contained in divine revelation, or at least... In Christianity, an Ecumenical Council or general council is a meeting of the bishops of the whole church convened to discuss and settle matters of Church doctrine and practice. ... The Council of Trent is the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Unlike mainstream Evangelical (Lutheran), Reformed (Zwinglian and Calvinist) Protestant movements, the Radical Reformation, which had no state sponsorship, generally abandoned the idea of the "Church Visible" as distinct from the "Church Invisible." For them, the Church only consisted of the tiny community of believers, who accepted Jesus Christ by adult baptism, called "believer's baptism". Others believed that the Church could not be defined as anything more than a single congregation meeting together for worship at one time in a single place. The Radical Reformation thus did not believe that the Magisterial Reformation had gone far enough. For example, radical reformer Andreas von Bodenstein Karlstadt referred to the Lutheran theologians at Wittenberg as the 'new papists.'[4] It was exactly because the Reformation still strongly defended the visible unity of the Catholic Church that they were criticized by the Radical Reformers and vice versa. The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli (January 1, 1484 – October 11, 1531) was the leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... The Radical Reformation was a 16th century response to both the perceived corruption in the Roman Catholic Church and the expanding Protestant movement led by Martin Luther. ... Believers baptism (also called credobaptism) is the Christian ritual of baptism as given only to adults and children who have made a declaration of faith in Jesus as their personal savior, because he died for their sins, and was resurrected by the power of God the Father. ...


Today there is a growing movement of Protestants, especially of the Reformed tradition, that reject the designation "Protestant" because of its negative "anti-catholic" connotations, preferring the designation "Reformed," "Evangelical" or even "Reformed Catholic" expressive of what they call a "Reformed Catholicity" [2] and defending their arguments from the traditional Protestant Confessions. [5] In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... A Confession of Faith is a statement of doctrine very similar to a creed, but usually longer and polemical, as well as didactic. ...


Apostolic

(1) The Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Churches, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Anglican Communion and the Churches of the Porvoo Communion interpret the adjective "apostolic" as referring not only to the Church's origin from Christ's Apostles and their teaching, but also to the Church's structure around bishops who have succeeded to the Apostles by unbroken Apostolic Succession transmitted by episcopal ordination ("laying on of hands"). In their view, Christian communities that lack this mark (i.e. a hierarchy of bishops, each properly ordained by bishops in an unbroken chain reaching back to the original apostles,) are not churches in the full sense. The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins to the original Christian community founded by Jesus Christ and led by the Twelve Apostles, in particular Saint Peter. ... The Eastern Orthodox Church is a Christian body that views itself as: the historical continuation of the original Christian community established by Jesus Christ and the Twelve Apostles, having maintained unbroken the link between its clergy and the Apostles by means of Apostolic Succession. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only the first three ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the First Council of Constantinople and the Council of Ephesus — and reject the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon. ... The Anglican Communion uses the compass rose as its symbol, signifying its worldwide reach and decentralized nature. ... The Porvoo Communion is an agreement between 12 European Protestant churches establishing full communion. ... “Apostle” redirects here. ... This article is about a title or office in religious bodies. ... In Christianity, the doctrine of Apostolic Succession (or the belief that the Church is apostolic) maintains that the Christian Church today is the spiritual successor to the original body of believers in Christ composed of the Apostles. ... “Apostle” redirects here. ...

(1.a) A modern variant of this interpretation, held by many in the non-trinitarian "Apostolic church movement", including some Pentecostal groups, is that Apostolic refers to the charismatic gift of apostleship, which they claim continues to be granted by the Spirit to the faithful Church today. Being Apostolic for these people means being lead and taught by modern Apostles. In their view, Christian communities that lack this mark (i.e. charismatic hierarchical structure) are not Churches in the full sense.

(2) On the other hand, Protestant Evangelical Christians hold that the Apostolic Church of the Creed corresponds to no one Christian denomination, but is instead the aggregate of all "true" Christians, regardless of denominational allegiance, who hold the faith of the Apostles (as preserved in Apostolic Scripture) and who further the mission of the Apostles (making disciples, baptising and teaching Matthew 28:20). In their view, Christian communities that lack this mark (i.e. holding to and proclaiming the Apostolic gospel Gal 1:6-9 of divine grace) are not Churches in the full sense. The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. ... The word evangelicalism usually refers to a broad collection of religious beliefs, practices, and traditions which are found among conservative Protestant Christians. ... A Denomination in the Christian sense is an identifiable religious body, organization under a common name, structure, and/or theology. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... In Christianity, divine grace refers to the sovereign favour of God for humankind — especially in regard to salvation — irrespective of actions (deeds), earned worth, or proven goodness. ...


See also

A creed is a statement or confession of belief — usually religious belief — or faith. ... The history of Christianity concerns the history of the Christian religion and the Church, from Jesus and his Twelve Apostles to contemporary times. ... Christian ecumenism is the promotion of unity or cooperation between distinct religious groups or denominations of the Christian religion, more or less broadly defined. ... The Chicago-Lambeth Quadrilateral, frequently referred to as the Lambeth Quadrilateral or the Lambeth-Chicago Quadrilateral, is a four-point articulation of Anglican identity, often cited as encapsulating the fundamentals of the Communions doctrine and as a reference-point for ecumenical discussion with other Christian denominations. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ...

References

  1. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 870
  2. ^ Robert G. Stephanopoulos. The Greek (Eastern) Orthodox Church in America. www.goarch.org. Greek Orthodox Archdiocese of America. Retrieved on 2007-08-01.
  3. ^ Dr. James Walker in The Theology of Theologians of Scotland. (Edinburgh: Rpt. Knox Press, 1982) Lecture iv. pp.95-6.
  4. ^ The Magisterial Reformation - http://www.reformationhappens.com/movements/magisterial/
  5. ^ The Canadian Reformed Magazine 18 (Sept. 20-27, Oct. 4-11, 18, Nov. 1, 8, 1969) - http://spindleworks.com/library/faber/008_theca.htm

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m