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Encyclopedia > Oncogene

An oncogene is a modified gene that increases the malignancy of a tumor cell. Some oncogenes, usually involved in early stages of cancer development, increase the chance that a normal cell develops into a tumor cell, possibly resulting in cancer. New research indicates that small RNAs 21-25 nucleotides in length called miRNAs can control expression of these genes by downregulating them. This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... Tumor (American English) or tumour (British English) originally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... Tumor (American English) or tumour (British English) originally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ... When normal cells are damaged beyond repair, they are eliminated by apoptosis. ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of covalently bound nucleotides. ... In genetics, a miRNA (micro-RNA) is a form of single-stranded RNA which is typically 20-25 nucleotides long, and is thought to regulate the expression of other genes. ...


The first oncogene wcken retrovirus. Experiments performed by Dr G. Steve Martin of the University of California Berkeley demonstrated that the SRC was indeed the oncogene of the virus. In 1976 Drs. J. Michael Bishop and Harold E. Varmus of the [[University of California San Francct aberration in a dividing stem cell in the bone marrow leads to adult leukemia The University of California, Berkeley (also known as Cal, UC Berkeley, UCB, or simply Berkeley) is a prestigious, public, coeducational university situated in the foothills of Berkeley, California to the east of San Francisco Bay, overlooking the Golden Gate and its bridge. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1976 calendar). ... J. Michael Bishop (born February 22, 1936) is an American immunologist and microbiologist who won the 1989 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine. ... Harold Elliot Varmus (b. ... Mouse embryonic stem cells. ... Grays Anatomy illustration of cells in bone marrow. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow characterized by an abnormal proliferation of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ...

  • An increase in protein concentration, caused by
    • an increase of protein expression (through misregulation)
    • an increase of protein stability, prolonging its existence and thus its activity in the cell
    • a gene duplication, resulting in an increased amount of protein in the cell

Contents

Schematic of a region of a chromosome before and after a duplication event Gene duplication occurs when an error in DNA replication leads to the duplication of a region of DNA containing a (generally functional) gene. ...


Oncogene

Growth factors

Growth factors, or mitogens, are usually secreted by a few specialized cells to induce cell proliferation in paracrine, autocrine, or endocrine manner. If a cell that usually does not produce growth factors suddenly starts to do so (because it developed an oncogene), it will thereby induce its own uncontrolled proliferation (autocrine loop), as well as the proliferation of neighboring cells. In addition, abnormal growth of endocrine glands often cause ectopic production of growth hormones that have secondary effects on other parts of the body. Growth factor is a protein that acts as a signaling molecule between cells (like cytokines and hormones) that attaches to specific receptors on the surface of a target cell and promotes differentiation and maturation of these cells. ... Secretion is the process of segregating, elaborating, and releasing chemicals from a cell, or a secreted chemical substance or amount of substance. ...


Protein kinases and related proteins

There are six known classes of protein kinases and related proteins that can become an oncogene: A protein kinase is an enzyme that modifies other proteins by chemically adding phosphate groups to them (phosphorylation). ...

  1. Receptor tyrosine kinases that become constitutively (permanently) active like the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR).
  2. Cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases like the Src-family, Syk-ZAP-70 family and BTK family of tyrosine kinases.
  3. Regulatory GTPases, for example, the Ras protein.
  4. Cytoplasmic Serine/Threonine kinases and their regulatory subunits, for example, the Raf kinase, and cyclin-dependent kinases (through overexpression).
  5. Adaptor proteins in signal transduction.
  6. Transcription factors.

GOD DAMN IT WHY DOES IT KEEP SAYINBG I HAVE PRIVATE MESSAGES!!! I DIDNnT DO ANY FUCKING THING!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! ... Vascular endothelial growth factor or VEGF is an important signal protein involved in angiogenesis. ... The BTK killer is a serial killer who killed seven people between 1974 and 1977. ... GTPases are a large family of enzymes that can bind and hydrolyze GTP. The GTP binding and hydrolysis takes place in the highly conserved G domain common to all GTPases. ... This is about a protein. ... Serine is one of the 20 natural amino acids. ... Threonine is one of the 20 natural amino acids. ... Cyclin-dependent kinase is a protein kinase involved in regulation of the cell cycle. ... Gene expression (also protein expression or often simply expression) is the process by which a genes information is converted into the structures and functions of a cell. ... An adaptor protein is a protein which is accessory to main proteins in signal transduction. ... In molecular biology, a transcription factor is a protein that binds DNA at a specific promoter or enhancer region or site, where it regulates transcription. ...

See also

Tumors (and related structures), Cancer, and Oncology
Benign - Premalignant - Carcinoma in situ - Malignant

Topography: Anus - Bladder - Bone - Brain - Breast - Cervix - Colon/rectum - Duodenum - Endometrium - Esophagus - Eye - Gallbladder - Head/Neck - Liver - Larynx - Lung - Mouth - Pancreas - Penis - Prostate - Kidney - Ovaries - Skin - Stomach - Testicles - Thyroid A tumor suppressor gene is a gene that reduces the probability that a cell in a multicellular organism will turn into a tumor cell. ... A cell undergoing apoptosis. ... Tumor (American English) or tumour (British English) originally means swelling, and is sometimes still used with that meaning. ... When normal cells are damaged beyond repair, they are eliminated by apoptosis. ... Oncology is the medical subspecialty dealing with the study and treatment of cancer. ... Benign can refer to any medical condition which, untreated or with symptomatic therapy, will not become life-threatening. ... A premalignant condition is a disease, syndrome, or finding that, if left untreated, may lead to cancer. ... Carcinoma in situ is present when a tumor has been detected that has the characteristics of malignancy but has not invaded other tissues. ... In medicine, malignant is a clinical term that is used to describe a clinical course that progresses rapidly to death. ... Anal cancer is a distinct entity from the more common colorectal cancer. ... Bladder cancer refers to any of several types of malignant growths of the urinary bladder. ... Bone tumor is an inexact term, which can be used for both benign and malignant abnormal growths found in bone, but is most commonly used for primary tumors of bone, such as osteosarcoma (or osteoma). ... CT scan of brain showing brain cancer metastatic to left parietal lobe in the peri-ventricular area. ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ... Cervical cancer is a malignancy of the cervix. ... Colorectal cancer, also called colon cancer or bowel cancer, includes cancerous growths in the colon, rectum and appendix. ... This article needs more context around or a better explanation of technical details to make it more accessible to general readers and technical readers outside the specialty, without removing technical details. ... Endometrial cancer involves cancerous growth of the endometrium (lining of the uterus). ... Esophageal cancer is malignancy of the esophagus. ... Cancers can affect the eye. ... Bold textA more uncommon cancer predominate in females, if found early on before symptoms, can be cured by removing Gallbladder, most often it is found after symptoms occur (abdominal pain, Jaundice) and has spread to other organs such as liver and the outlook at this point is poor. ... Head and neck cancers are malignant growths located in the oral cavity (mouth), nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, thyroid, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands and lymph nodes of the upper neck. ... Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, also called hepatoma or liver cancer) is a primary malignancy (cancer) of the liver. ... Cancer of the larynx also may be called laryngeal cancer. ... Lung cancer is a cancer of the lungs characterized by the presence of malignant tumours. ... Oral cancer is any cancerous tissue growth located in the mouth. ... Pancreatic cancer (also called cancer of the pancreas) is represented by the growth of a malignant tumour within the small pancreas organ. ... Penile cancer is a malignant growth found on the skin or in the tissues of the penis, usually originating in the glans and/or foreskin. ... Prostate cancer is a disease in which cancer develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. ... Renal cell carcinoma, also known by a gurnistical tumor, is the most common form of kidney cancer arising from the renal tubule. ... Ovarian cancer is a malignant ovarian neoplasm (an abnormal growth located on the ovaries). ... In medicine (dermatology), there are several different types of cancer referred to under the general label of skin cancer. ... Stomach cancer (also called gastric cancer) can develop in any part of the stomach and may spread throughout the stomach and to other organs, particularly the esophagus, small intestine. ... Testicular cancer is a type of cancer that develops in the testicles, a part of the male reproductive system. ...


Morphology: Papilloma/carcinoma - Adenoma/adenocarcinoma - Soft tissue sarcoma - Melanoma - Fibroma/fibrosarcoma - Lipoma/liposarcoma - Leiomyoma/leiomyosarcoma - Rhabdomyoma/rhabdomyosarcoma - Mesothelioma - Angioma/angiosarcoma - Osteoma/osteosarcoma - Chondroma/chondrosarcoma - Glioma - Lymphoma/leukemia Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a virus which affects humans. ... In medicine, carcinoma is any cancer that arises from epithelial cells. ... Adenoma refers to a collection of growths (-oma) of glandular origin. ... In medicine, carcinoma is any cancer that arises from epithelial cells. ... Malignant (cancerous) tumors that develop in soft tissue are called sarcomas, a term that comes from a Greek word meaning fleshy growth. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Fibroma. ... Fibrosarcoma (fibroblastic sarcoma) is a malignant tumor derived from fibrous connective tissue and characterized by immature proliferating fibroblasts or undifferentiated anaplastic spindle cells. ... A lipoma is a common, benign tumor composed of fatty tissue. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A leiomyoma (plural is leiomyomata) is a benign smooth muscle neoplasm that is not premalignant. ... A sarcoma is a cancer of the bone, cartilage, fat, muscle, blood vessels, or other connective or supportive tissue. ... A rhabdomyoma is a benign tumor of muscle. ... A rhabdomyosarcoma is a type of cancer, specifically a sarcoma (cancer of connective tissues), in which the cancer cells arise from skeletal muscle. ... Angiomas are benign tumors that are made up of small blood vessels. ... Angiosarcoma is a rare, malignant tumor consisting of endothelial and fibroblastic tissue that proliferates and eventually surrounds vascular channels. ... An osteoma is a new piece of bone growing on another piece, typically the skull. ... Osteosarcoma is a common primary bone cancer. ... A chondroma is a benign cartilaginous tumor, which is encapsulated with a lobular growing pattern. ... A chondrosarcoma is a cancer of the cartilage. ... A glioma is a type of primary central nervous system (CNS) tumor that arises from glial cells. ... Lymphoma is a variety of cancer that originates in the lymphatic system. ... Leukemia or leukaemia (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow characterized by an abnormal proliferation of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ...


Treatment: Chemotherapy - Radiation therapy - Immunotherapy - Experimental cancer treatment Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Clinac 2100 C accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... Cancer Immunotherapy is the use of the immune system to reject cancer. ... Experimental cancer treatments are medical therapies intended or claimed to treat cancer (see also tumor) by improving on, supplementing or replacing conventional methods (surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and immunotherapy). ...


Related structures: Cyst - Dysplasia - Hamartoma - Neoplasia - Nodule - Polyp - Pseudocyst This is an article about cysts in the body. ... Dysplasia (latin for bad form) is an abnormality in the appearance of cells indicative of an early step towards transformation into a neoplasia. ... A hamartoma is an abnormal growth of normal cells. ... Neoplasia (literally: new growth) is abnormal, disorganized growth in a tissue or organ, usually forming a distinct mass. ... In medicine, a nodule refers to a small aggregation of cells. ... Polyp of sigmoid colon as revealed by colonoscopy. ... A pseudocyst is a pathological collection of fluid. ...


Misc: Tumor suppressor genes/oncogenes - Staging/grading - Carcinogenesis/metastasis - Carcinogen - Research - Paraneoplastic phenomenon - ICD-O - List of oncology-related terms A tumor suppressor gene is a gene that reduces the probability that a cell in a multicellular organism will turn into a tumor cell. ... The stage of a cancer is a descriptor (usually numbers I to IV) of how much the cancer has spread. ... In pathology, Grading is a measure of the progress of tumors. ... Cancers are caused by a series of mutations. ... Metastasis (Greek: change of the state) is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. ... In pathology, a carcinogen is any substance or agent that promotes cancer. ... Cancer research is the intense scientific effort to understand the development of cancer and identify potential therapies. ... A paraneoplastic phenomenon is a disease or symptom that is the consequence of the presence of cancer in the body, but is not due to the local presence of cancer cells. ... The International Classification of Diseases for Oncology (ICD-O) is a domain specific extension of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems for tumor diseases. ... This is a list of terms related to oncology. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Oncogene - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (627 words)
An oncogene is a modified gene that increases the malignancy of a tumor cell.
Some oncogenes, usually involved in early stages of cancer development, increase the chance that a normal cell develops into a tumor cell, possibly resulting in cancer.
Experiments performed by Dr Steve Martin of the University of California Berkeley demonstrated that the SRC was indeed the oncogene of the virus.
The null oncogene hypothesis and protection from cancer -- Davenport et al. 39 (1): 12 -- Journal of Medical Genetics (1881 words)
The null oncogene hypothesis predicts that the presence of a
However, the null oncogene hypothesis predicts that mutations which result in a complete loss of function of RET should lead to Hirschsprung disease and a reduced rate of thyroid carcinoma (C).
and the discovery of null oncogene mutations in Hirschsprung
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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