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Omri (Hebrew: עָמְרִי, Standard ʿOmri Tiberian ʿOmrî; short for Hebrew: עָמְרִיָּה, Standard ʿOmriyya Tiberian ʿOmriyyāh ; "The Lord is my life") was king of Israel and father of Ahab. William F. Albright has dated his reign to 876869 BC, while E. R. Thiele offers the dates 885874 BC. He was "commander of the army" for Elah when Zimri slew Elah and made himself king. The troops at Gibbethon chose instead to elect Omri as king, and he led them to Tirzah where they trapped Zimri in the royal palace, and where Zimri died (1 Kings 16:15-19). “Hebrew” redirects here. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Tanakh, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early Middle Ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Tiberian Hebrew is an oral tradition of pronunciation for ancient forms of Hebrew, especially the Hebrew of the Tanakh, that was given written form by masoretic scholars in the Jewish community at Tiberias in the early Middle Ages, beginning in the 8th century. ... It has been suggested that Yahweh be merged into this article or section. ... Ahab or Achav (אַחְאָב Brother of the father, Standard Hebrew Aḥʼav, Tiberian Hebrew ʼAḥăʼāḇ, ʼAḫʼāḇ) was King of the province of Samaria in the greater Kingdom of Israel, and the son and successor of Omri (1 Kings 16:29-34). ... William Foxwell Albright (May 24, 1891 - September 19/20, 1971) was an evangelical Methodist archaelogist, biblical authority, linguist and expert on ceramics. ... Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 920s BC 910s BC 900s BC 890s BC 880s BC - 870s BC - 860s BC 850s BC 840s BC 830s BC 820s BC Events and trends 879 BC - Death of Zhou yi wang, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. ... Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 910s BC 900s BC 890s BC 880s BC 870s BC - 860s BC - 850s BC 840s BC 830s BC 820s BC 810s BC Events and trends 865 BC - Kar Kalmaneser was conquered by the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III 864 BC... Edwin R. Thiele (1895-1986) was a missionary, writer, archaeologist, and professor of the Old Testament. ... Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 930s BC 920s BC 910s BC 900s BC 890s BC - 880s BC - 870s BC 860s BC 850s BC 840s BC 830s BC Events and Trends 889 BC - Takelot succeeds his father Osorkon I as king of Egypt. ... Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 920s BC 910s BC 900s BC 890s BC 880s BC - 870s BC - 860s BC 850s BC 840s BC 830s BC 820s BC Events and Trends 879 BC - Death of Zhou yi wang, King of the Zhou Dynasty of China. ... Elah was a son of Baasha, who succeeded him as king of Israel. ... Zimri (praiseworthy), was king of Israel for seven days. ... A town in the highlands north of Jerusalem, it has been identified with Tell el-Farah (North). ... The Books of Kings (Hebrew: Sefer Melachim ספר מלכים) is a part of Judaisms Tanakh, the Hebrew Bible. ...


Although Zimri was eliminated, "half of the people" supported Tibni in opposition to Omri. It took Omri some years to subdue Tibni and at last proclaim himself undisputed king of Israel in the 31st year of Asa, king of Judah (1 Kings 16:21-23). Tibni (building of Jehovah) was a claimant to the throne of the Israel, and the son of Ginath, a man of some position. ... Asa (Standard Hebrewאָסָא, Tiberian Hebrew ʾĀsâ) was the fifth king of the House of David and the third of the Kingdom of Judah. ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yəhûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah...


Because Omri was not a devout follower of God, the writer of the Book of Kings minimized his accomplishments. While the writer acknowledges Omri built his new capital Samaria on a hill he bought from Shemer (16:24), he omits any mention of the widespread public construction both Omri and his son Ahab commissioned during their reigns. Israel Finkelstein and his student Norma Franklin have identified monumental construction at Samaria, Jezreel, Megiddo and Hazor similar in design and build, including twelve sets of mason marks shared between the archaeological sites. This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... It has been suggested that Sebastia, Middle East be merged into this article or section. ... Israel Finkelstein Israel Finkelstein is an Israeli archaeologist. ... The Jezreel Valley (Hebrew: עמק יזרעאל; Emek Yizrael) is a large plain and inland valley in the north of Israel. ... Megiddo (Hebrew: ) is a hill in Israel near the modern settlement of Megiddo, known for theological, historical and geographical reasons. ... Hazor (Hebrew: courtyard or settlement) is the name of several places in ancient and modern Israel: // Locations in ancient Israel One of the most important Caananite towns. ...


Omri's rule over Israel was secure enough that he could bequeath his kingdom to Ahab, thus beginning a new dynasty (sometimes called the Omrides), and his descendants not only ruled over the kingdom of Israel for the next forty years, but also briefly over Judah. He was significant enough that his name is mentioned on a stele erected by Mesha, king of Moab, who records his victory over a son of Omri -- but omits the son's name. Thomas L. Thompson (The Bible in History), however, interprets the Mesha stele as suggesting that Omri is an eponym, or legendary founder of the kingdom rather than an historical person. Most archaeologists reject this interpretation, seeing Omri as historical. The stele as photographed circa 1891 The Mesha Stele (popularized in the 19th century as the Moabite Stone) is a black basalt stone, bearing an inscription by the 9th century BC Moabite King Mesha, discovered in 1868. ... A 9th Century B.C.E King of Moab, a strip of hilly land in present-day Jordan, which lay north of Edom, across the Dead Sea from Judah up to the Arnon river valley. ... Moab (Hebrew: מוֹאָב, Standard Tiberian  ; Greek Μωάβ ; Arabic مؤاب, Assyrian Muaba, Maba, Maab ; Egyptian Muab) is the historical name for a mountainous strip of land in modern-day Jordan running along the eastern shore of the Dead Sea. ... Thomas L. Thompson is a Baháí[1] American biblical theologian, born Jan 7, 1939 in Detroit Michigan. ...

Contents

The Omride Dynasty

The short-lived dynasty founded by Omri constitutes a new chapter in the history of the Northern Kingdom of Israel. It ended almost fifty years of constant civil war over the throne. There was peace with the Kingdom of Judah to the south, and even cooperation between the two rival states, while relations with neighboring Sidon to the north were bolstered by marriages negotiated between the two royal courts. This state of peace with two powerful neighbors enabled the Kingdom of Israel to expand its influence and even political control in Transjordan, and these factors combined brought economic prosperity to the kingdom. 10th century BCE: The Land of Israel, including the United Kingdom of Israel Commonwealth of Israel redirects here. ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yəhûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah... , Sidon or Saida, (Arabic صيدا Ṣaydā) is the third-largest city in Lebanon. ... Map of the territory of the British Mandate of Palestine The Emirate of Transjordan was an autonomous political division of the British Mandate of Palestine, created as an administrative entity in April 1921 before the Mandate came into effect. ...


On the other hand, peace with Sidon also resulted in the penetration of Phoenician religious ideas into the kingdom and led to a kulturkampf between traditionalists (as personified by the prophet Elijah and his followers) and the aristocracy (as personified by Omri's son and heir Ahab and his consort Jezebel). In foreign affairs, this period paralleled the rise of the Kingdom of Aram based in Damascus, and Israel soon found itself at war in the northeast. Most threatening, however, was the ascendancy of Assyria, which was beginning to expand westward from Mesopotamia: the Battle of Qarqar (853 BC), which pitted Shalmaneser III of Assyria against a coalition of local kings, including Ahab, was the first clash between Assyria and Israel. It was the first in a series of wars that would eventually lead to the destruction of the Kingdom of Israel in 722 BC and the reduction of the Kingdom of Judah to an Assyrian tributary state. Phoenician sarcophagus found in Cadiz, Spain; now in Archaeological Museum of Cádiz. ... The German term Kulturkampf (literally, culture struggle) refers to German policies in relation to secularity and the influence of the Roman Catholic Church, enacted from 1871 to 1878 by the Chancellor of the German Empire, Otto von Bismarck. ... In religion, a prophet (or prophetess) is a person who has directly encountered the numinous or the divine and serves as an intermediary with humanity. ... Elijah in the wilderness, by Washington Allston Elijah (Hebrew: אליהו, ) was a prophet in Israel in the 9th century BCE. He appears in the Hebrew Bible, Talmud, Mishnah, Christian Bible, and the Quran. ... Jezebel (אִיזֶבֶל / אִיזָבֶל (not exalted) Standard Hebrew Izével/Izável, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾÎzéḇel / ʾÎzāḇel) is the name of two women in the Hebrew Bible. ... The term Aram can refer to: Aram (אֲרָם or ), the son of Shem, according to the Table of nations of Genesis 10 in the Hebrew Bible. ... Nickname: The Seal of the Damascus Governorate Syria Syria Governorates Damascus Governorate Government  - Governor Bishr Al Sabban Area  - City 573 km²  (221. ... An Assyrian winged bull, or lamassu. ... Mesopotamia refers to the region now occupied by modern Iraq, and parts of eastern Syria, southeastern Turkey, and southwest Iran. ... Combatants Assyria An alliance of 12 Kings Commanders Shalmaneser III Hadadezer Strength Assyrian records claim 100,000 troops; modern scholars believe Assyrian forces were smaller 60,000 infantry, 2,450 chariots, 1,900 horsemen, 10,000 camel riders Kurkh stela of Shalmaneser that reports battle of Karkar The Battle of... Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 900s BC 890s BC 880s BC 870s BC 860s BC - 850s BC - 840s BC 830s BC 820s BC 810s BC 800s BC Years: 859 BC 858 BC 857 BC 856 BC 855 BC 854 BC 853 BC 852 BC... Shalmaneser III (Å ulmānu-aÅ¡arÄ“du, the god Shulmanu is pre-eminent) was king of Assyria (859 BC-824 BC), and son of the previous ruler, Ashurnasirpal II. His long reign was a constant series of campaigns against the eastern tribes, the Babylonians, the nations of Mesopotamia and Syria... Centuries: 9th century BC - 8th century BC - 7th century BC Decades: 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC 740s BC 730s BC - 720s BC - 710s BC 700s BC 690s BC 680s BC 670s BC Events and Trends 728 BC - Piye invades Egypt, conquering Memphis and receives the submission of the rulers...


Omri in archaeological sources

In archaeology, Omri appears several times over the next century or so, beginning with the Mesha stele, which recounts one of his acts as king: the annexation of Moab. Later, Israel would become identified in sources as the "House of Omri" (Bit-Humria), with the term "Israel" being used less and less as history progressed (the other defining term for "Israel" is "Samaria", beginning in the reign of Joash). Archaeologically speaking, it would appear that Omri is the founder of the Israelite Kingdom, but problems persist since he is not the first king of Israel to appear in sources; Ahab is. However, dating complications (arising from the fact that if he followed Ahab he would be given less than three years to rule, far too short for a king that was as powerful and influential as Omri) make it easier to put Omri first in Israel's line of kings, although this by no means firmly establishes that he was the first king of Israel according to these sources. The stele as photographed circa 1891 The Mesha Stele (popularized in the 19th century as the Moabite Stone) is a black basalt stone, bearing an inscription by the 9th century BC Moabite King Mesha, discovered in 1868. ... Jehoash (Jehovah-given), was the name of two kings mentioned in the Bible: Jehoash of Judah, king of Judah, Jehoash of Israel, king of Israel. ...


Attitude in contemporary Israel

The Bible displays a negative attitude to King Omri, and it has been followed by later rabbinical tradition. However, Zionism was created mainly by non-religious (sometimes anti-religious) people who re-evaluated many Biblical characters (as well as characters from later Jewish history) according to the criteria of a secular national movement in need of National Heroes. As with many European national movements which served as an example to the founders of Zionism, ancient Jewish warriors in general and warrior kings in particular were often regarded positively. Omri, a successful warrior king and the founder of a strong dynasty, is a conspicuous example. Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is...


In the present-day Israeli society, "Omri" is quite a common male name, which would have been unthinkable in a traditional Jewish milieu. (The same is true for the name "Nimrod", another Biblical character negatively regarded by pre-Zionist Jewish tradition.) Omri Sharon, the elder son (and close political associate) of former PM Ariel Sharon seems the most well-known among present bearers of the name. Omri Katz is an Israeli-American actor, born in Los Angeles to Israeli parents. Look up Nimrod in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Omri Sharon (Hebrew: עמרי שרון, born August 8, 1964) is the son of former Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon and a former member of the Likud party in the Israeli Knesset. ...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ... Omri Katz is an American actor, born and raised in Los Angeles, California, USA, in 1976. ...


See also

  • History of ancient Israel and Judah
  • Omrides

The History of Ancient Israel and Judah provides an overview of the ancient history of the Land of Israel based on classical sources including the Judaisms Tanakh or Hebrew Bible (known to Christianity as the Old Testament), the Talmud, the Ethiopian Kebra Nagast, the writings of Nicolaus of Damascus... The term Omrides refers to Omri and his descendants (particularly Ahab), who were, according to the bible, as well as a number of other archaeological remains, kings of ancient Israel. ...

External links

  • Smith's Bible Dictionary: Omri
Omri of Israel
House of Omri
Preceded by
Zimri
King of Israel
Albright: 876 BC – 869 BC
Thiele: 885 BC – 874 BC
Galil: 884 BC – 873 BC
Succeeded by
Ahab

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