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An ombudsman (English plural: ombudsmans or ombudsmen) is an official, usually (but not always) appointed by the government or by parliament, who is charged with representing the interests of the public by investigating and addressing complaints reported by individual citizens. In some jurisdictions, the Ombudsman is referred to, at least officially, as the 'Parliamentary Commissioner' (e.g., the West Australian state Ombudsman). The word ombudsman and its specific meaning, Swedish in origin, have since been adopted in to English as well as other languages, and ombudsmen have been instituted by other governments and organizations such as the European Union. Ombudsman was a Canadian television programme which sought to investigate and resolve disputes between people and government or business systems. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Motto: Cygnis Insignis (Distinguished by its swans) Nickname: Wildflower State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Governor Premier Const. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

An ombudsman need not be appointed by government; they may work for a corporation, a newspaper, an NGO, or even for the general public. In some countries, an Inspector General may be the same as or have overlapping duties with a government-appointed ombudsman. NGO redirects here. ... Inspector General is a fact finding officer whose responsibility is to investigate charges of corruption, fraud, waste and abuse and other complaints regarding government officials. ...


Origins and etymology

The origin of the word is found in Old Swedish umbuðsmann (accusative) and the word umbuds man, meaning representative. The first preserved use is in Swedish. From 1552, it is also used in the other Scandinavian languages such as the Icelandic "umboðsmaður", the Norwegian "ombudsmann" and the Danish "ombudsman". Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ... The accusative case (abbreviated ACC) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. ...

The modern use of the term began in Sweden, with the Swedish Parliamentary Ombudsman instituted in 1809, to safeguard the rights of citizens by establishing a supervisory agency independent of the executive branch. The Parliamentary Ombudsman (Riksdagens ombudsman) of Sweden. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... The executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state. ...

A prototype of modern ombudsmen flourished in China during the Qin Dynasty (221 BC), and in Korea during the Joseon Dynasty.[citation needed] The Romans also grappled with the problem, but it was the example of the second Muslim Caliph, Umar (634-644) and the concept of Qadi al-Qadat (developed in the Muslim world), which influenced the Swedish King, Charles XII. In 1713, fresh from self-exile in Turkey, Charles XII created the Office of Supreme Ombudsman, which soon became the Chancellor of Justice. A parallel institution, the Parliamentary Ombudsman, was later established by the Riksdag, and it was this that the Scandinavian countries subsequently molded into its contemporary form. Qin Dynasty in 210 BC Capital Xianyang Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism Government Monarchy History  - Unification of China 221 BC  - Death of Qin Shi Huangdi 210 BC  - Surrender to Liu Bang 206 BC The Qin Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Chao) (221 BC - 206 BC) was preceded... This article is about the Korean peninsula and civilization. ... Joseon redirects here. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Umar (disambiguation). ... Qadi (قاضى) is an Arabic term meaning judge. ... Carl XII, Karl XII or Carolus Rex, (June 17, 1682 – November 30, 1718), the Alexander of the North, nicknamed in Turkish as DemirbaÅŸ Åžarl (Charles the Habitué), was King of Sweden from 1697 until his death in 1718. ... The Chancellor of Justice (Justitiekanslern) is a government official charged with representing the Swedish government in various legal matters. ... The Parliamentary Ombudsman (Riksdagens ombudsman) of Sweden. ... The parliament building from outside. ...

Although the word is, historically, gender-neutral[citation needed], some writers have replaced ombudsman in speech and writing with "ombuds officer", "ombudsperson", or just "ombuds", or, in cases where the person in question is a woman, "ombudswoman".[citation needed]

Ombudsman in politics

In most contexts, "ombudsman" refers to a state official appointed to provide a check on government activity in the interests of the citizen, and to oversee the investigation of complaints of improper government activity against the citizen. If the ombudsman finds a complaint to be substantiated, a report is published to that effect. Further redress depends on the laws of the country concerned, but normally involves financial compensation. Ombudsmen do not, however, tend to have the power to initiate legal proceedings or prosecution on the grounds of a complaint. This role is sometimes referred to as a 'tribunitian' role, and has been traditionally fuflilled by elected representatives (The term refers to the ancient Roman 'tribunes of the people' (tribuni plebis), whose role was in theory similar to that of a modern ombudsman). Ordinary Magistrates Extraordinary Magistrates Titles and Honors Emperor Politics and Law Tribune (from the Latin: tribunus; Greek form tribounos) was a title shared by 2-3 elected magistracies and other governmental and/or (para)military offices of the Roman Republic and Empire. ...

In the UK, the office of the Parliamentary Commissioner for Administration was created in 1967, covering the activities of central government departments. A separate (National) Health Service ombudsman was subsequently created, but this has to date always been the same person and the two offices are combined. The Local Government Ombudsman (formally the Commission for Local Government Administration - there are three Commissioners) for England and Wales was created in 1973, and for Scotland in 1974; since then, a variety of other public and private sector-specific ombudsmen have been created. Critics claim that the Ombudsmen appear independent while actually being recruited from the ranks of officials and their function tends to entail little more than rubber stamping for official decisions. Use of the ombudsman schemes is becoming increasingly common, although citizens will often pursue grievances against government through their local MP, or else through another MP or the courts. The Parliamentary and Health Service Ombudsman, also known as the Parliamentary Commissioner for Administration (PCA), is the official ombudsman institution responsible for invesigating complaints regarding governmental departments, agencies and some other public bodies in the United Kingdom, and the National Health Service (NHS) in England, have not acted properly or... The Commission for Local Administration in England (The Local Government Ombudsmen) is a United Kingdom governmental institution which has the power to investigate complaints about councils (and certain other bodies) in England. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ...

In the US, there are ombudsmen at the federal level such as the Department of Homeland Security Citizenship & Immigration Services Ombudsman [3], as well as some limited use of the system in some states.

In Canada the office of the ombudsman is present in all departments of the federal government,in many provincial and municipal governments as well as in Crown Corporations such as CBC. In Commonwealth countries a Crown corporation is a state-controlled company or enterprise (a public corporation). ... The Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), a Canadian crown corporation, is the country’s national public radio and television broadcaster. ...

In the Republic of China, the role of the Control Yuan is comparable to that of an ombudsman. For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... The Control Yuan building The Control Yuan main entrance The Control Yuan (監察院; pinyin: Jiānchá Yùan), one of five branches of the Republic of China government in Taipei, is a watchdog agency that monitors (controls) the government. ...

The major advantage of an ombudsman is that he or she examines complaints from the outside of the state institutions that are being complained about. However, the system relies heavily on the selection of an appropriate individual for the office, and on the cooperation of at least some members of the state itself. Perhaps for this reason, outside Scandinavia, the introduction of ombudsmen has tended to produce somewhat less impressive results than initially hoped.

Organizational ombudsman

Many private companies, universities and government agencies also have an ombudsman (or an ombudsman department) which serve internal employees or other constituencies. These ombudsman roles are structured to function independently, by reporting to the board of directors, and do not serve any other role in the organization. Organizational ombudsmen are sometimes called "ombuds" or "ombuds officers" or "ombudsperson" or "ombud". They are beginning to appear around the world within organizations, sometimes as an alternative to anonymous hot lines, in countries where the latter are illegal or considered inappropriate. An Organizational Ombudsman works as a high-level internal employee within a corporation, university, government agency or other entity as an independent, confidential, neutral and informal resource for all employees and managers. ...

Recently, since the 1960s, the profession has grown in the United States, particularly in corporations, universities and government agencies. This current model, sometimes referred to as an organizational ombudsman, works as a designated neutral party, one who is high ranking in an organization, but who is not considered management. Using an alternative dispute resolution (ADR) sensibility, an organizational ombudsman can provide options to whistleblowers or employees with ethics concerns, provide mediation for conflicts, track problem areas, and make recommendations for changes to policies or procedures in support of orderly systems change. One particularly important function is to pick up "new things" -- that is, issues new to the organization. This is particularly important if the "new thing" is "disruptive" in the sense of requiring the organization to review and possibly improve its policies, procedures and/or structures. An Organizational Ombudsman works as a high-level internal employee within a corporation, university, government agency or other entity as an independent, confidential, neutral and informal resource for all employees and managers. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A whistleblower is an employee, former employee, or member of an organization, especially a business or government agency, who reports misconduct to people or entities that have the power and presumed willingness to take corrective action. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... For statistical mediation, see Mediation (Statistics). ...

An organizational ombudsman who is holding to "standards of practice" in the US is neutral and visibly outside ordinary line and staff structures. An organizational ombudsman will practice informally (with no management decisionmaking power, and without accepting "notice" for the organization). An organizational ombudsman typically keeps no case records for an employer and keeps near absolute confidentiality. The only exception is where there appears to be an imminent risk of serious harm, and an ombudsman can see no responsible option other than breaking confidence -- but organizational ombuds programs report that they can almost always find "other responsible options", such as helping a visitor to make an anonymous report about whatever appears to be the problem.

News ombudsman

Newspaper and media ombudsman offices are especially valuable for promoting journalistic integrity on behalf of readers, viewers and listeners. There is an international Organization of News Ombudsmen. The position of the public editor is paradoxical, as they are generally employees of the newspaper. However as a valuable symbol of a high standard of journalism ethics for a newspaper, the firing of a public editor over any criticisms they might have would contradict their purpose. The press in Sweden is self-regulated through the Public Press Ombudsman (Allmänhetens Pressombudsman) and the Swedish Press Council (Pressens Opinionsnämnd). For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ... // The Organization of New Ombudsman Or ONO for short, is a nonprofit corporation that was formed in 1980. ... Journalism ethics or journalistic ethics refers to a set of rules or morals adopted by news organizations or members of the news media. ...

Legislative/Classical ombudsman


Governmental ombudsmen: The Parliamentary Ombudsman (Riksdagens ombudsman) of Sweden. ...

  • Swedish Ombudsman for Equal Opportunities, or Jämställdhetsombudsmannen (JämO). Monitors issues relating to gender equality and since 1st of March 2002, equal treatment of students at universities.
  • Swedish Ombudsman for Children, or Barnombudsmannen. Observes matters affecting the rights and interests of children and young people.
  • Swedish Disability Ombudsman, or Handikappombudsmannen. Monitors issues relating to the rights and interests of persons with disabilities.
  • Swedish Ombudsman against Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation, or Ombudsmannen mot diskriminering på grund av sexuell läggning
  • Swedish Ombudsman against Ethnic Discrimination, or Ombudsmannen mot etnisk diskriminering

Further, the Director-General of the Swedish Consumer Agency is also designated Consumer Ombudsman, and the Chancellor of Justice is an ombudsman of sorts. The Swedish Ombudsman against Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation (Ombudsmannen mot diskriminering på grund av sexuell läggning), normally referred to as HomO, is the Swedish office of the ombudsman against discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation. ... Swedish Consumer Agency (Konsumentverket) is a Swedish government agency that answers to the Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Consumer Affairs. ... The Chancellor of Justice (Justitiekanslern) is a government official charged with representing the Swedish government in various legal matters. ...

The word Ombudsman is the same in Swedish, or rather is Swedish.


The Commonwealth Ombudsman in Australia was established in 1976. The Ombudsman can investigate complaints about the actions and decisions of Australian Government departments and agencies, the services delivered by most private contractors for the Australian Government, and oversee complaint investigations conducted by the Australian Federal Police.

The Ombudsman can also investigate complaints about delays in processing Freedom of Information requests (FOI) and complaints about FOI charges. The Commonwealth Ombudsman is also the Defence Force Ombudsman, Immigration Ombudsman, Postal Industry Ombudsman, Taxation Ombudsman, Law Enforcement Ombudsman and through an arrangement with the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) Government, the ACT Ombudsman.

The current Commonwealth Ombudsman is Prof. John McMillan.

The various states in Australia have (variously described) state Ombudsman offices also, with similar jurisdiction as described above, except over state government authorities. There is much collaboration in an academic sense between Ombudsmen in Australia, given the highly similar nature of their roles (despite differing jurisdictions). The offices frequently work on joint projects, such as those addressing difficult client behaviour.


The institution of the Ombudsman in Bulgaria was established by law in 1998 but the first Ombudsman was elected in April 2005. There is a national ombudsman (Граждански защитник) and regional ombudsmen (Граждански посредници).


The Croatian Ombudsman is known as Pučki pravobranitelj, and was established by the Croatian Constitution in 1990. The Ombudsman is appointed by the Parliament, and has the task of ensuring that all government departments and officials follow the law. Current Constitution of the Republic of Croatia was adopted by the Parliament of the Republic of Croatia on December 22, 1990. ...

There are also special ombudsmen for gender equality and ombudsmen for children, since 2003.

Czech Republic

The Czech Ombudsman is known as Veřejný ochránce práv (Public Defender of Rights).


The Cypriot Obudsman is known as Commissioner for Administration , is an Independent Authority and was established οn 15 March 1991. Currently, the Ombudswoman (Commissioner for Administration) is Eliana Nicolaou. [4] is the 74th day of the year (75th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


  • The Parliamentary Ombudsman (Folketingets Ombudsmand) was established in 1955. He investigates complaints brought by an individual or ex officio in all matters relating to public governance, including maladministration by central or local authorities, on a case-by-case basis and on a general scale. His main areas of expertise include administrative law; constitutional law; the rights of inmates in correction facilities; and access to information. He is appointed by the Danish Parliament (Folketing).
  • The Consumer Ombudsman (Forbrugerombudsmanden) was established in 1974. His role is to ensure that the consumer protection and marketing rules are complied with by private undertakings, and can thus ultimately institute legal proceedings before the Copenhagen Maritime and Commercial Court.
  • The highest representative of the Danish government in Greenland is called the Royal Ombudsman (Rigsombudsmanden) since 1979.

Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... This page includes English translations of several Latin phrases and abbreviations such as . ... Administrative law in the United States often relates to, or arises from, so-called independent agencies- such as the Federal Trade Commission (FTC). Here is FTCs headquarters in Washington D.C. Administrative law (or regulatory law) is the body of law that arises from the activities of administrative agencies... The French Declaration of the Rights of the Man and of the Citizen, whose principles still have constitutional value Constitutional law is the study of foundational or basic laws of nation states and other political organizations. ... Thomas Jefferson said that Information is the currency of democracy. ... The Folketing [], or Folketinget, is the national parliament of Denmark. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


The Estonian ombudsman is known as Õiguskantsler (Chancellor of Justice [5]). The Chancellor of Justice (Justitiekanslern) is a government official charged with representing the Swedish government in various legal matters. ...

European Union

The European Ombudsman was established by the Maastricht treaty, the treaty establishing the European Union. The current European Ombudsman, holding office since April 1, 2003, is Nikiforos Diamandouros, former national ombudsman of Greece. The European Union Ombudsman investigates claims by companies which reside or have their interests within the European Union against incidents of bad administration by bodies or institutions of the European Union. The European Ombudsman (or sometimes Euro-Ombudsman) is an ombudsman for the European Union. ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nikiforos P. Diamandouros (Greek: Νικηφόρος Π. Διαμαντούρος) (born June 25, 1942 in Athens) is a Greek academic and since 2003 the European Ombudsman. ...


In France, since 1973, there is an Government appointed Ombudsman, the "Médiateur de la République". Currently Jean-Paul Delevoye is holding the office, for a single term that will elapse in 2010.


In Finland the office of Parliamentary Ombudsman,[1] modelled after the Swedish Ombudsman, was established by the Constitution of 1919. The Ombudsman is appointed by the Parliament, and has the task of ensuring that all government departments and officials follow the law. The Parliamentary Ombudsman shares many duties with the Chancellor of Justice. The Ombudsman has wide ranging oversight and investigative powers. She or he has access to all government facilities, documents and information systems and can order a police investigation if necessary. If the Ombudsman determines that a government official has not acted in accordance with the law she or he can advice on the proper application of the law, reprimand the official or in the extreme case order the criminal prosecution of the official. Partly because of the prosecutorial powers the Ombudsman enjoys considerable respect and her or his legal opinions are usually strictly followed. Her or his legal interpretations carry a lot of weight in the absence of a court precedent. The Parliamentary Ombudsman (Riksdagens ombudsman) of Sweden. ... The Chancellor of Justice (Justitiekanslern) is a government official charged with representing the Swedish government in various legal matters. ...

There are also special ombudsmen for gender equality, children's welfare, rights of ethnic minorities, data protection, and consumer protection, operating under the auspices of various ministries and other government agencies. Also, every health care provider in Finland is legally obliged to have a patients' rights ombudsman.


Georgia's official ombudsman, or the "Public Defender", is Sozar Subari. Sozar Subari - Public Defender (Ombudsman) of Georgia. ...


The Greek Ombudsman is called the Citizen's Advocate and is an Independent Authority. Currently, the Citizen's Advocate is Professor Georgios Kaminis. The Advocate is assisted by five Assistant Advocates, who coordinate the activities of the Advocate's office in the five "theme circles" (areas) in which the office has authority: i) civil rights, ii) social protection, iii) quality of life, iv) state-citizen relationships and v) children's rights. Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... The well-being or quality of life of a population is an important concern in economics and political science. ... The childrens rights movement was born in the 1800s with the orphan train. ...

Hong Kong

The Office of The Ombudsman, Hong Kong is an independent statutory authority, established in 1989 under the Ombudsman Ordinance, to redress grievances arising from maladministration in the public sector through independent and impartial investigations to improve the standard of public administration. Resources: Office of The Ombudsman, Hong Kong


The post of umboðsmaður Alþingis was set up in 1987 under the terms of law number 13/1987, which deals with complaints against the government. His authority was expanded to local government levels in the 1997 law number 85/1997. The Ombudsman is appointed by Alþingi. Umboðsmaður Alþingis is appointed by the Alþingi to oversee investigation of complaints against government departments and local governments. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The Althing (Modern Icelandic Alþingi; Old Norse Alþing) is the national parliament: literally, the all-thing (or General Assembly) of Iceland. ...


The Governing Body of Insurance Council (GBIC) has been set-up under Redressal of Public Grievances Rules 1998, to look after the functioning of Insurance Ombudsman popularly known as Bima Lokpal established all over India.

The Reserve Bank of India revised Banking Ombudsman Scheme with enlarged scope to include customer complaints on certain new areas, such as, credit card complaints, deficiencies in providing the promised services even by banks' sales agents, levying service charges without prior notice to the customer and non adherence to the fair practices code as adopted by individual banks. Applicable to all commercial banks, regional rural banks and scheduled primary cooperative banks having business in India, the revised scheme has come into effect on January 1, 2006. Banking Ombudsman is a quasi judicial authority functioning under India’s Banking Ombudsman Scheme 2006, and the authority was created pursuant to the a decision by the Government of India to enable resolution of complaints of customers of banks relating to certain services rendered by the banks. ...

Similarly Ombudsman for Securities also established. The Government is contemplating establishing the Ombudsman for Indirect as well as direct Taxes of the Union.

The Insurance Regulation Development Authority has Ombudsman scheme to take care the interests of the Insurer.


The Office of Ombudsman was set up under the terms of the Ombudsman Act, 1980. The Ombudsman is appointed by the President of Ireland upon the nomination of both Houses of the Oireachtas, and is a civil servant of the State. The Ombudsman deals with complaints against Departments of State, local authorities, health boards and An Post. Official Seal of the President of Ireland The President of Ireland (Irish: ) [uːəxt̪ˠəɾaːn̪ˠ n̪ˠə heːɼən̪ˠ] is the head of state of the Republic of Ireland. ... The Houses of the Oireachtas is the official and constitutionally correct name for the two Houses of Parliament of Ireland - Dáil Éireann (House of Representatives) and Seanad Éireann (The Senate). ... The civil service (an stát-sheirbhís in Irish) of the Republic of Ireland consists of two broad components, the Civil Service of the Government and the Civil Service of the State. ... The Irish Government contains a number of departments or ministries, known in the Republic of Ireland as a Department of State (Roinn Stáit in Irish). ... Local government in the Republic of Ireland is governed by the Local Government Acts, the most recent of which (Local Government Act 2001) established a two-tier structure of local government. ... The Health Board system of the Republic of Ireland was created by the Health Act, 1970. ... The An Post logo An Post (English literal translation: The Post, English official title: The Post Office) is the State-owned provider of postal services in Ireland. ...

There are other ombudsmen established in the Republic. The first Pensions Ombudsman, Paul Kenny, was appointed in 2003. Emily Logan became Ireland’s first Ombudsman for Children in March 2004. The Financial Services Ombudsman incorporated the older offices of the Insurance Ombudsman and Ombudsman for Credit Institutions in 2005. Also established in 2005 was the Office of the Ombudsman for the Defence Forces, the first holder being Paulyn Marrinan Quinn, formerly an Insurance Ombudsman. An Act of 2005 created a three-person tribunal, the Garda Síochána Ombudsman Commission Garda_Siochana#Garda_Ombudsman_Commission,to investigate complaints about the country's police force. All these offices are statutory and their holders are public servants. The creation of a (non-statutory) Press Ombudsman was announced in August 2007. Anthem The Soldiers Song Republic of Ireland() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() Capital (and largest city) Dublin Official languages Irish, English Demonym Irish Government Republic and Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Mary McAleese  -  Taoiseach Bertie Ahern, TD Independence from the United Kingdom   -  Declared 24 April 1916   -  Ratified 21... A male Caucasian toddler child A child (plural: children) is a young human. ... Financial services is a term used to refer to the services provided by the finance industry. ... Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ... “Banker” redirects here. ... A member of the motorcycle unit of the Garda Síochána. ...


The State Comptroller of Israel also serves, by law, as Ombudsman. She or he discharges this function by way of a special unit in the Office of the State Comptroller, known as the Office of the Ombudsman. The Ombudsman investigates complaints against bodies that are statutorily subject to audit by the State Comptroller, including government ministries, local authorities, state enterprises and institutions and government companies, as well as their employees. For other uses, see Audit (disambiguation). ...


In Italy there isn't an ombudsman at national level whereas many units of sub-national government (regions, provinces and communes) have their ombudsman, known as difensore civico, elected by regional, provincial or communal council. Look up Region in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... In Italy, the comune, (plural comuni) is the basic administrative unit of both provinces and regions, and may be properly approximated in casual speech by the English word township or municipality. ...


Since 2007, Latvian ombudsman is a personalized institution literally called Rights' Defender (Tiesībsargs). Previously, similar functions were carried by National Human Rights Office (1995—2006).


Since 1997 Macedonia has an Ombudsman Institution named Naroden pravobranitel for protection of citizens rights. The Ombudsman is appointed by the Parliament. Work of his competence the Ombudsman performs on the base and in the frame of the Constitution and the Law on the Ombudsman.

Netherlands, The

The idea of ombudsman was introduced in the Netherlands by VARA-presentator Tom Pauka, after a holiday in Sweden in 1969. A television program was started with the name De Ombudsman. Today the Constitution of the Netherlands determines that there is a National Ombudsman, a state institution. The present constitution of the Netherlands dates back to 1815. ...

New Zealand

The post of Ombudsman was established in New Zealand in 1962, with the aegis of investigation of complaints against government departments. In 1975 the post was expanded, with a Chief Ombudsman and several (number unspecified) of other ombudsmen. New Zealand also has a Banking Ombudsman; however, this a non-government industry group. The Ombudsman has a very high level of power in New Zealand, and it is either a very brave - or very foolish - government department who attempts to flout an Ombudsman's rulings. New Zealands Chief Ombudsman is appointed by the Governor-General of New Zealand to oversee investigation of complaints against government departments, and report, with recommendations, to parliament. ...


  • The Equality and Anti-Discrimination Ombud in Norway (Likestillings- og diskrimineringsombudet) was established in 1978 as the Gender Equality Ombud (Likestillingsombudet), the first of its kind in the world. In 2006, the Ombud was reorganised to include discrimination in general. The Ombud's task is to enforce the Norwegian Gender Equality Act and the act relating to prohibition of discrimination on the basis of ethnicity, national origin, ancestry, skin colour, language, religious and ethical orientation (Discrimination Act). The Ombud shall also enforce the anti-discrimination regulations in the Working Environment Act. The mandate of the Ombud also include to actively promote equality for discriminated groups, and to develop new knowledge through documentation and monitoring.
  • The Parliamentary Ombudsman for Public Administration (Sivilombudsmannen) investigates complaints from citizens or may take up issues on own initiative complaints from citizens concerning injustice or maladministration from central government or local authorities.
  • Ombudsman for Children in Norway (Barneombudet) has statutory rights to protect children and their rights. Since 1981, the Ombudsman for Children in Norway has worked continuously to improve national and international legislation affecting children's welfare. Norway was the first country in the world to establish an ombudsman for children.
  • Norwegian Consumer Ombudsman (Forbrukerombudet) shall, in the interests of consumers, seek to prevent market abuses in conflict with the provisions stipulated in or pursuant to The Norwegian Marketing Control Act. The Consumer Ombudsman shall, acting on his own initiative or on the basis of communications from others, urge all businesspersons to conduct their activities in accordance with the provisions of the Marketing Control Act. The Consumer Ombudsman shall also ensure that the terms and conditions are not used in any way that may harm consumers and shall contribute to this end through negotiations with businesspersons or their organisations. The Consumer Ombudsman has received a lot of attention internationally since it has ruled that the iTunes music store's contract terms violates Norwegian consumer and marketing law.[2]
  • Local and regional authorities often have ombudsmen. Examples of this are ombudsmen for health and social affairs, ombudsmen for the elderly and ombudsmen for school students and apprentices at the upper secondary level. [3]

Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into ITunes. ...


In Pakistan, the establishment of the institution of Ombudsman was advocated on several occasions. It was, however, Article 276 of the Interim Constitution of 1972, which for the first time provided for the appointment of a Federal Ombudsman as well as Provincial Ombudsmen. Subsequently, the Constitution of 1973 included the Federal Ombudsman at item 13 of the Federal Legislative List in the Fourth Schedule. The Institution of Ombudsman was, however, actually brought into being through the Establishment of the Office of Wafaqi Mohtasib (Ombudsman) Order, 1983 (President’s Order No. 1 of 1983), which is now a part of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan by virtue of Article 270-A. It started functioning on 8th August, 1983.

The Ombudsman in Pakistan is called "Wafaqi Mohtasib", (English: "Federal Ombudsman") with its headquarters in Islamabad and Regional Offices in Lahore, Sukkur, Quetta, Faisalabad, Multan, Dera Ismail Khan, Peshawar and Karachi. The official website of Ombudsman in Pakistan is http://www.mohtasib.gov.pk


The Office of the Ombudsman of the Philippines is empowered by the 1987 Saligang Batas ng Pilipinas to safeguard the government and government-related institutions and corporations from corruption and dispense justice in the case of such offenses. The Philippine Ombudsman is an ombudsman responsible for investigating and prosecuting government officials in the Philippines who are allegedly guilty of crimes. ... Judiciary Supreme Court Chief Justice Reynato Puno Court of Appeals · Sandiganbayan Court of Tax Appeals · Ombudsman Elections Commission on Elections Chairman: Resurreccion Z. Borra 2013 | 2010 | 2007 | 2004 | 2001 | 1998 1995 | 1992 | 1987 | 1986 | All Foreign relations Government Website Human rights Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      The Constitution of the...


The Polish Ombudsman is called the Rzecznik Praw Obywatelskich. List of the Polish Ombudsmen: Ewa Łętowska - November 19, 1987 - February 12, 1992 Tadeusz Zieliński - February 13, 1992 - May 7, 1996 Adam Zieliński - May 8, 1996 - June 29, 2000 Andrzej Zoll - from June 30, 2000 Official site Categories: Poland-related stubs | Politics of Poland ...


The Portuguese Ombudsman is called the Provedor de Justiça (Justice Provider), and its role is defined in article 23 of the Constitution of Portugal: This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

1. Citizens may submit complaints against actions or omissions by the public authorities to the Ombudsman, who shall assess them without the power to take decisions and shall send the competent bodies such recommendations as may be necessary in order to prevent or make good any injustices.

2. The Ombudsman’s work shall be independent of any acts of grace or legal remedies provided for in this Constitution or the law.

3. The Ombudsman’s office shall be an independent body and the Assembly of the Republic shall appoint the Ombudsman for such time as the law may determine. São Bento Palace, home of the Portuguese Parliament. ...

4. The bodies and agents of the Public Administration shall cooperate with the Ombudsman in the fulfilment of his mission.

Besides the traditional roles, there are two toll-free lines: one for children and one for senior citizens. A toll-free, Freecall, Freephone, or 800 number is a special telephone number, in that the called party is charged the cost of the calls by the telephone carrier, instead of the calling party. ... Paul Kruger in his old age. ...

External links


The Romanian Ombudsman is known as Avocatul Poporului, meaning People's Advocate. The Romanian Ombudsman (Avocatul Poporului in Romanian, literally meaning Peoples Advocate) is an independent institution of the Government of Romania, responsible for investigating and addressing complaints made by citizens against other government institutions. ...


Russian ombudsman position is called "human rights commissioner". This chair is currently held by Vladimir Lukin. Russian liberal political activist and ex-member of Duma. ...

South Africa

The Public Protector is an office (State Institutions Supporting Constitutional Democracy or constitutional institution) of the Republic of South Africa, set up by Articles 181 and 182 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa. ...


The Spanish laws translate "ombudsman" as defensor del pueblo ("People's defender"). The Spanish Defensor can start processes at the Constitutional Court. There is a general Defensor del Pueblo for issues with the Spanish administration, and regional ones for the autonomous communities of Spain, for instance: The Constitutional Court of Spain (Spanish: Tribunal Constitucional de España) is the highest judicial body with the power to determine the constitutionality of acts and statutes of the Spanish Government. ... Autonomous communities of Spain. ...

Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Pays Basque) see Northern Basque Country. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... This article is about the Spanish autonomous community. ... Capital Valencia Official languages Valencian (Catalan) and Castilian (Spanish) Area  â€“ total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 8th  23,255 km²  4. ... For other uses, see Andalusia (disambiguation). ... Capital Valladolid Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 1st  94,223 km²  18,6% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 6th  2,510,849  5. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ...


Office of ombudsman in Ukraine was instituted in 1998. Since then it is held by Nina Karpachova, who was reelected for the office 3 times. The last reelection date was February 8, 2007. Ukrainian's ombudsman official site: http://ombudsman.kiev.ua/ Nina Karpachova (born 12 August 1957) is a Ukrainian lawyer and politician. ...

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom a post of Ombudsman is attached to the Westminster Parliament with additional posts at the Scottish Parliament, the Welsh Assembly and other government institutions. The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... For the national legislative body up to 1707, see Parliament of Scotland. ... The National Assembly for Wales (or NAW) (Welsh: Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) was established in 1998, following a 1997 referendum in which a small majority of voters (but not the electorate) voted in favour of the Labour Governments plans for devolution. ...

About UK Ombudsman Services

The primary UK Ombudsman is known as the Parliamentary and Health Service Ombudsman, also known as the Parliamentary Commissioner for Administration (PCA), which looks into complaints "that government departments, their agencies and some other public bodies in the UK - and the NHS in England - have not acted properly or fairly or have provided a poor service." The UK Ombudsman will usually investigate complaints where there has been evidence of "maladministration" having occurred which has resulted in an "unremedied injustice". Complaints to the Ombudsman are subject to a "time bar" - this means that the Ombudsman may determine a complaint to be out of jurisdiction if too much time has passed between the event or course of events being complained about and the complaint being received by the Ombudsman. The Parliamentary and Health Service Ombudsman, also known as the Parliamentary Commissioner for Administration (PCA), is the official ombudsman institution responsible for invesigating complaints regarding governmental departments, agencies and some other public bodies in the United Kingdom, and the National Health Service (NHS) in England, have not acted properly or... “NHS” redirects here. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...

List of all Ombudsman Services in the United Kingdom

  • Energywatch
  • Estate Agents Ombudsman
  • Financial Ombudsman Service
  • Financial Services Ombudsman Scheme for the Isle of Man
  • Health Service Ombudsman - England (Ombudsman)
  • Housing Ombudsman Service (HOS)
  • Independent Police Complaints Commission
  • Legal Services Ombudsman
  • Local Government Ombudsman - England
  • Northern Ireland Ombudsman
  • Northern Ireland Police Ombudsman
  • Parliamentary Ombudsman (Ombudsman)
  • Pensions Ombudsman [http://www.pensions-ombudsman.org.uk (Pensions Ombudsman)
  • Prisons and Probition Ombudsman
  • Public Services Ombudsman for Wales
  • Removals Industry Ombudsman Scheme
  • Scottish Legal Services Ombudsman
  • Scottish Public Services Ombudsman
  • Telecommunications Ombudsman (OTELO)


The impartiality of some UK Ombudsman services has been questioned. In particular the Local Government Ombudsman - all three current Local Ombudsmen previously served as Chief Executives in Local Government and the Local Government Association played a part in their appointment - have been accused of bias and of merely acting as a rubber stamp. [6] The Commission for Local Administration in England (The Local Government Ombudsmen) is a United Kingdom governmental institution which has the power to investigate complaints about councils (and certain other bodies) in England. ...

United States

Department of Homeland Security Citizenship and Immigration Services Ombudsman

The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Citizenship and Immigration Services Ombudsman (CIS Ombudsman) http://www.dhs.gov/cisombudsman provides recommendations for resolving individual and employer problems with the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). As mandated by the Homeland Security Act of 2002 § 452, The Office of the CIS Ombudsman (CISOMB) is not a part of USCIS, it is an independent DHS office that reports directly to the DHS Deputy Secretary.

The DHS CIS Ombudsman:

(1) Assists individuals and employers in resolving problems with USCIS;

(2) Identifies areas in which individuals and employers have problems in dealing with USCIS; and

(3) Proposes changes to mitigate identified problems.

By June 30 of each calendar year the Ombudsman submits an annual report to the House and Senate Committees on the Judiciary without any prior comment or amendment from any administrative agency official including: the Secretary, Deputy Secretary, or Director of U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services.

The Ombudsman’s annual reports focus on identifying systemic issues that cause delay in granting immigration benefits as well as pervasive and serious problems faced by individuals and employers in their interactions with the U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS).

United States Navy

The US Navy implemented an ombudsman program in 1970, under the direction of Admiral Elmo Zumwalt. Through the Navy Ombudsman Program, communication between the spouses of active duty personnel and the command is kept open, thereby improving the quality of life for everyone involved. The Navy command ombudsman is a volunteer position, with no special favors bestowed upon them. The purpose of this program is to ensure the dependents of active duty personnel have a channel of resources for their needs and quality of life. A command ombudsman can guide you to the help you may need, before, during or after a deployment. The Navy Ombudsman undergoes almost constant training, and is bound by confidentiality in most cases, the exception being any hint of child abuse. An ombudsman meets with department heads aboard a naval installation to find out the latest news, and pass it on, including news on ship deployments, cutting down on potentially harmful gossip. USN redirects here. ... Year 1970 ([[Rf 1970 == January 1 - The Unix epoch begins at 00:00:00 UTC January 2 - The last studio performance of The Beatles oman numerals|MCMLXX]]) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Elmo R. Zumwalt Elmo Russell Zumwalt, Jr. ...

Los Angeles, CA

The Los Angeles County Department of Ombudsman was created via the approval of an ordinance in 1993 by the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors. This department was the first of its kind in the state of California and the first nationally involved in law enforcement oversight.[4] Map of California showing Los Angeles County. ... The Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors is the five member governing board of Los Angeles County. ...

New York City

The New York Public Advocate has an Ombudsman team that investigates and responds to telephone and written complaints/queries regarding city agency services, providing information and referrals. The Public Advocate of New York is an independently elected citywide official, next in line to the Mayor, who is an ombuds[wo]man meant to cut through government red tape. ...

Rhode Island

The Rhode Island Department of Environmental Management employs an ombudsman "charged with authority to undertake independent, and in certain cases confidential, fact-finding in response to external or internal complaints or questions about the Department's performance." The office is currently held by Thomas Getz.[5]

Fictional ombudsmen

In the science fiction television series, Babylon 5, the arbiters aboard space station Babylon 5 who preside over cases stemming from public complaints are referred to as ombuds (this is both the singular and plural designation), the gender-neutral title for an ombudsman. Just as with their modern European counterparts, the ombuds only preside over public cases, including robbery, assault, and murder, and do not interpret law as a regular judiciary does. Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Babylon 5 is an epic American science fiction television series created, produced, and largely written by J. Michael Straczynski. ...

See also

Conflict resolution is any reduction in the severity of a conflict. ...


  1. ^ Finnish Parliamentary Ombudsman
  2. ^ iTunes violates Norwegian law
  3. ^ [1][2]
  4. ^ Los Angeles Department of Ombudsman
  5. ^ RI DEM/Office of the Ombudsman Home Page

External links

  • JPGMOnline.com - 'The role of the ombudsman in biomedical journals', Journal of Postgraduate Medicine, Vol 48, No 4, pp 292-296, 2002
  • OmbudsmanWatch.org - 'Local Government Ombudsman Watch' (United Kingdom)
  • POGO.org - 'EPA Ombudsman Resigns: Accountability in Handling of Superfund Sites Threatened', Project on Government Oversight (April 22, 2002)
  • Transparency.org - 'What is an Ombudsman'
  • DCAF Backgrounder - 'Military Ombudsman, (May 2005)'
  • Ombuds Blog - 'News and Information For and About Organizational Ombuds'
  • Ombudsman Institutions and Minority Issues, Study by the European Centre for Minority Issues

Journal of Postgraduate Medicine (JPGM), a multidisciplinary quarterly biomedical journal, is one of the oldest medical journals from India. ... // Founded in 1981 by Dina Rasor as the Project on Military Procurement, the Project On Government Oversight (POGO) is an independent nonprofit that investigates and exposes corruption and other misconduct to achieve a more honest, open, and accountable federal government. ...

Classical/Legislative ombudsmen

Australian government ombudsmen

  • Ombudsman.gov.au - 'Commonwealth Ombudsman Australia: Assisting the Australian community by resolving complaints and fostering good government administration'
  • Omb-HCSCC.nt.gov.au - 'Ombudsman for the Northern Territory'
  • ombudsman.vic.gov.au - Ombudsman Victoria
  • OmbO.nsw.gov.au - New South Wales Ombudsman
  • Ombudsman.sa.gov.au - The Ombudsman South Australia Office: '[to provide] free, impartial, informal and timely resolution of complaints to promote fairness, openness and good public administration in South Australia'
  • ombudsman/home.html - Tasmanian Ombudsman: investigates complaints regarding public authority administrative action and contravention of state privacy legislation, conducts Freedom of Information reviews in respect of government agencies and can accept public interest disclosures (ie. whistleblowing complaints)and other miscellaneous functions (eg. auditing of police telephone interception warrants).

The Telecommunications Industry Ombudsman is a free and independent alternative dispute resolution scheme for small business and residential consumers in Australia who have a complaint about their telephone or Internet service. Established in 1993 by the Australian Federal Government, the TIO is independent of industry, the government and consumer organisations.

The TIO is authorised to investigate complaints about the provision or supply of telephone or Internet services. (information was supplied by the official website of the TIO)

Brazilian government ombudsmen

  • ouvidoria-policia.sp.gov.br - 'Ouvidoria da polícia do Estado de São Paulo'
  • ouvidoriasds.rn.gov.br - 'Ouvidoria da Secretaria de Defesa Social do estado do Rio Grande do Norte'

Canadian government ombudsmen

  • GNB.ca - 'The New Brunswick Ombudsman's Office': one central mission: to ensure that all New Brunswick citizens are treated with administrative fairness by government and its agencies.
  • HOA.gov.nl.ca - 'Newfoundland and Labrador Citizens' Representative'
  • Gov.ns.ca - 'Nova Scotia Office of the Ombudsman: If you feel you have been treated unfairly by a provincial or municipal government body, or you have a complaint about a Nova Scotia government service...'
  • Ombudsman.bc.ca - 'Ombudsman British Columbia: Promoting Fairness for British Columbians'
  • Ombudsman.mb.ca - 'Ombudsman Manitoba'
  • Ombudsman.on.ca - 'Ombudsman Ontario - Ontario's Watchdog. Mission: to support the need for accontability, transparency and oversight in the provision of government services'
  • ProtecteurduCitoyen.qc.ca - 'Le Protecteur du Citoyen' / 'The Québec's Ombudsman' (English language link)
  • Ombudsman.yk.ca - 'Office of the Yukon Ombudsman and Information & Privacy Commissioner'
  • LegAssembly.sk.ca - 'Ombudsman Saskatchewan'
  • Ombudsman.ab.ca - 'Alberta Ombudsman'
  • [7] - 'Ombudsman for the Department of National Defence and Canadian Forces'

Chilean ombudsman

  • ombudsman.cl - 'Capitulo Chileno Ombudsman' (in Spanish)

Czech government ombudsman

European Parliament ombudsman

  • Ombudsman.europa.eu - 'The European Ombudsman Homepage
  • EuroParl.org.uk - Constitution of the European Union Article III-335 (provisions establishing EU ombudsman)

The European Ombudsman (or sometimes Euro-Ombudsman) is an ombudsman for the European Union. ...

Irish ombudsmen

  • The Office of the Ombudsman
  • The Ombudsman for Children
  • The Financial Services Ombudsman

Israeli ombudsman

  • The Office of the Ombudsman

New Zealand government ombudsmen

New Zealands Chief Ombudsman is appointed by the Governor-General of New Zealand to oversee investigation of complaints against government departments, and report, with recommendations, to parliament. ...

Philippine government ombudsman

The Philippine Ombudsman is an ombudsman responsible for investigating and prosecuting government officials in the Philippines who are allegedly guilty of crimes. ...

Swedish government ombudsmen

  • JO - Justitieombudsmannen (Parliamentary Ombudsmen: The Ombudsmen of Justice)
  • BO - Barnombudsmannen (Ombudsman for Children)
  • DO - Diskrimineringsombudsmannen (Ethnic Discrimination Ombudsman)
  • HomO - Ombudsmannen mot diskriminering på grund av sexuell läggning (Ombudsman against Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation)
  • JämO - Jämställdhetsombudsmannen (Equal Opportunities Ombudsman)
  • Konsumentverket/KO - Konsumentverket/Konsumentombudsmannen (The Swedish Consumer Agency/Consumer Ombudsman)'
  • JK - Justitiekanslern (The Chancellor of Justice)

The Swedish Ombudsman against Discrimination on Grounds of Sexual Orientation (Ombudsmannen mot diskriminering på grund av sexuell läggning), normally referred to as HomO, is the Swedish office of the ombudsman against discrimination on grounds of sexual orientation. ...

Ukrainian government ombudsman

Verkhovna Rada. ...

United Kingdom government ombudsmen

  • Financial-Ombudsman.org.uk - 'The Financial Ombudsman Service: provides consumers with a free, independent service for resolving disputes with financial firms'
  • IHOS.org.uk - 'Housing Ombudsman Service': An independent service dealing with complaints against landlords & agents, and other housing disputes'
  • IPCC.gov.uk - 'Independent Police Complaints Commission'
  • LGO.org.uk - 'Commissioner for Local Administration in England: Local Government Ombudsmen's Home Page'
  • NI-Ombudsman.org.uk - Northern Ireland Ombudsman's Office
  • OLSO.org - 'Office of the Legal Services Ombudsman'
  • Ombudsman.org.uk - 'Parliamentary and Health Service Ombudsman: Making complaints a positive experience
  • Ombudsman.gov.ie - '(Irish) Office of the Ombudsman'
  • Ombudsmanwatch.org 'Local Government Ombudsman complaints body'
  • Ombudsman-Wales.org - 'Public Services Ombudsman for Wales'
  • Pensions-Ombudsman.org.uk - 'The Pensions Ombudsman: investigates and decides complaints and disputes about the way that pension schemes are run'
  • OTelO.org.uk - 'Office of the Telecommunications Ombudsman: We are an Ombudsman Service for public communication providers and their customers'
  • ScottishOmbudsman.org.uk - 'Scottish Public Services Ombudsman'

United States government ombudsmen

  • http://www.dhs.gov/cisombudsman - The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Citizenship and Immigration Services Ombudsman (CIS Ombudsman) provides recommendations for resolving individual and employer problems with the United States Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS).
  • pubadvocate.nyc.gov Although carrying a different official title, the New York Public Advocate is the ombudsman for residents of New York City
  • Ombudmhmr.state.mn.us - 'State of Minnesota Office of the Ombudsman for Mental Health and Developmental Disabilities'
  • Ombudsman.state.hi.us - 'State of Hawaii Office of the Ombudsman: independently and impartially investigates complaints against state and county agencies and employees'
  • http://www.legis.state.ia.us/Ombudsman/ - 'Office of Citizens' Aide Ombudsman, Des Moines, Iowa'
  • azleg.state.az.us/ombudsman/default.htm - 'Arizona's Ombudsman Citizen's Aide'
  • http://www.state.ak.us/local/akpages/LEGISLATURE/ombud/home.htm - 'State of Alaska Ombudsman'
  • http://www.tennessee.gov/tccy/ombuds.html - The Tennessee Commission on Children and Youth's (TCCY) Ombudsman Program was established in 1996. The juvenile justice program serves children who are in the foster care system and kinship care or relative caregiver placement. TCCY has statutory authority to review children in state custody and make recommendations for improvement.

The Public Advocate of New York is an independently elected citywide official, next in line to the Mayor, who is an ombuds[wo]man meant to cut through government red tape. ...

Non-governmental (organizational) ombudsmen

  • Trent Stamp's Take - Commentary on the Red Cross selection for Ombudsman
  • OEA.co.uk - 'Ombudsman for Estate Agents Scheme: A free, fair and independent service for buyers and sellers of residential property in the UK'
  • ESPN - Ombudsman Le Anne Schreiber is the public's representative to ESPN, offering independent examination and analysis of ESPN's media outlets. The former New York Times sports editor and author will critique decision-making, coverage and presentation of news, issues and events on ESPN television and other media. Schreiber will have a two-year tenure and succeeds George Solomon, ESPN's initial Ombudsman.

Ombudsman associations

  • BIOA.org.uk - 'British and Irish Ombudsman Association' (BIOA)
  • NewsOmbudsman.org - 'Organization of News Ombudsmen' (ONO)
  • OmbudsAssociation.org - 'The International Ombudsman Association (IOA)
  • USOmbudsman.org - 'The United States Ombudsman Association: Promoting and supporting fairness, accountability, and equity in government through the public sector ombudsman'
  • UVA.nl - 'The European Network of Ombudsmen in Higher Education' (ENOHE), Universiteit van Amsterdam
  • IOI - International Ombudsman Institute (IOI)
  • EOI - European Ombudsman Institute (EOI)
  • AOA- Asian Ombudsman Association (AOA): Promoting and developing the concepts of Ombudsmanship in Asia'
  • CFO - Coalition of Federal Ombudsman (CFO) - Promoting and Assisting Ombudsman in the United States Government

The University of Amsterdam (UvA) (Dutch: Universiteit van Amsterdam) is a comprehensive research university located in the heart of the city of Amsterdam, the Netherlands. ...

Ombudsman directories

  • UAlberta.ca - International Ombudsman Institute (international directory of ombudsmen)
  • Ombuds Blog - 'Info re Organizational Ombuds (includes lists of corporate, academic, governmental, and non-governmental ombuds offices; ombuds job postings; critical ombuds documents; and resources for creating an ombuds office)'

  Results from FactBites:
Ombudsman Victoria Internet - Home Page (235 words)
The Victorian Ombudsman is a constitutional independent officer of the Victorian Parliament.  The office was established under the Ombudsman Act 1973.
Ombudsman Victoria has an education program which aims to raise the awareness in the Victorian community of the role and jurisdiction of the Ombudsman and to promote good administration in the Victorian public sector.
 Unreasonable complainant conduct: interim practice manual.pdf (1.39MB): a joint project of the Australian Parliamentary Ombudsman prepared to assist staff of government agencies in their interaction with clients whose conduct is challenging.
  More results at FactBites »



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