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Encyclopedia > Olympus Mons
Olympus Mons
Mars Global Surveyor image of Olympus Mons
Location 18° N 133° W
Peak 27km MSL
Discoverer Mariner 9
Naming Latin - Mount Olympus

Olympus Mons (Latin, "Mount Olympus") is the tallest known volcano and mountain in our solar system. It is located on the planet Mars at approximately 18° N 133° W. Before space probes confirmed its identity as a mountain, Olympus Mons was known to astronomers as the albedo feature, Nix Olympica ("Snows of Olympus"); since the late 19th century, however, it had been suspected that it was mountainous.[1] Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... Olympus can refer to: a Japanese optics company: see Olympus company Rolls-Royce Olympus, a jet engine and marine turbine a codename for version 3. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... This article is about the Greek mountain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (692x1448, 852 KB) Olympus Mons on October 19, 1998, image by the Mars Global Surveyor. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station For other uses, see Volcano (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Mountain (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Solar System. ... This article is about the astronomical term. ... Adjectives: Martian Atmosphere Surface pressure: 0. ... Technicians work on the Ulysses space probe. ... An albedo feature is a large area on the surface of a planet (or other solar system body) which shows a contrast in brightness or darkness (albedo) with adjacent areas. ...

Contents

General description

The central edifice stands 27 kilometres (around 16.7 miles/approx. 88,580 ft) high above the mean surface level of Mars[2][3] (about three times the elevation of Mount Everest above sea level and 2.6 times the height of Mauna Kea above its base). It is 550 km (342 miles) in width, flanked by steep cliffs, and has a caldera complex that is 85 km (53 miles) long, 60 km (37 miles) wide, and up to 3 km (1.8 miles) deep with six overlapping pit craters. Its outer edge is defined by an escarpment up to 6 km (4 miles) tall; unique among the shield volcanoes of Mars. To help compare different orders of magnitude this page lists lengths between 10 and 100 km (104 to 105 m). ... Everest redirects here. ... Mauna Kea is a dormant volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five volcanic peaks that together form the island of Hawaii. ... To help compare orders of magnitude; this page lists lengths between 100 and 1,000 km (105 and 106 m). ... Satellite image of Santorini. ... In geology, an escarpment is a transition zone between different physiogeographic provinces that involves an elevation differential, often involving high cliffs. ...


Both the size of Olympus Mons (roughly the size of the US state of Arizona or the whole area of the British Isles) and its shallow slope (2.5 degrees central dome surrounded by 5 degree outer region) mean that a person standing on the surface of Mars would be unable to view the upper profile of the volcano even from a distance as the curvature of the planet and the volcano itself would obscure it. However, one could view parts of Mons: standing on the highest point of its summit, the slope of the volcano would extend beyond the horizon, a mere 3 kilometres away[4]; from the three kilometre elevated caldera rim one could see 80 kilometres to the caldera's other side; from the southeast scarp highpoint (about 5 km elevation[5]) one could look about 180 km southeast; from the northwest scarp highpoint (about 8 km elevation) one could look upslope possibly 240 km and look northeast possibly 230 km. Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... This article describes the archipelago in north-western Europe. ...


An occasional misconception is that the top of Olympus Mons is above the Martian atmosphere. The atmospheric pressure at the top varies between 5 and 8% of the average Martian surface pressure (600 pascals)[6][7]; by comparison the atmospheric pressure at the summit of Mount Everest is about 32% of that at sea level[8]. Even so, airborne Martian dust is still present and high altitude carbon dioxide-ice cloud cover is still possible at the peak of Olympus Mons, though water-ice clouds are not. Although the average Martian surface atmospheric pressure is less than 1% of that seen on Earth, the much lower gravity on Mars allows its atmosphere to extend much higher, as lower gravity increases scale height. Mars, the fourth planet from the Sun, has a very different atmosphere from that of Earth. ... For other uses, see Pascal. ... Everest redirects here. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... For other uses, see Cloud (disambiguation). ... A scale height is a term often used in scientific contexts for a distance over which a quantity decreases by a factor of e. ...


Two of the craters on Olympus Mons have been provisionally assigned names by the IAU. These are the 15.6 km diameter Karzok crater (18°25′N, 131°55′W) and the 10.4 km diameter Pangboche crater (17°10′N, 133°35′W).[9] IAU redirects here. ...


Volcanism

Olympus Mons is a shield volcano, the result of highly fluid lava flowing out of volcanic vents over a long period of time, and is much wider than it is tall; the average slope of Olympus Mons' flanks is very gradual. In 2004 the Mars Express orbiter imaged old lava flows on the flanks of Olympus Mons. Based on crater size and frequency counts, the surface of this western scarp has been dated from 115 million years in age down to a region that is only 2 million years old.[10] This is very recent in geological terms, suggesting that the mountain may yet have some ongoing volcanic activity. Shield volcano A shield volcano is a large volcano with shallow-sloping side. ... Look up lava, Aa, pahoehoe in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Concept model of the Mars Express spacecraft Main Engine Thrust for braking manouevre on Venus Express. ...


The Hawaiian Islands are examples of similar shield volcanoes on a smaller scale (see Mauna Kea). The extraordinary size of Olympus Mons is likely due to the fact that Mars does not have tectonic plates. Thus, the crust remained fixed over a hot spot and the volcano continued to discharge lava, bringing it to such a height. Map of the Hawaiian Islands, a chain of islands that stretches 2,400 km in a northwesterly direction from the southern tip of the Island of Hawaii. ... Mauna Kea is a dormant volcano in the Hawaiian Islands, one of five volcanic peaks that together form the island of Hawaii. ... The tectonic plates of the world were mapped in the second half of the 20th century. ... In geology, a hotspot is a location on the Earths surface that has experienced active volcanism for a long period of time. ...


The caldera at the peak of the volcano was formed after volcanism ceased and the roof of the emptied magma chamber collapsed. During the collapse the surface became extended and formed fractures. Later additional caldera collapses were formed due to subsequent lava production. These overlapped the original circular caldera, giving the edge a less symmetrical appearance.[11] A magma chamber is a chamber typically between 1 km and 10 km beneath the surface of the Earth formed as rising magma forms a reservoir if it is unable to rise any further. ...


Early observations and naming

The mountain, as well as a few other of the volcanoes in the Tharsis region, has sufficient height to reach above the frequent dust storms of Mars, and it was visible from Earth already to 19th century observers. The astronomer Patrick Moore points out that during dust storms, "Schiaparelli had found that his Nodus Gordis and Olympic Snow were almost the only features to be seen. He guessed correctly that they must be high"[12]. But only with the Mariner probes could this be confirmed with certainty. After the Mariner 9 probe had photographed it from orbit in 1972, it became clear that the altitude was much greater than that of any mountain found on Earth, and the name was changed to Olympus Mons. Clouds hover over the volcano peaks of the Tharsis region in this color mosaic image. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Patrick Moore presenting The Sky at Night, October 2005 Sir Alfred Patrick Caldwell-Moore, CBE, HonFRS, FRAS (born 4 March 1923), known as Patrick Moore, is an English amateur astronomer who has attained legendary status in British astronomy as a writer and television presenter of the subject and who... Mariner 9 launch Mariner 9 (Mariner Mars 71 / Mariner-I) was a NASA space probe orbiter that helped in the exploration of Mars and was part of the Mariner program. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Surroundings

Wide view of the Olympus Mons aureole, escarpment and caldera
Wide view of the Olympus Mons aureole, escarpment and caldera
Caldera and pit craters on Olympus Mons
Caldera and pit craters on Olympus Mons

Olympus Mons is located in the Tharsis bulge, a huge swelling in the Martian surface that bears numerous other large volcanic features. Among them are a chain of lesser shield volcanoes including Arsia Mons, Pavonis Mons and Ascraeus Mons, which are small only in comparison to Olympus Mons itself. The land immediately surrounding Olympus Mons is a depression in the bulge 2 km deep. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 643 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1016 × 948 pixels, file size: 207 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image is a mosaic of Olympus Mons. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 643 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1016 × 948 pixels, file size: 207 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This image is a mosaic of Olympus Mons. ... Converted from Olympus_Mons. ... Converted from Olympus_Mons. ... Categories: Stub | Mars ... Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech Arsia Mons is the southernmost of three volcanos (collectively known as Tharsis Montes) on the Tharsis bulge near the equator of the planet Mars. ... Pavonis Mons is the middle of three volcanos (collectively known as Tharsis Montes) on the Tharsis bulge near the equator of the planet Mars. ... Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech Ascraeus Mons is the northernmost of three volcanos (collectively known as Tharsis Montes) on the Tharsis bulge near the equator of the planet Mars. ...


The volcano is surrounded by a region known as the Olympus Mons aureole (Latin, "circle of light") with gigantic ridges and blocks extending 1000 km (600 miles) from the summit that show evidence of development and resurfacing connected with glacial activity. Both the escarpment and the aureole are poorly understood. In one theory this basal cliff was formed by landslides and the aureole consists of material deposited by these landslides. For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the geological formation. ...


See also

Olympus Mons 27km Ascraeus Mons 11km Pavonis Mons 7km Alba Patera 3km Categories: Lists of mountains by height | Mars ... Fictional representations of Mars have been popular for over a century. ...

References

  1. ^ Patrick Moore 1977, Guide to Mars, London (UK), Cutterworth Press, p.96
  2. ^ Highest and lowest points on Mars NASA
  3. ^ Height of Martian vs. Earth mountains. Questions and Answers about Mars terrain and geology. Retrieved on 2006-10-01. Jeff Plescia 1997-10-01
  4. ^ Martian Volcanoes on HST Images How Far Could I See Standing on Olympus Mons, "2.19 miles", Jeff Beish, Former A.L.P.O. Mars Recorder
  5. ^ SPREADING OF THE OLYMPUS MONS VOLCANIC EDIFICE, MARS. P. J. McGovern lpi.usra.edu, 2005, Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI (2005), Figure 2b showing profiles with NE and SW scarp highpoints
  6. ^ Public Access to Standard Temperature-Pressure Profiles Standard Pressure Profiles measured by MGS Radio Science team at 27 km range from approx 30 to 50 pascals
  7. ^ Late Martian Weather! stanford.edu temperature/pressure profiles 1998 to 2005
  8. ^ Kenneth Baillie and Alistair Simpson. High altitude barometric pressure. Apex (Altitude Physiology Expeditions). Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
  9. ^ Blue, Jennifer (2006-04-7). New names on Olympus Mons (English). USGS. Retrieved on 2006-07-11.
  10. ^ Martel, Linda M. V. (2005-01-31). Recent Activity on Mars: Fire and Ice (English). Planetary Science Research Discoveries. Retrieved on 2006-07-11.
  11. ^ "Olympus Mons - the caldera in close-up", ESA, 2004-02-11. Retrieved on 2006-07-11. 
  12. ^ Moore 1977, Guide to Mars, p.120

Sir Patrick Moore presenting The Sky at Night, October 2005 Sir Alfred Patrick Caldwell-Moore, CBE, HonFRS, FRAS (born 4 March 1923), known as Patrick Moore, is an English amateur astronomer who has attained legendary status in British astronomy as a writer and television presenter of the subject and who... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ESA redirects here. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Olympus Mons

  Results from FactBites:
 
Olympus Mons - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (807 words)
The size of Olympus Mons is so great (roughly the size of the American state of Missouri) that a person standing on the surface of Mars would be unable to view the profile of the volcano even from a distance as the curvature of the planet would obscure such detail.
Olympus Mons is a shield volcano, the result of highly fluid lava flowing out of volcanic vents over a long period of time, and is much wider than it is tall; the average slope of Olympus Mons' flanks is very gradual.
The volcano is surrounded by a region known as the Olympus Mons Aureole (Latin, "Circle of Light") with gigantic ridges and blocks extending 1000 km (600 miles) from the summit that show evidence of development and resurfacing connected with glacial activity.
Olympus Mons - definition of Olympus Mons in Encyclopedia (472 words)
Olympus Mons is an apparently extinct shield volcano, the result of highly fluid lava flowing out of volcanic vents over a long period of time, and is much wider than it is tall; the average slope of Olympus Mons' flanks is very gradual.
In 2004 the Mars Express orbiter imaged lava flows on the flanks of Olympus Mons that appear to be only 2 million years old, suggesting that the mountain may yet have some ongoing volcanic activity.
The volcano is surrounded by a region known as the Olympus Mons Aureole (Latin, "Circle of Light") with gigantic ridges and blocks extending 1000km (621 miles) from the summit that show evidence of development and resurfacing connected with glacial activity.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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