FACTOID # 6: Michigan is ranked 22nd in land area, but since 41.27% of the state is composed of water, it jumps to 11th place in total area.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Olympic Games
The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920.
The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920.

The Olympic Games (often referred to simply as The Olympics or The Games[1]) is an international multi-sport event subdivided into summer and winter sporting events. The summer and winter games are each held every four years (an Olympiad[2]). Until 1992, they were both held in the same year. Since then, they have been separated two years apart. Image File history File links Olympic_flag. ... Image File history File links Olympic_flag. ... Among the recognizable Olympic symbols: The Olympic flag: A white flag with the Olympic Rings on it in five colours. ... The 1920 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were held in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium. ... A multi-sport event is a competition in which athletes compete in a number of different sports. ... Sport from childhood. ... An Olympiad is a period of four years, associated with the Olympic Games of Classical Greece. ... The 92 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, were held in 1992 in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. ...


The original Olympic Games (Greek: Ολυμπιακοί Αγώνες; Olympiakoi Agones) began in 776 BC in Olympia, Greece, and was celebrated until AD 393.[3] Interest in reviving the Olympic Games proper was first shown by the Greek poet and newspaper editor Panagiotis Soutsos in his poem "Dialogue of the Dead" in 1833. [4] Evangelos Zappas sponsored the first modern international Olympic Games in 1859. He paid for the refurbishment of the Panathinaiko Stadium for Games held there in 1870 and 1875. [4] This was noted in newspapers and publications around the world including the London Review, which stated that "the Olympian Games, discontinued for centuries, have recently been revived! Here is strange news indeed ... the classical games of antiquity were revived near Athens". [5] Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia The Ancient Olympic Games, originally referred to as simply the Olympic Games (Greek: ; Olympiakoi Agones) were a series of athletic competitions held between various city-states of Ancient Greece. ... Olympia among the principal Greek sanctuaries Olympia (Greek: Olympía or Olýmpia, older transliterations, Olimpia, Olimbia), a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times, comparable in importance to the Pythian Games held in Delphi. ... Alexandros Soutsos (1803–1863) was a Greek poet from a prominent Phanariote family. ... Evangelos Zappas (1800–1865) was a Greek businessman and financier. ... The Panathinaiko Stadium Archery matches in progress at the Panathinaiko Stadium during the 2004 Athens Olympics The Panathinaiko (Panathenaic) Stadium (also known as the Kallimarmaron, i. ...


The International Olympic Committee was founded in 1894 with the initiative of a French nobleman, Pierre Frédy, Baron de Coubertin. The first of the IOC's Olympic Games were the 1896 Summer Olympics, held in Athens, Greece. Participation in the Olympic Games has increased to include athletes from nearly all nations worldwide. With the improvement of satellite communications and global telecasts of the events, the Olympics are consistently gaining supporters.[6] The most recent Summer Olympics were the 2004 Games in Athens and the most recent Winter Olympics were the 2006 Games in Turin. The upcoming games in Beijing are planned to comprise 302 events in 28 sports.[7] As of 2006, the Winter Olympics were competed in 84 events in 7 sports.[8] Stamp The International Olympic Committee (French: Comité International Olympique) is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on June 23, 1894. ... His statue at the Centennial Olympic Park, Atlanta. ... The 1896 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad, were held in 1896 in Athens, Greece. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Poster for the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp. ... The ceremony for the lighting of the flame is arranged as a pagan pageant, with priestesses dancing. ... An athlete carries the Olympic torch The Winter Olympic Games are a winter multi-sport event held every four years. ... Neve and Gliz, the 2006 Olympics mascots, on display in Turin The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XX Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in Turin, Italy from February 10, 2006, through February 26, 2006. ... The 2008 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, will be celebrated from August 8, 2008 to August 24, 2008, with the opening ceremony commencing at 08:08:08 pm at the Beijing National Stadium in Beijing, Peoples Republic of China. ...

Contents

Ancient Olympics

Athletes trained in this Olympia facility in its ancient heyday.
Main article: Ancient Olympic Games

There are many myths and legends surrounding the origin of the ancient Olympic Games. The most popular legend describes that Heracles was the creator of the Olympic Games, and built the Olympic stadium and surrounding buildings as an honor to his father Zeus, after completing his 12 labours. According to that legend he walked in a straight line for 400 strides and called this distance a "stadion" (Greek: "Στάδιον")- (Roman: "stadium") (Modern English: "Stage") that later also became a distance calculation unit. This is also why a modern stadium is 400 meters in circumference length (1 stadium = 400 m). Another myth associates the first Games with the ancient Greek concept of ἐκεχειρία (ekecheiria) or Olympic Truce. The date of the Games' inception based on the count of years in Olympiads is reconstructed as 776 BC, although scholars' opinions diverge between dates as early as 884 BC and as late as 704 BC. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (901x603, 166 KB)Large version, by [email protected] ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (901x603, 166 KB)Large version, by [email protected] ... Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia The Ancient Olympic Games, originally referred to as simply the Olympic Games (Greek: ; Olympiakoi Agones) were a series of athletic competitions held between various city-states of Ancient Greece. ... Alcides redirects here. ... An Olympiad is a period of four years, associated with the Olympic Games of Classical Greece. ...


From then on, the Games quickly became much more important throughout ancient Greece, reaching their zenith in the sixth and fifth centuries BC. The Olympics were of fundamental religious importance, contests alternating with sacrifices and ceremonies honouring both Zeus(whose colossal statue stood at Olympia), and Pelops, divine hero and mythical king of Olympia famous for his legendary chariot race, in whose honour the games were held. The number of events increased to twenty, and the celebration was spread over several days. Winners of the events were greatly admired and were immortalised in poems and statues.[9] The Games were held every four years, and the period between two celebrations became known as an 'Olympiad'. The Greeks used Olympiads as one of their methods to count years. The most famous Olympic athlete lived in these times: the sixth century BC wrestler Milo of Croton is the only athlete in history to win a victory in six Olympics.[10] Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... For other uses, see Zeus (disambiguation). ... A fanciful reconstruction of Phidias statue of Zeus, in an engraving made by Philippe Galle in 1572, from a drawing by Maarten van Heemskerck. ... Olympia among the principal Greek sanctuaries Olympia (Greek: Olympía or Olýmpia, older transliterations, Olimpia, Olimbia), a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times, comparable in importance to the Pythian Games held in Delphi. ... In Greek mythology, Pelops (Greek Πέλοψ, from pelios: dark; and ops: face, eye) was venerated at Olympia, where his cult developed into the founding myth of the Olympic Games, the most important expression of unity, not only for the Peloponnesus, land of Pelops, but for all Hellenes. ... Poetry (ancient Greek: poieo = create) is an art form in which human language is used for its aesthetic qualities in addition to, or instead of, its notional and semantic content. ... An Olympiad is a period of four years, associated with the Olympic Games of Classical Greece. ... Milo or Milon of Croton (late 6th century BC) was the most famous of Greek athletes in Antiquity. ...


The Games gradually declined in importance as the Romans gained power in Greece. When Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire, the Olympic Games were seen as a pagan festival and in discord with Christian ethics, and in 393 AD the emperor Theodosius I outlawed the Olympics, ending a thousand-year tradition.[11] Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ...


During the ancient times normally only young men could participate.[10] Competitors were usually naked, not only as the weather was appropriate but also as the festival was meant to be, in part, a celebration of the achievements of the human body. Upon winning the games, the victor would have not only the prestige of being in first place but would also be presented with a crown of olive leaves. The olive branch is a sign of hope and peace.[12] This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Look up Naked in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Olive branch Olive branch is a colloquial term referring to a concession or a gesture of peace, as well as a peace symbol. ...


Even though the bearing of a torch formed an integral aspect of Greek ceremonies, the ancient Olympic Games did not include it, nor was there a symbol formed by interconnecting rings. These Olympic symbols were introduced as part of the modern Olympic Games. The Olympic symbols are various logos, icons, flags and symbols used by the International Olympic Committee for various aspects related to the promotion of the Olympic Movement around the world. ...


Revival

In the early seventeenth century, an "Olympick Games" sports festival was run for several years at Chipping Campden in the English Cotswolds, and the present day local Cotswold Games trace their origin to this festival. They were a local sports event with extraordinary sports, such as shin-kicking. Chipping Campden is a Cotswold town in Gloucestershire, England, famous for its beautiful terraced High Street, dating from the 14th – 17th centuries. ... The Cotswolds is the name given to a range of hills in central England, sometimes called the Heart of England, a hilly area reaching over 300 m or 1000 feet. ... A woodcut from 1636 depicting the Cotswold Games The Cotswold Games were an annual public celebration of games and sports held in the Cotswolds in England. ...


In 1850, an "Olympian Class" was begun at Much Wenlock in Shropshire, England. This was renamed "Wenlock Olympian Games" in 1859 and continues to this day as the Wenlock Olympian Society Annual Games. A national Olympic Games was organised by their founder, Dr William Penny Brookes, at Crystal Palace in London, in 1866. Much Wenlock is a town in Shropshire, England. ... Shropshire (pronounced /, -/), alternatively known as Salop[6] or abbreviated Shrops[7], is a county in the West Midlands of England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Meanwhile, a wealthy Greek philanthropist called Evangelos Zappas sponsored the revival of the first modern international Olympic Games.[4] The first was held in an Athens city square in 1859. Zappas paid for the refurbishment of the ancient Panathenian stadium that was first used for an Olympic Games in 1870 and then again in 1875. That same stadium was refurbished a second time and used for the Athens 1896 Games. The revival sponsored by Zappas was a dedicated athletics Olympic Games with athletes that participated from two countries: Greece and the Ottoman Empire. Evangelos Zappas (1800–1865) was a Greek businessman and financier. ...


The interest in reviving the Olympics as an international event grew further when the ruins of ancient Olympia were uncovered by German archaeologists in the mid-nineteenth century. At the same time, Pierre de Coubertin was searching for a reason for the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871). He thought the reason was that the French had not received proper physical education, and sought to improve this. Coubertin also sought a way to bring nations closer together, to have the youth of the world compete in sports, rather than fight in war. In 1890 he attended a festival of the Wenlock Olympian Society, and decided that the recovery of the Olympic Games would achieve both of his goals. Olympia among the principal Greek sanctuaries Olympia (Greek: Olympía or Olýmpia, older transliterations, Olimpia, Olimbia), a sanctuary of ancient Greece in Elis, is known for having been the site of the Olympic Games in classical times, comparable in importance to the Pythian Games held in Delphi. ... Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... His statue at the Centennial Olympic Park, Atlanta. ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with South German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III François Achille Bazaine Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at wars beginning 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000...


Baron Pierre de Coubertin stood on the ideas of both Dr Brookes and the foundations of Evangelis Zappas to found the International Olympic Committee. In a congress at the Sorbonne University, in Paris, France, held from June 16 to June 23, 1894 he presented his ideas to an international audience. On the last day of the congress, it was decided that the first IOC Olympic Games would take place in 1896 in Athens, in the country of their birth. To organise the Games, the International Olympic Committee (IOC) was established, with the Greek Demetrius Vikelas as its first president. The Panathenian stadium that was used for Olympic Games in 1870, and 1875 was refurbished and reused for the Olympic Games held in Athens in 1896. The Olympic Congress is a vast gathering of the Olympic Movement, which happens on an irregular basis, but generally every ten years or so during the last few decades. ... The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... This article is about the capital of France. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Stamp The International Olympic Committee (French: Comité International Olympique) is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on June 23, 1894. ... Demetrius Vikelas (February 15, 1835 – July 20, 1908) was the first president of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) from 1894 to 1896. ...


The total number of athletes at the the first IOC Olympic Games, less than 250, seems small by modern standards, but the games were the largest international sports event ever held until that time. The Greek officials and public were also very enthusiastic, and they even proposed to have the monopoly of organizing the Olympics. The IOC decided differently, however, and the second Olympic Games took place in Paris, France. Paris was also the first Olympic Games where women were allowed to compete. The 1896 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad, were held in 1896 in Athens, Greece. ... The 1900 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the II Olympiad, were held in 1900 in Paris, France. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


Modern Olympics

After the initial success, the Olympics struggled. The celebrations in Paris (1900) and St. Louis (1904) were overshadowed by the World's Fair exhibitions in which they were included. The so-called Intercalated Games (because of their off-year status, as 1906 is not divisible by four) were held in 1906 in Athens, as the first of an alternating series of Athens-held Olympics. Although originally the IOC recognised and supported these games, they are currently not recognised by the IOC as Olympic Games, which has given rise to the explanation that they were intended to mark the 10th anniversary of the modern Olympics. The 1906 Games again attracted a broad international field of participants—in 1904, 80% had been American—--and great public interest, thereby marking the beginning of a rise in popularity and size of the Games. Poster for the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp. ... An athlete carries the Olympic torch The Winter Olympic Games are a winter multi-sport event held every four years. ... The 1900 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the II Olympiad, were held in 1900 in Paris, France. ... The 1904 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the III Olympiad, were held in St. ... Worlds Fair is any of various large expositions held since the mid-19th century. ... The 1906 Summer Olympics, also called the 1906 Intercalated Games, were held in Athens, Greece. ...


From the 241 participants from 14 nations in 1896, the Games grew to nearly 11,100 competitors from 202 countries at the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens. The number of competitors at the Winter Olympics is much smaller than at the Summer Games; at the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin Italy, 2,633 athletes from 80 countries competed in 84 events. The ceremony for the lighting of the flame is arranged as a pagan pageant, with priestesses dancing. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Neve and Gliz, the 2006 Olympics mascots, on display in Turin The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XX Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in Turin, Italy from February 10, 2006, through February 26, 2006. ... For other uses, see Turin (disambiguation). ...


The Olympics are one of the largest media events. In Sydney in 2000 there were over 16,000 broadcasters and journalists, and an estimated 3.8 billion viewers watched the games on television. The growth of the Olympics is one of the largest problems the Olympics face today. Although allowing professional athletes and attracting sponsorships from major international companies solved financial problems in the 1980s, the large number of athletes, media and spectators makes it difficult and expensive for host cities to organize the Olympics. This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... The broadcasting of sports events is the coverage of sports on television, radio and other broadcasting mediums. ...


203 countries currently participate in the Olympics. This is a noticeably higher number than the number of countries recognised by the United Nations, which is only 193. The International Olympic Committee allows nations to compete which do not meet the strict requirements for political sovereignty that many other international organizations demand. As a result, many colonies and dependencies are permitted to host their own Olympic teams and athletes even if such competitors hold the same citizenship as another member nation. Examples of this include territories such as Puerto Rico, Bermuda, and Hong Kong, all of which compete as separate nations despite being legally a part of another country. Also, since 1980, Taiwan has competed under the name "Chinese Taipei", and under a flag specially prepared by the IOC. Prior to that year the People's Republic of China refused to participate in the Games because Taiwan had been competing under the name "Republic of China". The Republic of the Marshall Islands was recognised as a nation by the IOC on February 9, 2006, and should compete in the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing.[13] UN and U.N. redirect here. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... The 2008 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, will be celebrated from August 8, 2008 to August 24, 2008, with the opening ceremony commencing at 08:08:08 pm at the Beijing National Stadium in Beijing, Peoples Republic of China. ... “Peking” redirects here. ...


Olympic problems

Boycotts

The 1956 Melbourne Olympics were boycotted by the Netherlands, Spain, and Switzerland, because of the repression of the Hungarian Uprising by the Soviet Union; additionally, Cambodia, Egypt, Iraq, and Lebanon, boycotted the games due to the Suez Crisis.[14] The 1956 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVI Olympiad, were held in 1956 in Melbourne, Australia, although the equestrian events could not be held in Australia due to quarantine regulations. ... Combatants Soviet Union ÁVH Hungarian government, various nationalist militias Commanders Yuri Andropov Pál Maléter, Béla Király, Gergely Pongrátz, József Dudás Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks 100,000+ demonstrators (some later armed), unknown number of soldiers Casualties 720 killed according to official... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1...


In 1972 and 1976, a large number of African countries threatened the IOC with a boycott, to force them to ban South Africa, Rhodesia, and New Zealand. The IOC conceded in the first 2 cases, but refused in 1976 because the boycott was prompted by a New Zealand rugby union tour to South Africa, and rugby was not an Olympic sport. The countries withdrew their teams after the games had started; some African athletes had already competed. A lot of sympathy was felt for the athletes forced by their governments to leave the Olympic Village; there was little sympathy outside Africa for the governments' attitude. Twenty-two countries (Guyana was the only non-African nation) boycotted the Montreal Olympics because New Zealand was not banned.[15] The 1972 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, were held in Munich, West Germany, from 26 August to 11 September 1972. ... The 1976 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXI Olympiad, were held in 1976 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ...


Also in 1976, due to pressure from the People's Republic of China (PRC), Canada told the team from the Republic of China (Taiwan) that it could not compete at the Montreal Summer Olympics under the name "Republic of China" despite a compromise that would have allowed Taiwan to use the ROC flag and anthem. The Republic of China refused and as a result did not participate again until 1984, when it returned under the name "Chinese Taipei" and used a special flag.[16] PRC is a common abbreviation for: Peoples Republic of China Palestinian Red Crescent Popular Resistance Committees This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Flag of Taiwan redirects here. ... Manuscript of the speech at the opening ceremony of the Whampoa Military Academy, handwriting by Dr. Sun Yat-sen National Anthem of the Republic of China (Traditional Chinese: 中華民國國歌, Simplified Chinese: 中华民国国歌, Pinyin: Zhōnghuá Míngúo gúogÄ“), is the current national anthem of the Republic of China (ROC). ...

Countries that boycotted the 1976 (yellow), 1980 (blue) and 1984 (red) games
Countries that boycotted the 1976 (yellow), 1980 (blue) and 1984 (red) games

In 1980 and 1984, the Cold War opponents boycotted each other's games. The United States led and 64 other Western nations followed in refusing to compete at the Moscow Olympics in 1980 because of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, but 16 other Western nations did compete at the Moscow Olympics. The boycott reduced the number of nations participating to only 81, the lowest number of nations to compete since 1956. The Soviet Union and 14 of its Eastern Bloc partners (except Romania) countered by skipping the Los Angeles Olympics in 1984, arguing the safety of their athletes could not be guaranteed there and "chauvinistic sentiments and an anti-Soviet hysteria are being whipped up in the United States".[17] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x633, 48 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Olympic Games 1976 Summer Olympics 1984 Summer Olympics Boycott American-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics Cold War (1979-1985) ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x633, 48 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Olympic Games 1976 Summer Olympics 1984 Summer Olympics Boycott American-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics Cold War (1979-1985) ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Badge, released in the USSR The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad, were held in Moscow in the Soviet Union. ... A Soviet soldier on guard in Afghanistan in 1988. ... Music sample: Olympic Fanfare and Theme ( file info) — composed by John Williams for the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles Problems listening to the file? See media help. ...


The 1984 boycotters staged their own Friendship Games in July-August.[18][19] The Friendship Games or Druzhba Games was an international multisport event that was held in 1984 in six different cities. ...


Doping

One of the main problems facing the Olympics (and international sports in general) is doping, or performance enhancing drugs. In the early 20th century, many Olympic athletes began using drugs to enhance their performance. For example, the winner of the marathon at the 1904 Games, Thomas J. Hicks, was given strychnine and brandy by his coach, even during the race. As these methods became more extreme, gradually the awareness grew that this was no longer a matter of health through sports. In the mid-1960s, sports federations put a ban on doping, and the IOC followed suit in 1967. In sports, doping refers to the use of performance-enhancing drugs, particularly those that are forbidden by the organizations that regulate competitions. ... Although marathon sometimes refers to any athletic event requiring great endurance, more specifically it refers to a long-distance track event of 42,195 m (26 miles and 385 yards). ... The 1904 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the III Olympiad, were held in St. ... Thomas J. Hicks (January 7, 1875 – December 2, 1963) was an American track and field athlete, winner of the Olympic marathon in 1904. ... Strychnine (pronounced (British, U.S.), or (U.S.)) is a very toxic (LD50 = 10 mg approx. ... For other uses, see Brandy (disambiguation). ...


The first and so far only Olympic death caused by doping occurred in 1960. At the cycling road race in Rome the Danish Knud Enemark Jensen fell from his bicycle and later died. A coroner's inquiry found that he was under the influence of amphetamines.


The first Olympic athlete to test positive for doping use was Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall, a Swedish pentathlete at the 1968 Summer Olympics, who lost his bronze medal for alcohol use. Seventy-three athletes followed him over the next 38 years, several medal winners among them. The most publicised doping-related disqualification was that of Canadian sprinter Ben Johnson, who won the 100m at the 1988 Seoul Olympics, but tested positive for stanozolol. Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall is a Swedish modern pentathlete who caused the disqualification of the Swedish mens team at the 1968 Summer Olympics held in Mexico City for his alcohol use. ... Competitors in the final round of the Mens Modern Pentathlon pull for the finish line at the Goudi Sports Complex on August 26, 2004. ... The 1968 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad, were held in Mexico City in 1968. ... Benjamin Sinclair Ben Johnson CM (born December 30, 1961) is a controversial former Canadian athlete, best known for his disqualification for doping use after winning the 100 m final in the 1988 Summer Olympics. ... Johnson winning the 100 m final The 1988 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIV Olympiad, were held in 1988 in Seoul, South Korea. ... Stanozolol, commonly sold under the name Winstrol (oral) and Winstrol Depot (intra-muscular), was developed by Winthrop Laboratories in 1962. ...


Despite the testing, many athletes continued to use doping without getting caught. In 1990, documents were revealed that showed many East German female athletes had been unknowingly administered anabolic steroids and other drugs by their coaches and trainers as a government policy. This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... Crystal structure of human sex hormone-binding globulin, transporting 5-alpha-dihydrotestosterone. ...


In the late 1990s, the IOC took initiative in a more organised battle against doping, leading to the formation of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) in 1999. The recent 2000 Summer Olympics and 2002 Winter Olympics have shown that this battle is not nearly over, as several medalists in weightlifting and cross-country skiing were disqualified due to doping offences. One innocent victim of the anti-doping movement at the Olympics was the Romanian gymnast Andreea Răducan who was stripped of her gold medal-winning performance in the All-Around Competition of the Sydney 2000 games. Test results indicated the presence of the banned-stimulant pseudophedrine which had been prescribed to her by an Olympic doctor. Raducan had been unaware of the presence of the illegal substance in the medicine that had been prescribed to her for a cold she had during the games. The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) is an independent foundation created through a collective initiative led by the International Olympic Committee (IOC). ... Andreea Raducan at the 2000 Olympic Games. ... Pseudoephedrine is a sympathomimetic amine commonly used as a decongestant. ...


During the 2006 Winter Olympics, only one athlete failed a drug test and had a medal revoked. The only other case involved 12 members with high levels of haemoglobin and their punishment was a five day suspension for health reasons. Neve and Gliz, the 2006 Olympics mascots, on display in Turin The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XX Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in Turin, Italy from February 10, 2006, through February 26, 2006. ... 3-dimensional structure of hemoglobin Hemoglobin or haemoglobin is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red cells of the blood in mammals and other animals. ...


In October 2007, American sprinter Marion Jones admitted to having taken steroids before the Sydney 2000 Summer Olympics. As a result of these admissions, Jones accepted a two-year suspension and forfeiture of all medals, results, points and prizes earned after September 1, 2000. Marion Jones, also known as Marion Jones-Thompson (born October 12, 1975 in Los Angeles, California), is a former American athlete in track and field. ...


The International Olympic Committee introduced blood testing for the first time during these games.


Politics

Politics interfered with the Olympics on several occasions, the most well-known of which was the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin, where the games were used as propaganda by the German Nazis. At this Olympics, a true Olympic spirit was shown by Luz Long, who helped Jesse Owens (a black athlete) to win the long jump, at the expense of his own silver medal.[20] The Olympic Games were created by Baron Pierre de Coubertin for two reasons: 1) A way for the countries of the globe to become more connected; and 2)it was a reason for men to become more vigoureux or vigorous. ... The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, were held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Soviet Propaganda Poster during World War II. The text reads Red Army Fighter, SAVE US! Chinese propaganda poster from the time of the Cultural Revolution. ... The National Socialist German Workers Party (German: , or NSDAP, commonly known as the Nazi Party), was a political party in Germany between 1919 and 1945. ... Carl Ludwig Lutz Long (aka Luz Long) (April 27, 1913 – July 13, 1943) was a German Olympic athlete, most notable for giving advice to his competitor, Jesse Owens. ... James Cleveland Jesse Owens (September 12, 1913 – March 31, 1980) was an American track and field athlete. ... Though most indigenous Africans possess relatively dark skin, they exhibit much variation in physical appearance. ...


The Soviet Union did not participate in the Olympic Games until the 1952 Summer Olympics in Helsinki. Instead, the Soviets organized an international sports event called Spartakiads, from 1928 onward. Many athletes from Communist organizations or close to them chose not to participate or were even barred from participating in Olympic Games, and instead participated in Spartakiads.[21] The 1952 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XV Olympiad, were held in 1952 in Helsinki, Finland. ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - City manager Jussi Pajunen Area  - City 187. ... Spartakiad initially was the name of an international sports event that the Soviet Union attempted to oppose the Olympics. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ...


A political incident on a smaller scale occurred at the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City. Two American track-and-field athletes, Tommie Smith and John Carlos, performed the Black Power salute on the victory stand of the 200-meter track and field race. In response, the IOC's autocratic president Avery Brundage told the USOC to either send the two athletes home, or withdraw the complete track and field team. The USOC opted for the former.[22] The 1968 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad, were held in Mexico City in 1968. ... Nickname: Motto: Capital en movimiento Location of Mexico City in south central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... For others with a similar name, see Tommy Smith. ... John Wesley Carlos (born June 5, 1945 in Harlem, New York) is an American former track and field athlete and professional football player. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Athletics, also known as track and field or track and field athletics, is a collection of sport events. ... Avery Brundage (September 28, 1887 – May 8, 1975) was an American athlete, sports official, art collector and philanthropist. ...


In a political policy move that flouts the spirit of the Olympic movement, the government of the Islamic Republic of Iran specifically orders its athletes not to compete in any olympic heat, semi-final, or finals that includes athletes from Israel. At the 2004 Olympics, an Iranian judo wrestler refused to compete in a heat against an Israeli judo wrestler, but did so in a way that 'covered' the possibility of Iran being removed from the games for political intrigue (the athlete deliberately overweighted himself out of his class). This athlete returned home to a hero's welcome.[23]


Violence

Despite what Coubertin had hoped for, the Olympics did not bring total peace to the world. In fact, three Olympiads had to pass without Olympics because of war: due to World War I the 1916 Games were canceled, and the summer and winter games of 1940 and 1944 were canceled because of World War II. An Olympiad is a period of four years, associated with the Olympic Games of Classical Greece. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Games of the VI Olympiad were to have been held in 1916 in Berlin, Germany. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Terrorism has also become a recent threat to the Olympic Games. In 1972, when the Summer Games were held in Munich, West Germany, eleven members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage by Palestinian terrorist group Black September in what is known as the Munich massacre. A bungled liberation attempt led to the deaths of the nine abducted athletes who had not been killed prior to the rescue as well as that of a policeman, with five of the terrorists also being killed.[24] For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... This article is becoming very long. ... A Black September terrorist on a balcony in the Olympic Village in September 1972, during what became known as the Munich Massacre, in which 11 Israeli athletes were kidnapped and killed. ... The Munich massacre occurred during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, when members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage by the Palestinian terrorist group Black September, a group with ties to Yasser Arafat’s Fatah organization. ...


During the Summer Olympics in 1996 in Atlanta, a bombing at the Centennial Olympic Park killed two and injured 111 others. The bomb was set by Eric Robert Rudolph, an American domestic terrorist, who is currently serving a life sentence at Supermax in Florence, Colorado.[25] This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... The Centennial Olympic Park bombing was a terrorist bombing on July 27, 1996 in Atlanta, Georgia during the 1996 Summer Olympics, the first of four committed by Eric Robert Rudolph. ... Fountain of Rings Centennial Olympic Park is a 21 acre (85,000 m²) public park located in downtown Atlanta, Georgia. ... Eric Robert Rudolph (born September 19, 1966), also known as the Olympic Park Bomber, is an American anti-abortion and anti-gay extremist and domestic terrorist,[2][3] who committed a series of bombings across the southern United States, which killed three people and injured at least 150 others. ... A domestic terrorist is one who is a citizen of the country the acts of terrorism is directed against. ... Supermax is the name used to describe control-unit prisons, or units within prisons, which represent the most secure levels of custody in prison systems. ... Florence is a city in Fremont County, Colorado, USA. The population was 3,653 at the 2000 census. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Largest metro area Denver-Aurora Metro Area Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ...


The 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City were the first Olympic Games since the September 11, 2001 attacks. Olympic Games since then have required an extremely high degree of security due to the fear of possible terrorist activities.[26] The 2002 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XIX Olympic Winter Games, and with the theme slogan Light The Fire Within, were celebrated in 2002 in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is Salt Lake Citys top tourist draw. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly...


Olympic Movement

A number of organizations are involved in organizing the Olympic Games. Together they form the Olympic Movement. The rules and guidelines by which these organizations operate are outlined in the Olympic Charter. Olympic torch The Olympic Charter, last updated September 1, 2004, is a set of rules and guidelines for the organization of the Olympic Games, and for governing the Olympic Movement. ...


At the heart of the Olympic Movement is the International Olympic Committee (IOC), currently headed by Jacques Rogge. It can be seen as the government of the Olympics, as it takes care of the daily problems and makes all important decisions, such as choosing the host city of the Games, and the programme of the Olympics. Stamp The International Olympic Committee (French: Comité International Olympique) is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin and Demetrios Vikelas on June 23, 1894. ... Jacques Rogge Count Jacques Rogge (born May 2, 1942 in Ghent, Belgium) is by profession an orthopedic surgeon. ...


Three groups of organisations operate on a more specialised level:

  • International Federations (IFs), the governing bodies of a sport (e.g. FIFA, the IF for football (soccer), and the FIVB, the international governing body for volleyball.)
  • National Olympic Committees (NOCs), which regulate the Olympic Movement within each country (eg. USOC, the NOC of the United States)
  • Organising Committees for the Olympic Games (OCOGs), which take care of the organisation of a specific celebration of the Olympics.

At present, 202 NOCs and 35 IFs are part of the Olympic Movement. OCOGs are dissolved after the celebration of each Games, once all subsequent paperwork has been completed. This article is about an international football organization. ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... FIVB Logo Fédération Internationale de Volleyball (FIVB) is the international governing body for the sport of volleyball. ... For the ball used in this sport, see Volleyball (ball). ... The United States Olympic Committee (USOC) is a non-profit organization that is the National Olympic Committee for the United States. ...


More broadly speaking, the term Olympic Movement is sometimes also meant to include everybody and everything involved in the Olympics, such as national sport governing bodies, athletes, media, and sponsors of the Olympic Games.


Criticism

Most Olympic Games have been held in European and North American cities; only a few games have been held in other places, and all bids by countries in South America and Africa have failed. Many non-westerners believe the games should expand to include locations in poorer regions. Economists point out that the massive infrastructure investments could springboard cities into earning higher GDP after the games.[citation needed] Economists are scholars conducting research in the field of economics. ... Diving off a springboard A springboard or diving board is used for diving and is a board that is itself a spring, i. ...


In the past, the IOC has often been criticised for being a monolithic organisation, with several members remaining a member at old age, or even until their deaths. The leadership of IOC president Juan Antonio Samaranch especially has been strongly criticised. Under his presidency, the Olympic Movement made great progress, but has been seen as autocratic and corrupt. Samaranch's ties with the former fascist government in Spain, and his long term as a president (21 years)—until he was 81 years old—have also been points of critique. Alternative meanings at IOC (disambiguation) The International Olympic Committee is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin in 1894 to reinstate the Ancient Olympic Games held in Greece, and organize this sports event every four years. ... Juan Antonio Samaranch Don Juan Antonio Samaranch i Torelló, Marquis of Samaranch (es: Don Juan Antonio Samaranch i Torelló, marqués de Samaranch) (born July 17, 1920 in Barcelona) is a Spanish sports official and was president of the International Olympic Committee (IOC) from 1980 to 2001. ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the interests of the state. ...


In 1998, it became known that several IOC members had taken bribes from the organising committee for the 2002 Winter Olympics in Salt Lake City, Utah, in exchange for a vote on the city at the election of the host city. The IOC started an investigation, which led to four members resigning and six being expelled. The scandal set off further reforms, changing the way in which host cities are elected to avoid further bribes. Also, more active and former athletes were allowed in the IOC, and the membership terms have been limited. The 2002 Winter Olympic bid scandal was a scandal involving allegations of bribery to obtain the 2002 Winter Olympic Games in Salt Lake City, Utah. ... The 2002 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XIX Olympic Winter Games, and with the theme slogan Light The Fire Within, were celebrated in 2002 in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is Salt Lake Citys top tourist draw. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


The same year (1998), four European groups organized the International Network Against Olympic Games and Commercial Sports to oppose their cities' bids for future Olympic Games. Also, an Anti-Olympic Alliance had formed in Sydney to protest the hosting of the 2000 Games. Later, a similar movement in Vancouver and Whistler, British Columbia organized to protest the hosting of the 2010 Winter Games. These movements were particularly concerned about adverse local economic impact and dislocation of people to accommodate the hosting of the Olympics. This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th - Total 944,735 km...


A BBC documentary aired in August 2004, entitled Panorama: "Buying the Games", investigated the taking of bribes in the bidding process for the 2012 Summer Olympics. The documentary claimed it is possible to bribe IOC members into voting for a particular candidate city. In an airborne television interview on the way home, the Mayor of Paris Bertrand Delanoë, specifically accused the British Prime Minister (Tony Blair) and the London Bid Committee (headed by former Olympic athlete Lord (Sebastien) Coe of breaking the bid rules with flagrant financial and sexual bribes. He cited French President Jacques Chirac as a witness but President Chirac gave rather more guarded interviews. In particular, Bulgaria's member Ivan Slavkov, and Muttaleb Ahmad from the Olympic Council of Asia, were implicated. They have denied the allegations. And Mayor Delanoë never mentioned the matter again. (Indeed two days later when London was attacked by suicide bombers on buses and trains, 52 Londoners were killed and over 700 Londoners were injured, it was both Mayor Delanoë and President Chirac -in an Olympian spirit of which Pierre de Coubertin would have been proud- who were among the first to express their solidarity with London and to send practical help in the form of rescue teams etc.) Others have alleged that the 2006 Winter Olympics were held in Turin because officials bribed the IOC and so Turin got the games and Sion, Switzerland (which was the favorite) did not. For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Panorama is a long-running current affairs documentary series on BBC television, launched in 1953 and focusing on investigative journalism. ... “London 2012” redirects here. ... Neve and Gliz, the 2006 Olympics mascots, on display in Turin The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XX Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in Turin, Italy from February 10, 2006, through February 26, 2006. ... For other uses, see Turin (disambiguation). ... Sion (German Sitten, Latin Sedunum) is the capital of the Swiss canton of Valais. ...


The Olympic Movement has been accused of being overprotective of its symbolism (in particular, it claims an exclusive and monopolistic copyright over any arrangement of five rings and the term "olympics"), and have taken action against things unrelated to sport, such as the role-playing game Legend of the Five Rings. It was accused of homophobia in 1982 when it successfully sued the Gay Olympics, an event now known as the Gay Games, to ban it from using the term "olympics" in its name.[27] This article is about games in which one plays the role of a character. ... Legend of the Five Rings (often abbreviated L5R) is a fictional setting created by Alderac Entertainment Group in 1995. ... A protest by The Westboro Baptist Church, a group identified by the Anti-Defamation League as virulently homophobic. ... The Federation of Gay Games logo The Gay Games is a popular sporting and cultural event organized by LGBT athletes, artists, musicians, and others. ...


Olympic symbols

Main article: Olympic symbols

The Olympic movement uses many symbols, most of them representing Coubertin's ideas and ideals. The best known symbol is probably that of the Olympic Rings. These five intertwined rings represent the unity of five inhabited continents (with America regarded as one single continent). They appear in five colors on a white field on the Olympic Flag. These colors, white (for the field), red, blue, green, yellow, and black were chosen such that each nation had at least one of these colors in its national flag. The flag was adopted in 1914, but the first Games at which it was flown were Antwerp, 1920. It is hoisted at each celebration of the Games. The Olympic symbols are various logos, icons, flags and symbols used by the International Olympic Committee for various aspects related to the promotion of the Olympic Movement around the world. ... Among the recognizable Olympic symbols: The Olympic flag: A white flag with the Olympic Rings on it in five colours. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, tone, style, and voice). ... The 1920 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were held in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium. ...


The official Olympic Motto is "Citius, Altius, Fortius", a Latin phrase meaning "Swifter, Higher, Stronger". Coubertin's ideals are probably best illustrated by the Olympic Creed: The Olympic motto is Citius, Altius, Fortius, which is Latin for Faster, Higher, Stronger. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The Olympic Oath is taken by an athlete and a judge at the opening ceremonies of the Olympic Games. ...

"The most important thing in the Olympic Games is not to win but to take part, just as the most important thing in life is not the triumph but the struggle. The essential thing is not to have conquered but to have fought well."

The Olympic Flame is lit in Olympia and brought to the host city by runners carrying the torch in relay. There it plays an important role in the opening ceremonies. Though the torch fire has been around since 1928, the relay was introduced in 1936. The Olympic Flame at the Athens 2004 Summer Olympics The Olympic Flame, Olympic Fire, Olympic Torch, Olympic Light, Olympic Eye, and Olympic Sun is a symbol of the Olympic Games. ... The 1928 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the IX Olympiad, were held in 1928 in Amsterdam, Netherlands. ... The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, were held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. ...


The Olympic mascot, an animal or human figure representing the cultural heritage of the host country, was introduced in 1968. It has played an important part of the games since 1980 with the debut of misha, a Russian bear. The 1968 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad, were held in Mexico City in 1968. ... Badge, released in the USSR The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad, were held in Moscow in the Soviet Union. ... Misha Misha (Миша) is the name of the Russian Bear, the mascot of the 1980 Moscow Olympic Games (the XXII Summer Olympics). ... For other uses, see Bear (disambiguation). ...


French and English are the two official languages of the Olympic movement. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Olympic ceremonies

Opening

Opening ceremonies climax with the lighting of the Olympic Flame. For lighting the torch, modern games feature elaborate mechanisms such as this cauldron-spiral-cauldron arrangement lit by the 1980 U.S. Olympic ice hockey team at the 2002 Winter Olympics.
Opening ceremonies climax with the lighting of the Olympic Flame. For lighting the torch, modern games feature elaborate mechanisms such as this cauldron-spiral-cauldron arrangement lit by the 1980 U.S. Olympic ice hockey team at the 2002 Winter Olympics.

Apart from the traditional elements, the host nation ordinarily presents artistic displays of dance and theatre representative of that country.[28] Download high resolution version (700x1034, 126 KB)Caption: Salt Lake City, UT (Feb. ... Download high resolution version (700x1034, 126 KB)Caption: Salt Lake City, UT (Feb. ... The 1980 U.S. Olympic hockey team celebrates the goal that led them to victory over the USSR. The Miracle on Ice is the popular nickname for the mens ice hockey game in the 1980 Olympic Winter Games, in which a team of amateur and collegiate players from the... The 2002 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XIX Olympic Winter Games, and with the theme slogan Light The Fire Within, were celebrated in 2002 in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. ...


Various traditional elements frame the opening ceremonies of a celebration of the Olympic Games. The ceremonies typically start with the hoisting of the host country's flag and the performing of its national anthem.[citation needed] The traditional part of the ceremonies starts with a "parade of nations" (or of athletes), during which most participating athletes march into the stadium, country by country. One honoured athlete, typically a top competitor, from each country carries the flag of his or her nation, leading the entourage of other athletes from that country.[citation needed]


Traditionally (starting at the 1928 Summer Olympics) Greece marches first, because of its historical status as the origin of the Olympics, while the host nation marches last. (Exceptionally, in 2004, when the Games were held in Athens, Greece marched last as host nation rather than first, although the flag of Greece was carried in first.) Between these two nations, all other participating nations march in alphabetical order of the dominant language of the host country,[29] or in French or English alphabetical order if the host country does not write its dominant language in an alphabet which has a set order. In the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, both Spanish and Catalan were official languages of the games, but due to politics surrounding the use of Catalan, the nations entered in French alphabetical order. The XVIII Olympic Winter Games in Nagano, Japan saw nations entering in English alphabetical order since the Japanese language grouped both China and Chinese Taipei together in the Parade of Nations. The 1928 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the IX Olympiad, were held in 1928 in Amsterdam, Netherlands. ... Flag Ratio: 2:3 (Naval Flag 1822-1828, Sea Flag 1828-1969; 1975-1978 (Flag Ratio 7:12), National Flag 1969-1975; 1978 to date) The flag of Greece (Greek: , popularly referred to as the Γαλανόλευκη or the Κυανόλευκη, the blue-white) is based on nine equal horizontal stripes of blue alternating... The 92 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, were held in 1992 in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Catalan IPA: (català IPA: or []) is a Romance language, the national language of Andorra, and a co-official language in the Spanish autonomous communities of Balearic Islands, Catalonia and Valencia , and in the city of LAlguer in the Italian island of Sardinia. ... The 1998 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XVIII Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in 1998 in Nagano, Japan. ... Categories: Host cities of the Winter Olympic Games | Cities in Nagano Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Not to be confused with the Javanese language. ...


After all nations have entered, the president of the host country's Olympic Organising Committee makes a speech, followed by the IOC president who, at the end of his speech introduces the person who is going to declare the Games open. Despite the Games having been awarded to a particular city and not to the country in general, the Opener is usually – but not always – the host country's Head of State. So it is this Opener, in turn, who formally opens the Olympics, by reciting the formula: For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ...

«I declare open the Games of (name of city) celebrating the (adjectival numeral) Olympiad of the modern era/Olympic Winter Games.»[30]

Since Adolf Hitler at both the Garmisch Partenkirchen Winter Olympics and at the Berlin Summer Olympics – both in 1936 – the Openers have unswervingly stuck to this formula. Before 1936, however, the Opener often used to make a short Speech of Welcome before declaring the Games open. There have been very many cases where the country's Head of State did not open the Olympics at all. The first example was at the Games of the II Olympiad in Paris in 1900 when there wasn't even an Opening Ceremony. Hitler redirects here. ... The Games of the II Olympics were held in 1900 in Paris, France. ...


There are five examples of this from the United States alone, beginning with the Games of the III Olympiad in St Louis, Missouri where – on 1 July 1904 – Mr David Francis, President of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, performed the ceremony, nobody having even thought of inviting US President Theodore Roosevelt. Then, on 4 February 1932 the then Governor of the State of New York, Franklin D. Roosevelt, opened the III Olympic Winter Games in Lake Placid, New York and later that year, on 30 July 1932, the Vice-President of the United States, Charles Curtis opened the Games of the X Olympiad in Los Angeles, California, stating, however, that he was doing so on behalf of the President, Herbert Hoover. In 1960, the Vice-President of the United States Richard Nixon was sent by President Dwight Eisenhower to open the VIII Olympic Winter Games in Squaw Valley, California, and finally, in 1980, Vice President Walter Mondale, stood in for President Jimmy Carter to open the XIII Olympic Winter Games, also in Lake Placid. The 1904 Summer Olympics, formally known as the Games of the III Olympiad, were held in St. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... FDR redirects here. ... For other places with the same name, see Lake Placid (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the former Vice President of the United States. ... The Games of the X Olympiad were held in 1932 in Los Angeles, United States. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... Herbert Clark Hoover (August 10, 1874 – October 20, 1964), the thirty-first President of the United States (1929–1933), was a world-famous mining engineer and humanitarian administrator. ... The Vice President of the United States is the second-highest executive official of the United States government, the person who is, in the words of Adlai Stevenson, a heartbeat from the presidency. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Dwight David Ike Eisenhower (October 14, 1890–March 28, 1969), American soldier and politician, was the 34th President of the United States (1953–1961) and supreme commander of the Allied forces in Europe during World War II, with the rank of General of the Army. ... The VIII Olympic Winter Games were held in 1960 in Squaw Valley, California, USA. Alexander Cushing, the creator of the resort, campaigned vigorously to win the Games. ... Squaw Valley is a census-designated place located in Fresno County, California, in the United States. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Walter Frederick Fritz Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party (largely established by former Vice President Hubert Humphrey). ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... The XIII Olympic Winter Games were held in 1980 in Lake Placid, New York, United States of America. ...


The most recent example was at the Games of the XXVII Olympiad in Sydney, Australia, where, at the insistence of the Australian Government, it was the Governor-General of Australia Sir William Deane who opened the Games and not Queen Elizabeth (who as Queen of Australia is the Australian Head of State). Throughout the 20th century there were numerous other such instances. The Games of the XXVII Olympiad were held in 2000 in Sydney, Australia. ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... Sir William Deane The Honourable Sir William Patrick Deane AC KBE (born 4 January 1931), Australian judge and 22nd Governor-General of Australia, was born in Melbourne, Victoria. ... Queen Elizabeth, or Elizabeth, may refer to: Elizabeth II, Queen regnant of the Commonwealth Realms Elisabeth I of Bohemia (1292-1330), daughter of Wenceslaus II, wife of John of Luxemburg, mother of Charles IV Elisabeth II of Bohemia (1409-1442), daughter of Emperor Sigismund (2nd son of Emperor Charles IV... Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia, in 1952 and 2002 The title Queen of Australia has existed since 1973, when the Parliament of Australia passed the Royal Style and Titles Act (1973). ...


Next, the Olympic Flag is carried horizontally (since the 1960 Summer Olympics) into the stadium and hoisted as the Olympic Anthem is played. The flag bearers of all countries circle a rostrum, where one athlete (since the 1920 Summer Olympics) and one judge (since the 1972 Summer Olympics) speak the Olympic Oath, declaring they will compete and judge according to the rules.[30] Finally, the Torch is brought into the stadium, passed from athlete to athlete, until it reaches the last carrier of the Torch, often a well-known athlete from the host nation, who lights the fire in the stadium's cauldron.[30] The Olympic Flame has been lit since the 1928 Summer Olympics, but the torch relay did not start until the 1936 Summer Olympics. Beginning at the post-World War I 1920 Summer Olympics, the lighting of the Olympic Flame was for 68 years followed by the release of doves, symbolizing peace.[30] This gesture was discontinued after several doves were burned alive in the Olympic Flame during the opening ceremony of the 1988 Summer Olympics.[31] However, some Opening Ceremonies have continued to include doves in other forms; for example, the 2002 Winter Olympics featured skaters holding kite-like cloth dove puppets. The 1960 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVII Olympiad, were held in 1960 in Rome, Italy. ... // The Olympic Hymn, also known informally as the Olympic Anthem, is a musical piece composed by Spyros Samaras with words taken by a poem of the Greek poet and writer Kostis Palamas. ... Rostrum can mean one of several different things: A rostrum (Latin beak) is an anatomical structure resembling a birds beak, such as the snout of crocodiles or dolphins or the part of the carapace of a crustacean. ... The 1920 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were held in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium. ... The 1972 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, were held in Munich, West Germany, from 26 August to 11 September 1972. ... The Olympic Oath is taken by an athlete and a judge at the opening ceremonies of the Olympic Games. ... The olympic flame at the Athens 2004 Summer Olympics The Olympic Flame or Olympic Fire is a symbol of the Olympic Games. ... The 1928 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the IX Olympiad, were held in 1928 in Amsterdam, Netherlands. ... The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, were held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The 1920 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were held in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium. ... Subfamilies see article text Feral Rock Pigeon beside Weiming Lake, Peking University Dove redirects here. ... Johnson winning the 100 m final The 1988 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIV Olympiad, were held in 1988 in Seoul, South Korea. ...


Opening ceremonies have been held outdoors, usually on the main athletics stadium, but those for the 2010 Winter Olympics will be the first to be held indoors, at the BC Place Stadium.[32] Wikinews has related news: Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games The 2010 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXI Olympic Winter Games, are the next Winter Olympics and will be celebrated in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada in 2010. ... A view of the deflated roof A view of the deflation of the roof An inside view of the deflated roof BC Place Stadium is Canadas first domed stadium and is the largest air-supported stadium in the world[1]. It is located on the north side of False...


Closing

Various traditional elements also frame the closing ceremonies of an Olympic Games, which take place after all of the events have concluded. Flag bearers from each participating delegation enter the stadium in single file, but behind them march all of the athletes without any distinction or grouping of nationality – a tradition that began at the 1956 Summer Olympics at the suggestion of Melbourne schoolboy John Ian Wing, who thought it would be a way of bringing the athletes of the world together as "one nation".[33] (In 2006, the athletes marched in with their countrymen, then dispersed and mingled as the ceremonies went on). The 1956 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVI Olympiad, were held in 1956 in Melbourne, Australia, although the equestrian events could not be held in Australia due to quarantine regulations. ... Neve and Gliz, the 2006 Olympics mascots, on display in Turin The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XX Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in Turin, Italy from February 10, 2006, through February 26, 2006. ...


Three national flags are each hoisted onto flagpoles one at a time while their respective national anthems are played: The flag of Greece on the righthand pole (again honoring the birthplace of the Olympic Games), the flag of the host country on the middle pole, and finally the flag of the host country of the next Summer or Winter Olympic Games, on the lefthand pole.[34] (Exceptionally, in 2004, when the Games were held in Athens, only one flag of Greece was raised.)


In what is known as the "Antwerp Ceremony" (because the tradition started during the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp), the mayor of the city that organized the Games transfers a special Olympic Flag to the president of the IOC, who then passes it on to the mayor of the next city to host the Olympic Games.[34] The receiving mayor then waves the flag eight times. There are three such flags, differing from all other copies in that they have a six-coloured fringe around the flag, and are tied with six coloured ribbons to a flagstaff: The 1920 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were held in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ...

After these traditional elements, the next host nation introduces itself with artistic displays of dance and theatre representative of that country. This tradition began with the 1976 Games. The 1920 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were held in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... The Summer Olympic Games are an international multi-sport event held every four years, organised by the International Olympic Committee. ... Johnson winning the 100 m final The 1988 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIV Olympiad, were held in 1988 in Seoul, South Korea. ... The VI Olympic Winter Games were held in 1952 in Oslo, Norway. ... This article is about the capital of Norway. ... A runner carries the Olympic torch The Winter Olympic Games, Winter Olympics for short but more correctly The Olympic Winter Games, are the cold-weather counterpart to the Summer Olympic Games. ... Johnson winning the 100 m final The 1988 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIV Olympiad, were held in 1988 in Seoul, South Korea. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... The 1976 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXI Olympiad, were held in 1976 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ...


The president of the host country's Olympic Organising Committee makes a speech, followed by the IOC president, who at the end of his speech formally closes the Olympics, by saying:

«I declare the Games of the ... Olympiad/... Olympic Winter Games closed and, in accordance with tradition, I call upon the youth of the world to assemble four years from now in ... to celebrate the Games of the ... Olympiad/... Olympic Winter Games.»

The Olympic Flame is extinguished, and while the Olympic anthem is being played, the Olympic Flag that was hoisted during the opening ceremonies is lowered from the flagpole and horizontally carried out of the stadium.[34]

Olympic sports

Main article: Olympic sports

Currently, the Olympic program consists of 35 different sports, 53 disciplines and more than 400 events. The Summer Olympics includes 28 sports with 38 disciplines and the Winter Olympics includes 7 sports with 15 disciplines.[35] Nine sports were on the original Olympic programme in 1896: athletics, cycling, fencing, gymnastics, weightlifting, shooting, swimming, tennis, and wrestling. If the 1896 rowing events had not been cancelled due to bad weather, they would have been included in this list as well.[36] Archery competition at the Athens 2004 Summer Olympics. ... A womens 400m hurdles race on a typical outdoor red rubber track. ... Police officer on a bicycle Cycling is a means of transport, a form of recreation, and a sport. ... This article is about the sport, which is distinguished from stage fencing and academic fencing (mensur). ... Gymnastics is a sport involving the performance of sequences of movements requiring physical strength, flexibility, balance, endurance, and kinesthetic awareness, such as handsprings, handstands, split leaps, aerials and cartwheels. ... This article is about the sport of weightlifting. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Swimmer redirects here. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... Andrell Durden (top) and Edward Harris grapple for position during the All-Marine Wrestle Offs. ... A coxless pair which is a sweep-oar boat. ...


At the most recent Winter Olympics, seven sports were conducted, or 15 if each sport such as skiing and skating is counted. Of these, cross country skiing, figure skating, ice hockey, Nordic combined, ski jumping, and speed skating have been featured on the programme at all Winter Olympics. In addition, figure skating and ice hockey also have been contested as part of the Summer Games before the introduction of separate Winter Olympics. Cross-country skiing (skating style) in Einsiedeln, Switzerland. ... Outdoor ice skating in Austria Ice skating is travelling on ice with skates, narrow (and sometimes parabolic) blade-like devices moulded into special boots (or, more primitively, without boots, tied to regular footwear). ... Cross-country skiing (aka XC skiing) is an adventure and fitness activity as well as a competitive winter sport popular in many countries with large snowfields, primarily in Europe and Canada. ... Figure skating is an ice skating sporting event where individuals, mixed couples, or groups perform spins, jumps, and other moves on the ice, often to music. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... The Nordic combined is a winter sport in which athletes compete in both cross-country skiing and ski jumping. ... Ski jumping is a sport in which skiers go down an inrun with a take-off ramp (the jump), attempting to go as far as possible. ... Gaetan Boucher training for the 1976 Olympics Speed skating (as well Speedskating) is a form of ice skating in which the competitors attempt to travel a certain distance over the ice as quickly as possible. ...


In recent years, the IOC has added several new sports to the programme to attract attention from young spectators. Examples of such sports include snowboarding and beach volleyball. The growth of the Olympics also means that some less popular (modern pentathlon) or expensive (white water canoeing) sports may lose their place on the Olympic programme. The IOC decided to discontinue baseball and softball beginning in 2012. Snowboarder in a half-pipe Snowboarder riding off cornice Snowboarding contributes greatly to the economies of ski resorts Snowboarding is a sport that involves descending a snow-covered slope on a snowboard that is attached to ones feet using a boot/binding interface. ... For the ball used in this sport, see Volleyball (ball). ... Competitors in the final round of the Mens Modern Pentathlon pull for the finish line at the Goudi Sports Complex on August 26, 2004. ... Canoeing is the recreational or sporting activity of paddling a canoe or kayak. ... This article is about the sport. ... Soft ball is also a sugar stage Softball is a team sport popular around the world but especially in the United States. ...


Rule 48.1 of the Olympic Charter requires that there be a minimum of 15 Olympic sports at each Summer Games. Following its 114th Session (Mexico 2002), the IOC also decided to limit the programme of the Summer Games to a maximum of 28 sports, 301 events, and 10,500 athletes. The Olympic sports are defined as those governed by the International Federations listed in Rule 46 of the Olympic Charter. A two-thirds vote of the IOC is required to amend the Charter to promote a Recognised Federation to Olympic status and therefore make the sports it governs eligible for inclusion on the Olympic programme. Rule 47 of the Charter requires that only Olympic sports may be included in the programme.


The IOC reviews the Olympic programme at the first Session following each Olympiad. A simple majority is required for an Olympic sport to be included in the Olympic programme. Under the current rules, an Olympic sport not selected for inclusion in a particular Games remains an Olympic sport and may be included again later with a simple majority. At the 117th IOC Session, 26 sports were included in the programme for London 2012. Tight security was highly visible during the 117th IOC Session. ...


Until 1992, the Olympics also often featured demonstration sports. The objective was for these sports to reach a larger audience; the winners of these events are not official Olympic champions. These sports were sometimes sports popular only in the host nation, but internationally known sports have also been demonstrated. Some demonstration sports eventually were included as full-medal events. A demonstration sport is a sport which is played in order to promote itself, most commonly during the Olympic Games, but also at other sporting events. ...


Amateurism and professionalism

Further information: Amateurism

The English public schools of the second half of the 19th century had a major influence on many sports. The schools contributed to the rules and influenced the governing bodies of those sports out of all proportion to their size. They subscribed to the Ancient Greek and Roman belief that sport formed an important part of education, an attitude summed up in the saying: mens sana in corpore sano – a sound mind in a healthy body. In this ethos, taking part has more importance than winning, because society expected gentlemen to become all-rounders and not the best at everything. Class prejudice against "trade" reinforced this attitude. The house of the parents of a typical public schoolboy would have a tradesman's entrance, because tradesmen did not rank as the social equals of gentlemen. Apart from class considerations there was the typically English concept of "fairness," in which practicing or training was considered as tantamount to cheating; it meant that you considered it more important to win than to take part. Those who practiced a sport professionally were considered to have an unfair advantage over those who practiced it merely as a "hobby." It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Amateur. ... An independent school in the United Kingdom is a school that relies for all or most of its funding on non-governmental sources. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Mens sana in corpore sano is a famous quotation by Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis. ... For other uses, see Gentleman (disambiguation). ... A tradesman is a skilled manual worker in a particular trade or craft. ...


The public schools had a deep involvement in the development of many team sports including all British codes of football as well as cricket and hockey. The ethos of English public schools greatly influenced Pierre de Coubertin. The International Olympic Committee invited a representative of the Headmasters' Conference (the association of headmasters of the English public schools) to attend their early meetings. The Headmasters' Conference chose the Reverend Robert Laffan, the headmaster of Cheltenham College, as their representative to the IOC meetings. He was made a member of the IOC in 1897 and, following the first visit of the IOC to London in 1904, he was central to the founding of the British Olympic Association a year later.[37][38][39] A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... Bowler Shaun Pollock bowls to batsman Michael Hussey. ... A game of field hockey in progress Field hockey is a popular sport for men and women in many countries around the world. ... The Headmasters and Headmistresses Conference (HMC) is an association of the head teachers of 242 leading British independent boys and mixed schools. ... In the UK and elsewhere, a head teacher is the most senior teacher in a school. ... The Reverend is an honorary prefix added to the names of Christian clergy and ministers. ... Cheltenham College is a famous English coeducational independent school in Cheltenham, Gloucestershire, England. ... The British Olympic Association (BOA) is responsible for the United Kingdoms participation in the Olympic Games. ...


In Coubertin's vision, athletes should be gentlemen. Initially, only amateurs were considered such; professional athletes were not allowed to compete in the Olympic Games. A short-lived exception was made for professional fencing instructors.[40] This exclusion of professionals has caused several controversies throughout the history of the modern Olympics. In professional sports, as opposed to amateur sports, athletes receive payment for their performance. ...


1912 Olympic pentathlon and decathlon champion, Jim Thorpe, was disqualified when it was discovered that he played semi-professional baseball prior to winning his medals. He was restored as champion on compassionate grounds by the IOC in 1983. Swiss and Austrian skiers boycotted the 1936 Winter Olympics in support of their skiing teachers, who were not allowed to compete because they earned money with their sport and were considered professionals. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Decathlon is an athletic event combining 10 track and field events. ... For other uses, see Jim Thorpe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the sport. ... The 1936 Winter Olympics, officially known as the IV Olympic Winter Games, were held in 1936 in the villages of Garmisch and Partenkirchen in Bavaria, Germany. ...


It gradually became clear to many that the amateurism rules had become outdated, not least because the self-financed amateurs of Western countries often were no match for the state-sponsored "full-time amateurs" of Eastern bloc countries. Nevertheless, the IOC held to the traditional rules regarding amateurism. In the 1970s, amateurism requirements were dropped from the Olympic Charter, leaving decisions on professional participation to the international federation for each sport. This switch was perhaps best exemplified by the American Dream Team, composed of well-paid NBA stars, which won the Olympic gold medal in basketball in 1992. As of 2004, the only sport in which no professionals compete is boxing (though even this requires a loose definition of amateurism, as some boxers receive cash prizes from their NOCs); in men's football (soccer), the number of players over 23 years of age is limited to three per team. A sport governing body comes in several forms. ... The Dream Team was the unofficial nickname of the United States mens basketball team that won the gold medal at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, Spain. ... NBA redirects here. ... This article is about the sport. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other senses of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer (disambiguation). ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ...


Advertisement regulations are still very strict, at least on the actual playing field, although "Official Olympic Sponsors" are common. Athletes are only allowed to have the names of clothing and equipment manufacturers on their outfits. The sizes of these markings are limited.


Olympic champions and medalists

Ray Ewry is the only competitor with ten modern Olympic titles, but two of them are from the 1906 Intercalated Games, which are presently not included in the official records, where he is surpassed by a number of people, including four with nine gold medals each.
See also: List of multiple Olympic gold medalists

The athletes (or teams) who place first, second, or third in each event receive medals. The winners receive "gold medals". (Though they were solid gold until 1912, they are now made of gilded silver.) The runners-up receive silver medals, and the third-place athletes bronze medals. In some events contested by a single-elimination tournament (most notably boxing), third place might not be determined, in which case both semi-final losers receive bronze medals. The practice of awarding medals to the top three competitors was introduced in 1904; at the 1896 Olympics only the first two received a medal, silver and bronze, while various prizes were awarded in 1900. However, the 1904 Olympics also awarded silver trophies for first place, which makes Athens 1906 the first games that awarded the three medals only. In addition, from 1948 onward athletes placing fourth, fifth and sixth have received certificates which became officially known as "victory diplomas;" since 1976 the medal winners have received these also, and in 1984 victory diplomas for seventh- and eighth-place finishers were added, presumably to ensure that all losing quarter-finalists in events using single-elimination formats would receive diplomas, thus obviating the need for consolation (or officially, "classification") matches to determine fifth through eighth places (though interestingly these latter are still contested in many elimination events anyway). Certificates were awarded also at the 1896 Olympics, but there they were awarded in addition to the medals to first and second place. Commemorative medals and diplomas — which differ in design from those referred to above — are also made available to participants finishing lower than third and eighth respectively. At the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, the first three were given wreaths as well as their medals. Ray C. Ewry. ... Ray C. Ewry. ... Raymond Clarence Ray Ewry (October 14, 1873 – September 29, 1937) was an American track and field athlete who won 8 gold medals at the Olympic Games and 2 gold medals at the Intercalated Games (1906 in Athens). ... The 1906 Summer Olympics, also called the 1906 Intercalated Games, were held in Athens, Greece. ... This article gives lists of Olympic medalists for those Olympic Games sports where such lists have been created in Wikipedia. ... This is a list of multiple Olympic gold medalists, listing people who have won three or more Olympic gold medals. ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... A gilded Tibetan Vajrasattva Gilding is the art of applying metal leaf (most commonly gold or silver leaf) to a surface. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... A single-elimination tournament, also called a knockout or sudden death tournament, is a type of tournament where the loser of each match is immediately eliminated from winning the championship or first prize in the event. ... For other senses of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer (disambiguation). ... The 1896 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad, were held in 1896 in Athens, Greece. ... The 1900 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the II Olympiad, were held in 1900 in Paris, France. ... The 1904 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the III Olympiad, were held in St. ... The 1906 Summer Olympics, also called the 1906 Intercalated Games, were held in Athens, Greece. ... The ceremony for the lighting of the flame is arranged as a pagan pageant, with priestesses dancing. ...


Because the Olympics are held only once every four years, the public and athletes often consider them as more important and valuable than world championships and other international tournaments, which are often held annually. Many athletes have become celebrities or heroes in their own country, or even world-wide, after becoming Olympic champions.


The diversity of the sports, and the great differences between the Olympic Games in 1896 and today make it difficult to decide which athlete is the most successful Olympic athlete of all time. This is further complicated since the IOC no longer recognises the Intercalated Games which it originally organised. When measuring by the number of titles won at the Modern Olympic Games, the following athletes may be considered the most successful. The Intercalated Olympic Games were to be a series of International Olympic Games half-way between what we now call Games of the olympiad. ...

Athlete Nation Sport Olympics 1st 2nd 3rd Total
Latynina, LarissaLarissa Latynina Flag of the Soviet Union URS Gymnastics 1956–1964 9 5 4 18
Andrianov, NikolaiNikolai Andrianov Flag of the Soviet Union URS Gymnastics 1972–1980 7 5 3 15
Nurmi, PaavoPaavo Nurmi Flag of Finland FIN Athletics 1920–1928 9 3 0 12
Spitz, MarkMark Spitz Flag of the United States USA Swimming 1968–1972 9 1 1 11
Lewis, CarlCarl Lewis Flag of the United States USA Athletics 1984–1996 9 1 0 10
Dæhlie, BjørnBjørn Dæhlie Flag of Norway NOR Cross-country skiing 1992–1998 8 4 0 12
Fischer, BirgitBirgit Fischer Flag of the German Democratic Republic GDR / Flag of Germany GER Canoeing (flatwater) 1980–2004 8 4 0 12
Kato, SawaoSawao Kato Flag of Japan JPN Gymnastics 1968–1976 8 3 1 12
Thompson, JennyJenny Thompson Flag of the United States USA Swimming 1992–2004 8 3 1 12
Biondi, MattMatt Biondi Flag of the United States USA Swimming 1984–1992 8 2 1 11
Ewry, RayRay Ewry Flag of the United States USA Athletics 1900–1908 8 0 0 8

Larisa Semyonovna Latynina (Russian: Лариса Семёновна Латынина; born December 27, 1934 in Kherson, Ukraine, U.S.S.R.) was a Soviet gymnast. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Gymnastics is a sport involving the performance of sequences of movements requiring physical strength, flexibility, balance, endurance, and kinesthetic awareness, such as handsprings, handstands, split leaps, aerials and cartwheels. ... Nikolai Andrianov Nikolai Efimovich Andrianov (Russian:Николай Ефимович Андрианов) (b. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... CCCP redirects here. ... Gymnastics is a sport involving the performance of sequences of movements requiring physical strength, flexibility, balance, endurance, and kinesthetic awareness, such as handsprings, handstands, split leaps, aerials and cartwheels. ... Paavo Johannes Nurmi ( ) (June 13, 1897 Turku – October 2, 1973 Helsinki) was a Finnish runner. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Anthem Maamme(Finnish) VÃ¥rt land(Swedish) Our Land Finland() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() Capital (and largest city) Helsinki Official languages Finnish, Swedish (Finland Swedish) Demonym Finnish Government Parliamentary democracy²  -  President Tarja Halonen (sd)  -  Prime Minister Matti Vanhanen (c) Independence from Bolshevist Russia   -  Autonomy March 29... A womens 400m hurdles race on a typical outdoor red rubber track. ... Mark Andrew Spitz (born February 10, 1950, in Modesto, California) is a American swimmer. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Swimmer redirects here. ... Frederick Carlton Carl Lewis (born July 1, 1961) is a retired American track and field athlete who won 10 Olympic medals including 9 golds (He received the gold medal in the 100 meters in 1988 Olympics after Ben Johnson was disqualified for using drugs), and 10 World Championships medals, of... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A womens 400m hurdles race on a typical outdoor red rubber track. ... Bjørn Dæhlie (born June 19, 1967) is a Norwegian former cross-country skier. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... For other uses, see Norway (disambiguation). ... Cross-Country trails are often less crowded than Alpine ski slopes. ... Birgit Fischer (born 25 February 1962 in Brandenburg an der Havel, then East Germany) is a kayaker, who has won 8 gold medals over a record 6 different Olympic Games: twice representing East Germany, then four times representing the reunited nation. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_East_Germany. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... “Deutschland” redirects here. ... // This article is about flatwater canoe racing. ... Sawao Kato (加藤 沢男 Katō Sawao, born October 11, 1946) is a Japanese gymnast and one of the most successful athletes of all time at the Olympic Games. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... This article is about the country in East Asia. ... Gymnastics is a sport involving the performance of sequences of movements requiring physical strength, flexibility, balance, endurance, and kinesthetic awareness, such as handsprings, handstands, split leaps, aerials and cartwheels. ... Jennifer Thompson (born February 26, 1973), a swimmer, is one of the most decorated Olympians in history, winning twelve medals, including eight golds, while representing the United States of America in the 1992, 1996, 2000, and 2004 Summer Olympics. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Swimmer redirects here. ... Matthew (Matt) Nicholas Biondi (born October 8, 1965 in Palo Alto, California) is a three-time U.S. Olympic swimmer in the 1984, 1988, and 1992 Summer Olympics, winning a total of 11 medals. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Swimmer redirects here. ... Raymond Clarence Ray Ewry (October 14, 1873 – September 29, 1937) was an American track and field athlete who won 8 gold medals at the Olympic Games and 2 gold medals at the Intercalated Games (1906 in Athens). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... A womens 400m hurdles race on a typical outdoor red rubber track. ...

Medals per country

The IOC does not publish lists of medals per country, but the media often does. A comparison between countries would be unfair to countries with fewer inhabitants, so some have made calculations of medals per number of inhabitants, such as [1] for the 2004 Olympics and [2] for a few more. A problem here is that for a very small country, gaining just one medal could mean the difference between the very top and the very bottom of the list (a point illustrated by the Bahamas' per capita number one position in 2004). On the other hand, a large country may not be able to send a number of athletes that is proportional to its size because a limit is set for the number of participants per country for a specific sport.


A comparison of the total number of medals over time is further complicated by the fact that the number of times that countries have participated is not equal, and that many countries have gained and lost territories where medal-winning athletes come from. A point in case is the USSR, which not only participated relatively rarely (18 times, versus 44 times for the USA and 45 times for the UK), but also ceased to exist in 1991. The resulting Russian Federation is largely, but not entirely equal to the former USSR. Also, one would have to use population statistics at the time.


The IOC medal tally chart is based on the number of gold medals for country. Where states are equal, the number of silver medals (and then bronze medals) are counted to determine rankings. Since 1996, the only countries that have appeared in the top 10 medal tallies for summer Olympics have been the Russian Federation, United States, China, France, Germany, Australia and Italy. Since 1994, the only countries that have appeared in the top 10 medal tallies for winter Olympics have been Norway, the Russian Federation, United States, Canada, Germany, Austria and Italy. However, in overall, Norway have the highest medal count for the winter olympics for all years.


Olympic Games host cities

By 2010, the Olympic Games will have been hosted by 41 cities in 22 countries. In 2012, London will become the first city to have hosted the Olympic Games three times.


The number in parentheses following the city/country denotes how many times that city/country had then hosted the games. This table excludes modern international Olympic Games held before the foundation of the International Olympic Committee.

Olympic Games host cities
Summer Olympic Games Winter Olympic Games
Year Host city Country Host city Country
1896 I Athens (1) Flag of Greece Greece (1)
1900 II Paris (1) Flag of France France (1)
1904 III St. Louis, Missouri(1) (1) Flag of the United States United States (1)
1906 Int'd Athens Flag of Greece Greece
1908 IV London, England (1) Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom (1)
1912 V Stockholm (1) Flag of Sweden Sweden (1)
1916 VI (2) Berlin Flag of Germany Germany
1920 VII Antwerp (1) Flag of Belgium Belgium (1)
1924 VIII Paris (2) Flag of France France (2) I Chamonix (1) Flag of France France (1)
1928 IX Amsterdam (1) Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands (1) II St Moritz (1) Flag of Switzerland Switzerland (1)
1932 X Los Angeles, California(1) Flag of the United States United States (2) III Lake Placid, New York (1) Flag of the United States United States (1)
1936 XI Berlin (1) Flag of Germany Germany (1) IV Garmisch-Partenkirchen (1) Flag of Germany Germany (1)
1940 XII (3) Tokyo
Helsinki
Flag of Japan Japan
Flag of Finland Finland
V (3) Sapporo
St Moritz
Garmisch-Partenkirchen
Flag of Japan Japan
Flag of Switzerland Switzerland
Flag of Germany Germany
1944 XIII (3) London, England Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom V (3) Cortina d'Ampezzo Flag of Italy Italy
1948 XIV London, England (2) Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom (2) V St Moritz (2) Flag of Switzerland Switzerland (2)
1952 XV Helsinki (1) Flag of Finland Finland (1) VI Oslo (1) Flag of Norway Norway (1)
1956 XVI Melbourne (1) +
Stockholm (2)(4)
Flag of Australia Australia (1) +
Flag of Sweden Sweden (2)
VII Cortina d'Ampezzo (1) Flag of Italy Italy (1)
1960 XVII Rome (1) Flag of Italy Italy (1) VIII Squaw Valley, California (1) Flag of the United States United States (2)
1964 XVIII Tokyo (1) Flag of Japan Japan (1) IX Innsbruck (1) Flag of Austria Austria (1)
1968 XIX Mexico City (1) Flag of Mexico Mexico (1) X Grenoble (1) Flag of France France (2)
1972 XX Munich (1) Flag of West Germany West Germany (2) XI Sapporo (1) Flag of Japan Japan (1)
1976 XXI Montreal, Quebec (1) Flag of Canada Canada (1) XII Innsbruck (2) Flag of Austria Austria (2)
1980 XXII Moscow (1) Flag of the Soviet Union Soviet Union (1) XIII Lake Placid, New York (2) Flag of the United States United States (3)
1984 XXIII Los Angeles, California (2) Flag of the United States United States (3) XIV Sarajevo (1) Flag of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia (1)
1988 XXIV Seoul (1) Flag of South Korea South Korea (1) XV Calgary, Alberta (1) Flag of Canada Canada (1)
1992 XXV Barcelona (1) Flag of Spain Spain (1) XVI Albertville (1) Flag of France France (3)
1994 XVII Lillehammer (1) Flag of Norway Norway (2)
1996 XXVI Atlanta, Georgia (1) Flag of the United States United States (4)
1998 XVIII Nagano (1) Flag of Japan Japan (2)
2000 XXVII Sydney (1) Flag of Australia Australia (2)
2002 XIX Salt Lake City, Utah (1) Flag of the United States United States (4)
2004 XXVIII Athens (2) Flag of Greece Greece (2)
2006 XX Turin (1) Flag of Italy Italy (2)
2008 XXIX Beijing (1) +
Hong Kong (1)(5)
Flag of the People's Republic of China China (1)
2010 XXI Vancouver, British Columbia (1) Flag of Canada Canada (2)
2012 XXX London, England (3) Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom (3)
2014 XXII Sochi (1) Flag of Russia Russia (1)
1 Originally awarded to Chicago, but moved to St. Louis to coincide with the World's Fair
2 Canceled due to World War I
3 Canceled due to World War II
4 Equestrian events were held in Stockholm, Sweden.
5 Equestrian events will be held in Hong Kong.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Olympic Games. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved on 2006-12-27.
  2. ^ "Introduction - The Summer Games and Winter Games", The Modern Olympic Games (pdf), International Olympic Committee, p. 2. Retrieved on 2007-01-11. 
  3. ^ Ancient Olympic Games. Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2006. Microsoft Corporation (1997-2006). Retrieved on 2006-12-27.
  4. ^ a b c David C. Young, The Modern Olympics - A Struggle for Revival, published by The Johns Hopkins University Press in 1996, ISBN 0-8018-5374-5
  5. ^ London Review, September 15, 1860.
  6. ^ Olympic Games- Recent Developments. Microsoft® Encarta® Online Encyclopedia 2006. Microsoft Corporation (1997-2006). Retrieved on 2006-12-27.
  7. ^ "Beijing 2008: Games Programme Finalised", International Olympic Committee, 2006-04-27. Retrieved on 2006-05-10. 
  8. ^ Turin 2006. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved on 2006-12-27.
  9. ^ Ancient Olympic Games- Gods. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  10. ^ a b Ancient Olympic Games- Athletes. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  11. ^ The Ancient Olympic Games. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  12. ^ Ancient Olympic Games- History. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  13. ^ "Marshall Islands joins Olympic Family", ONOC, 2006-02-10. Retrieved on 2006-12-17. 
  14. ^ Melbourne/Stockholm 1956: Did you know?. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  15. ^ Montreal 1976: Did you know?. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  16. ^ The One-China Principle and the Taiwan Issue. PRC Taiwan Affairs Office and the Information Office of the State Council (2005). Retrieved on 2006-03-06.
  17. ^ Burns, John F. Protests are Issue: Russians Charge ‘Gross Flouting’ of the Ideals of the Competition. New York Times, 9 May 1984
  18. ^ 1980 Moscow Olympic Games. Moscow-Life. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  19. ^ Los Angeles 1984: Did you know?. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  20. ^ The Nazi Olympics. The American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise (2006). Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  21. ^ Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd edition, volume 24 (part 1), p. 286, Moscow, Sovetskaya Entsiklopediya publisher, 1976
  22. ^ "1968: Black athletes make silent protest", BBC. Retrieved on 2006-12-28. 
  23. ^ "Games hit by crisis over Iran-Israel contest", ABC, 2004-08-16. Retrieved on 2007-04-01. 
  24. ^ Article on CBC Archives
  25. ^ Olympic Park Bombing. CNN. Retrieved on December 28, 2006.
  26. ^ "U.S. Customs Airspace Security Effort at 2002 Winter Olympics A Success", Department of Homeland Security, 2002-02-28. Retrieved on 2006-12-28. 
  27. ^ Wright, Stephen E.. "Gay Games to take 'Olympics' fight to Congress" (fee required), San Jose Mercury News, 1987-06-26. Retrieved on 2006-12-26. 
  28. ^ "The development of the Games - Between festival and tradition", The Modern Olympic Games (PDF), International Olympic Committee, p. 5. Retrieved on 2007-01-10. 
  29. ^ Cite error 8; No text given.
  30. ^ Cite error 8; No text given.
  31. ^ When messengers of peace were burnt alive. Deccan Herald (2004-08-13). Retrieved on 2007-01-10.
  32. ^ Opening and Closing Ceremonies. Vancouver Organizing Committee for the 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games (VANOC) (2006). Retrieved on 2007-01-10.
  33. ^ Melbourne (Equestrian - Stockholm) 1956. British Olympic Association. Retrieved on 2007-01-10.
  34. ^ Cite error 8; No text given.
  35. ^ Sports. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
  36. ^ The Olympic Games. AAFLA. Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
  37. ^ Steve Baily A Noble Ally and Olympic Disciple: The Reverend Robert S. de Courcy Laffan, Coubertin's 'man' in EnglandPDF (201 KiB)
  38. ^ Steve Baily The Reverend Robert S. de Courcy Laffan: Baron Pierre de Coubertin and the Olympic MovementPDF
  39. ^ Victorian and Edwardian Sporting Values Produced in Poland by British Council © 2003.
  40. ^ Australian Olympic Committee. "Fencing".

References

  • Buchanan, Ian (2001). Historical dictionary of the Olympic movement. Lanham: Scarecrow Presz. ISBN 978-0-8108-4054-6. 
  • Kamper, Erich; Mallon, Bill (1992). The Golden Book of the Olympic Games. Milan: Vallardi & Associati. ISBN 978-88-85202-35-1. 
  • Simson, Vyv; Jennings, Andrew (1992). Dishonored Games: Corruption, Money, and Greed at the Olympics. New Tork: S.P.I. Books. ISBN 978-1-56171-199-4. 
  • Wallechinsky, David (2000). The Complete Book of the Summer Olympics, Sydney 2000 Edition. Overlook Press. ISBN 978-1-58567-033-8. 
  • Wallechinsky, David (2001). The Complete Book of the Winter Olympics, Salt Lake City 2002 Edition. Overlook Press. ISBN 978-1-58567-195-3. 
  • Wallechinsky, David (2004). The Complete Book of the Summer Olympics, Athens 2004 Edition. SportClassic Books. ISBN 978-1-894963-32-9. 
  • Wallechinsky, David (2005). The Complete Book of the Winter Olympics, Turin 2006 Edition. SportClassic Books. ISBN 978-1-894963-45-9. 
  • Preuss, Holger; Marcia Semitiel García (2005). The Economics of Staging the Olympics: A Comparison of the Games 1972-2008. Edward Elgar Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84376-893-7. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Olympics Portal

Official websites

Other links

Olympic Games
v  d  e
SportsMedal countsNOCs
MedalistsSymbols
Summer Games: 1896, 1900, 1904, 19061, 1908, 1912, (1916)2, 1920, 1924, 1928, 1932, 1936, (1940)2, (1944)2,3, 1948, 1952, 1956, 1960, 1964, 1968, 1972, 1976, 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012, 2016, 2020, 2024, 2028
Winter Games: 1924, 1928, 1932, 1936, (1940)2, (1944)2, 1948, 1952, 1956, 1960, 1964, 1968, 1972, 1976, 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1994, 1998, 2002, 2006, 2010, 2014, 2018, 2022
Summer Youth Games: 2010
Winter Youth Games: 2012
Athens 2004Turin 2006Beijing 2008Vancouver 2010London 2012Sochi 2014

Poster for the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp. ... An athlete carries the Olympic torch The Winter Olympic Games are a winter multi-sport event held every four years. ... The 1896 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad, were held in 1896 in Athens, Greece. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... The 1900 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the II Olympiad, were held in 1900 in Paris, France. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The 1904 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the III Olympiad, were held in St. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... Image File history File links US_flag_45_stars. ... The 1906 Summer Olympics, also called the 1906 Intercalated Games, were held in Athens, Greece. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... The 1908 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the IV Olympiad, were held in 1908 in London, England. ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The 1912 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the V Olympiad, were held in 1912 in Stockholm, Sweden. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... The Games of the VI Olympiad were to have been held in 1916 in Berlin, Germany. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... The 1920 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were held in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium. ... For other uses, see Antwerp (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... The Games of the VIII Olympiad were held in 1924 in Paris, France. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The 1924 Winter Olympics, officially known as the I Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in 1924 in Chamonix, France. ... Panorama of Chamonix valley Chamonix-Mont-Blanc or, more commonly, Chamonix is a town and commune in eastern France, in the Haute-Savoie département, at the foot of Mont Blanc. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The 1928 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the IX Olympiad, were held in 1928 in Amsterdam, Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... The II Olympic Winter Games were held in 1928 in Sankt-Moritz, Switzerland. ... St. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... The 1932 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the X Olympiad, were held in 1932 in Los Angeles, California, United States. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... The 1932 Winter Olympics, officially known as the III Olympic Winter Games, were held in 1932 in Lake Placid, New York, United States. ... For other places with the same name, see Lake Placid (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ... The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, were held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... The 1936 Winter Olympics, officially known as the IV Olympic Winter Games, were held in 1936 in the villages of Garmisch and Partenkirchen in Bavaria, Germany. ... Garmisch-Partenkirchen (29,875 inhabitants; 01-01-2004) is a market town, and the administrative centre of the district of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, in the Oberbayern region of Bavaria, Germany, near the border with Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... The Games of the XII Olympiad originally programmed to celebrated between September 21 to October 6, 1940 were cancelled due to World War II. Originally slated to be held in Tokyo, Japan, but the Games were given back to the IOC, because the Second Sino-Japanese War broke out in... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - City manager Jussi Pajunen Area  - City 187. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... The anticipated V Olympic Winter Games were cancelled due to World War II. They were to have been held in Sapporo, Japan. ... Sapporo redirects here. ... St. ... Garmisch-Partenkirchen (29,875 inhabitants; 01-01-2004) is a market town, and the administrative centre of the district of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, in the Oberbayern region of Bavaria, Germany, near the border with Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... The Games of the XIII Olympiad were cancelled due to World War II. They were to have been held in London, United Kingdom. ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The anticipated V Olympic Winter Games were cancelled due to World War II. They were to have been held in Cortina dAmpezzo, Italy. ... Cortina dAmpezzo is a town and municipality in the province of Belluno, Veneto, northern Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... The Games of the XIV Olympiad were held in 1948 at Wembley Stadium in London, England. ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The V Olympic Winter Games were held in St. ... St. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... The 1952 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XV Olympiad, were held in 1952 in Helsinki, Finland. ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - City manager Jussi Pajunen Area  - City 187. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... The VI Olympic Winter Games were held in 1952 in Oslo, Norway. ... This article is about the capital of Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... The 1956 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVI Olympiad, were held in 1956 in Melbourne, Australia, although the equestrian events could not be held in Australia due to quarantine regulations. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... The VII Olympic Winter Games were held in 1956 in Cortina dAmpezzo, Italy. ... Cortina dAmpezzo is a town and municipality in the province of Belluno, Veneto, northern Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... The 1960 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVII Olympiad, were held in 1960 in Rome, Italy. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... The 1960 Winter Olympics, officially known as the VIII Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in 1960 in Squaw Valley, California, United States (located in the Lake Tahoe basin). ... Lake Tahoe from Squaw Valley. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Image File history File links US_flag_49_stars. ... The 1964 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVIII Olympiad, were held in 1964 in Tokyo, Japan. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... The 1964 Winter Olympics, officially known as the IX Olympic Winter Games, were held in 1964 in Innsbruck, Austria. ... Innsbruck is a city in western Austria, and the capital of the federal state of Tyrol. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... The 1968 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad, were held in Mexico City in 1968. ... Nickname: Motto: Capital en movimiento Location of Mexico City in south central Mexico Coordinates: , Country Federal entity Boroughs The 16 delegaciones Founded c. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... The 1968 Winter Olympics, officially known as the X Olympic Winter Games, were held in 1968 Grenoble, France and opened on February 6. ... Grenoble (Arpitan: Grasanòbol) is a city and commune in south-east France situated at the foot of the Alps where the Drac joins the Isère River. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The 1972 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, were held in Munich, West Germany, from 26 August to 11 September 1972. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sapporo redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... The 1976 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXI Olympiad, were held in 1976 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The 1976 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XII Olympic Winter Games, were held in 1976 in Innsbruck, Austria. ... Innsbruck is a city in western Austria, and the capital of the federal state of Tyrol. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Badge, released in the USSR The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad, were held in Moscow in the Soviet Union. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... The 1980 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XIII Olympic Winter Games, were held in 1980 in Lake Placid, New York, United States of America. ... For other places with the same name, see Lake Placid (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Music sample: Olympic Fanfare and Theme ( file info) — composed by John Williams for the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles Problems listening to the file? See media help. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Largest metro area Greater Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The 1984 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XIV Olympic Winter Games, were held in 1984 in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Yugoslavia. ... Map of Bosnia and Herzegovina (Sarajevo) Coordinates: , Country Entity Canton Sarajevo Canton Government  - Mayor Semiha Borovac (SDA) Area [1]  - City 141. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_SFR_Yugoslavia. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throuout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... Johnson winning the 100 m final The 1988 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIV Olympiad, were held in 1988 in Seoul, South Korea. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... The 1988 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XV Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in Calgary, Alberta, Canada and opened by Governor General Jeanne Sauvé. The Olympics were highly successful financially as they brought in million-dollar profits. ... This article is about the Canadian city. ... Motto: Fortis et liber(Latin) Strong and free Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Official languages English (see below) Government - Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong - Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 28 - Senate seats 6 Confederation September 1, 1905 (split from Northwest Territories) (8th [Province]) Area Ranked... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The 92 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, were held in 1992 in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... The 1992 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XVI Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in 1992 in Albertville, France. ... Albertville is a town and commune in southeast France, in the Savoie département, in the French Alps. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The 1994 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XVII Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in 1994 in Lillehammer, Norway. ... County Oppland District Gudbrandsdal Municipality NO-0501 Administrative centre Lillehammer Mayor (2005) Synnøve Brenden Klemetrud (Ap) Official language form BokmÃ¥l Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 211 477 km² 450 km² 0. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... The 1996 Summer h Olympics, formally known as the Games of the XXVI Olympiad and informally known as the Centennial Olympics, were held in 1996 in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. ... This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The 1998 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XVIII Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in 1998 in Nagano, Japan. ... Categories: Host cities of the Winter Olympic Games | Cities in Nagano Prefecture | Japan geography stubs ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ... The 2000 Summer Olympics or the Millennium Games/Games of the New Millennium, officially known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad, were the Summer Olympic Games held in 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ... This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The 2002 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XIX Olympic Winter Games, and with the theme slogan Light The Fire Within, were celebrated in 2002 in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is Salt Lake Citys top tourist draw. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The ceremony for the lighting of the flame is arranged as a pagan pageant, with priestesses dancing. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Neve and Gliz, the 2006 Olympics mascots, on display in Turin The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XX Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in Turin, Italy from February 10, 2006, through February 26, 2006. ... For other uses, see Turin (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... The 2008 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, will be celebrated from August 8, 2008 to August 24, 2008, with the opening ceremony commencing at 08:08:08 pm at the Beijing National Stadium in Beijing, Peoples Republic of China. ... “Peking” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Wikinews has related news: Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games The 2010 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXI Olympic Winter Games, are the next Winter Olympics and will be celebrated in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada in 2010. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th - Total 944,735 km... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... “London 2012” redirects here. ... London — containing the City of London — is the capital of the United Kingdom and of England and a major world city. With over seven million inhabitants (Londoners) in Greater London area, it is amongst the most densely populated areas in Western Europe. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXII Olympic Winter Games, is an international winter multiple sports event that will be celebrated from February 7 to February 23, 2014. ... Sochi (Russian: , IPA: [soʨɪ]) is a Russian resort city, situated in Krasnodar Krai just north of the southern Russian border. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... The Gateway Arch, shown here behind the Old Courthouse, is the most recognizable part of the St. ... Entrance to Creation Exhibit on the Pike Map of the St. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A young rider at a horse show in Australia. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ... Athens Olympic Stadium The Olympic Stadium is the name usually given to the big centrepiece stadium of the Summer Olympic Games. ... At the 117th IOC Session, Londons bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics emerged victorious among bids from Madrid, Moscow, New York City and Paris. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Olympic Cup (French: Coupe Olympique) is an award given annually by the International Olympic Committee. ... The Olympic Order is the highest award of the Olympic Movement, created by the International Olympic Committee in May 1975 as a successor to the Olympic Certificate previously awarded. ... The Pierre de Coubertin medal (also known as the De Coubertin medal or the True Spirit of Sportsmanship medal) is a special medal given by the International Olympic Committee to those athletes that demonstrate the spirit of sportsmanship in Olympics events. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 11th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Oceania National Olympic Committees (acronym: ONOC) is an international organisation that congregates the 16 national Olympic committees (NOCs) of Oceania. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Title page of the 3rd ed. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The British Olympic Association (BOA) is responsible for the United Kingdoms participation in the Olympic Games. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The LA84 Foundation (known until June 2007 as the Amateur Athletic Foundation of Los Angeles) is a private, nonprofit institution created by the Los Angeles Olympic Organizing Committee to manage Southern Californias endowment from the 1984 Olympic Games. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... “PDF” redirects here. ... Logo of the British Council British Council building in London British Council, Hong Kong The British Council is one of the UKs cultural relations organisations and which specialises in educational opportunities. ... David Wallechinsky (born 5 February 1948) is an Olympic historian, who worked as commentator for NBC Olympic coverage and is the author of many Olympic reference books and other reference books. ... David Wallechinsky (born 5 February 1948) is an Olympic historian, who worked as commentator for NBC Olympic coverage and is the author of many Olympic reference books and other reference books. ... David Wallechinsky (born 5 February 1948) is an Olympic historian, who worked as commentator for NBC Olympic coverage and is the author of many Olympic reference books and other reference books. ... David Wallechinsky (born 5 February 1948) is an Olympic historian, who worked as commentator for NBC Olympic coverage and is the author of many Olympic reference books and other reference books. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... Archery competition at the Athens 2004 Summer Olympics. ... The International Olympic Committee (IOC) allocates three-letter country codes to all National Olympic Committees and other groups competing in the Olympic Games. ... This article gives lists of Olympic medalists for those Olympic Games sports where such lists have been created in Wikipedia. ... The Olympic symbols are various logos, icons, flags and symbols used by the International Olympic Committee for various aspects related to the promotion of the Olympic Movement around the world. ... Poster for the 1920 Summer Olympics in Antwerp. ... The 1896 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the I Olympiad, were held in 1896 in Athens, Greece. ... The 1900 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the II Olympiad, were held in 1900 in Paris, France. ... The 1904 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the III Olympiad, were held in St. ... The 1906 Summer Olympics, also called the 1906 Intercalated Games, were held in Athens, Greece. ... The 1908 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the IV Olympiad, were held in 1908 in London, England. ... The 1912 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the V Olympiad, were held in 1912 in Stockholm, Sweden. ... The Games of the VI Olympiad were to have been held in 1916 in Berlin, Germany. ... The 1920 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the VII Olympiad, were held in 1920 in Antwerp, Belgium. ... The Games of the VIII Olympiad were held in 1924 in Paris, France. ... The 1928 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the IX Olympiad, were held in 1928 in Amsterdam, Netherlands. ... The 1932 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the X Olympiad, were held in 1932 in Los Angeles, California, United States. ... The 1936 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XI Olympiad, were held in 1936 in Berlin, Germany. ... The Games of the XII Olympiad originally programmed to celebrated between September 21 to October 6, 1940 were cancelled due to World War II. Originally slated to be held in Tokyo, Japan, but the Games were given back to the IOC, because the Second Sino-Japanese War broke out in... The Games of the XIII Olympiad were cancelled due to World War II. They were to have been held in London, United Kingdom. ... The Games of the XIV Olympiad were held in 1948 at Wembley Stadium in London, England. ... The 1952 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XV Olympiad, were held in 1952 in Helsinki, Finland. ... The 1956 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVI Olympiad, were held in 1956 in Melbourne, Australia, although the equestrian events could not be held in Australia due to quarantine regulations. ... The 1960 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVII Olympiad, were held in 1960 in Rome, Italy. ... The 1964 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVIII Olympiad, were held in 1964 in Tokyo, Japan. ... The 1968 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIX Olympiad, were held in Mexico City in 1968. ... The 1972 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, were held in Munich, West Germany, from 26 August to 11 September 1972. ... The 1976 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXI Olympiad, were held in 1976 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... Badge, released in the USSR The 1980 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXII Olympiad, were held in Moscow in the Soviet Union. ... Music sample: Olympic Fanfare and Theme ( file info) — composed by John Williams for the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles Problems listening to the file? See media help. ... Johnson winning the 100 m final The 1988 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIV Olympiad, were held in 1988 in Seoul, South Korea. ... The 92 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, were held in 1992 in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. ... The 1996 Summer h Olympics, formally known as the Games of the XXVI Olympiad and informally known as the Centennial Olympics, were held in 1996 in Atlanta, Georgia, United States. ... The 2000 Summer Olympics or the Millennium Games/Games of the New Millennium, officially known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad, were the Summer Olympic Games held in 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ... The ceremony for the lighting of the flame is arranged as a pagan pageant, with priestesses dancing. ... The 2008 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, will be celebrated from August 8, 2008 to August 24, 2008, with the opening ceremony commencing at 08:08:08 pm at the Beijing National Stadium in Beijing, Peoples Republic of China. ... “London 2012” redirects here. ... The 2016 Summer Olympics, officially the Games of the XXXI Olympiad, is a major international sports and cultural festival to be celebrated in the tradition of the Olympic Games as governed by the International Olympic Committee. ... The 2020 Summer Olympics The International Olympic Committee has yet to begin the selection process for the host city; the site of the Games of the XXXII Olympiad—as they will be officially known—is expected to be announced in the summer of 2013. ... The 2024 Summer Olympics, what will be officially known as the Games of the XXXIII Olympiad, is an international athletic event that has yet to be organized by the International Olympic Committee. ... The 2028 Summer Olympics, what will be officially known as the Games of the XXXIV Olympiad, is an international athletic event that has yet to be organized by the International Olympic Committee. ... An athlete carries the Olympic torch The Winter Olympic Games are a winter multi-sport event held every four years. ... The 1924 Winter Olympics, officially known as the I Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in 1924 in Chamonix, France. ... The II Olympic Winter Games were held in 1928 in Sankt-Moritz, Switzerland. ... The 1932 Winter Olympics, officially known as the III Olympic Winter Games, were held in 1932 in Lake Placid, New York, United States. ... The 1936 Winter Olympics, officially known as the IV Olympic Winter Games, were held in 1936 in the villages of Garmisch and Partenkirchen in Bavaria, Germany. ... The anticipated V Olympic Winter Games were cancelled due to World War II. They were to have been held in Sapporo, Japan. ... The anticipated V Olympic Winter Games were cancelled due to World War II. They were to have been held in Cortina dAmpezzo, Italy. ... The V Olympic Winter Games were held in St. ... The VI Olympic Winter Games were held in 1952 in Oslo, Norway. ... The VII Olympic Winter Games were held in 1956 in Cortina dAmpezzo, Italy. ... The 1960 Winter Olympics, officially known as the VIII Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in 1960 in Squaw Valley, California, United States (located in the Lake Tahoe basin). ... The 1964 Winter Olympics, officially known as the IX Olympic Winter Games, were held in 1964 in Innsbruck, Austria. ... The 1968 Winter Olympics, officially known as the X Olympic Winter Games, were held in 1968 Grenoble, France and opened on February 6. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The 1976 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XII Olympic Winter Games, were held in 1976 in Innsbruck, Austria. ... The 1980 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XIII Olympic Winter Games, were held in 1980 in Lake Placid, New York, United States of America. ... The 1984 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XIV Olympic Winter Games, were held in 1984 in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Yugoslavia. ... The 1988 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XV Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in Calgary, Alberta, Canada and opened by Governor General Jeanne Sauvé. The Olympics were highly successful financially as they brought in million-dollar profits. ... The 1992 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XVI Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in 1992 in Albertville, France. ... The 1994 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XVII Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in 1994 in Lillehammer, Norway. ... The 1998 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XVIII Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in 1998 in Nagano, Japan. ... The 2002 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XIX Olympic Winter Games, and with the theme slogan Light The Fire Within, were celebrated in 2002 in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States. ... Neve and Gliz, the 2006 Olympics mascots, on display in Turin The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XX Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in Turin, Italy from February 10, 2006, through February 26, 2006. ... Wikinews has related news: Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games The 2010 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXI Olympic Winter Games, are the next Winter Olympics and will be celebrated in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada in 2010. ... The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXII Olympic Winter Games, is an international winter multiple sports event that will be celebrated from February 7 to February 23, 2014. ... The 2018 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXIII Olympic Winter Games, will be celebrated in 2018, and are an international winter sports athletic event that has yet to be organized by the International Olympic Committee (IOC). ... The 2022 Winter Olympics, formally called the XXIV Olympic Winter Games is an event that the International Olympic Committee has yet to organize. ... The Youth Olympic Games (YOG)[1] are planned to be an international multi-sport event held every four years in staggered summer and winter events complementing the current Olympic Games,[2] and will feature athletes between the ages of 14 and 18. ... The Youth Olympic Games (YOG)[1] are planned to be an international multi-sport event held every four years in staggered summer and winter events complementing the current Olympic Games,[2] and will feature athletes between the ages of 14 and 18. ... The Youth Olympic Games (YOG)[1] are planned to be an international multi-sport event held every four years in staggered summer and winter events complementing the current Olympic Games,[2] and will feature athletes between the ages of 14 and 18. ... The Youth Olympic Games (YOG)[1] are planned to be an international multi-sport event held every four years in staggered summer and winter events complementing the current Olympic Games,[2] and will feature athletes between the ages of 14 and 18. ... The ceremony for the lighting of the flame is arranged as a pagan pageant, with priestesses dancing. ... Neve and Gliz, the 2006 Olympics mascots, on display in Turin The 2006 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XX Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in Turin, Italy from February 10, 2006, through February 26, 2006. ... The 2008 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXIX Olympiad, will be celebrated from August 8, 2008 to August 24, 2008, with the opening ceremony commencing at 08:08:08 pm at the Beijing National Stadium in Beijing, Peoples Republic of China. ... Wikinews has related news: Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games The 2010 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXI Olympic Winter Games, are the next Winter Olympics and will be celebrated in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada in 2010. ... “London 2012” redirects here. ... The 2014 Winter Olympics, officially known as the XXII Olympic Winter Games, is an international winter multiple sports event that will be celebrated from February 7 to February 23, 2014. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
INTERNATIONAL OLYMPIC COMMITTEE - OLYMPIC GAMES (174 words)
The Paralympic Games are elite sport events for athletes from different disability groups.
The number of athletes participating in the Summer Paralympic Games has increased from 400 athletes in Rome in 1960 to 3,806 athletes from 136 countries in Athens in 2004.
The Organising Committees of the Olympic Games (OCOGs) organise the Olympic Games in collaboration with their National Olympic Committee and the host city.
Olympic Games - MSN Encarta (1346 words)
The modern Olympic Games began in Athens, Greece, in 1896, two years after French educator Pierre de Coubertin proposed that the Olympic Games of ancient Greece be revived to promote a more peaceful world.
Although the Olympic Charter, the official constitution of the Olympic movement, proclaims that the Olympics are contests among individuals and not among nations, the IOC assigns to the various NOCs the task of selecting national Olympic teams.
Women’s Olympic sports have grown significantly since then, and currently women account for approximately half of the members of teams, except in teams from Islamic nations, where the level of female participation is generally lower.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m