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Encyclopedia > Olympe de Gouges
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Olympe de Gouges (born Marie Gouze; May 7, 1748November 3, 1793) was a playwright and journalist whose feminist writings reached a large audience. A proponent of democracy, she demanded the same rights for French women that French men were demanding for themselves. In her Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Female Citizen (1791), she challenged the practice of male authority and the notion of male-female inequality. She was executed by guillotine during the Reign of Terror for her revolutionary ideas. is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1748 (MDCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1793 (MDCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Feminism is a social theory and political movement primarily informed and motivated by the experience of women. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the decapitation device. ... For other uses of terror, see Terror; Great Fear . ...

Contents

Life

A portrait of Olympe de Gouges
A portrait of Olympe de Gouges

Marie Gouze was born into a petit bourgeois family in 1748 in Montauban, Tarn-et-Garonne, in the South-West of France. Her father was a butcher, her mother, a washerwoman. However, she believed that she was the illegitimate daughter of Jean-Jacques Lefranc, marquis de Pompignan; his rejection of her claims upon him may have influenced her passionate defense of the rights of illegitimate children.[1] She married quite young in 1765 one Louis Aubry, coming from Paris with the new Intendant of the town, Mr. de Gourgues. This was not a marriage of love. As de Gouges said in a semi-autobiographical novel (Mémoire de Madame de Valmont contre la famille de Flaucourt), "I was married to a man I did not love and who was neither rich nor well-born. I was sacrificed for no reason that could make up for the repugnance I felt for this man." [2] When her husband died a year later, she moved in 1770 to Paris with her son, Pierre, and took the name of Olympe de Gouges. [3] She had a perfect education for a woman at that time and she was able to read, but wrote quite badly as the majority of the European people at that time. In 1773, according to her biographer Olivier Blanc, she met a rich man, Jacques Biétrix de Rozières, with who she had a long story which finished under the revolution. She was received in the artistic and philosophical "salons" where she met many writers, like La Harpe, Mercier or Chamfort, and future politicians like Brissot or Condorcet. She was usually invited in the salons of marquise de Montesson and countess de Beauharnais who were playwrights like her. She was also in connection with masonry lodges among them the "Loge des Neuf soeurs" created by her friend Michel de Cubières. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Montauban (Montalban in Occitan) is a town and commune of southwestern France, préfecture (capital) of the Tarn-et-Garonne département, 31 miles north of Toulouse. ... Tarn-et-Garonne is a French département in the southwest of France. ... Butcher shop in Valencia A butcher is someone who prepares various meats and other related goods for sale. ...


Surviving paintings of her show a woman of remarkable beauty; not surprisingly, she chose to live with several men who supported her financially. However, by 1784 (the year that her putative biological father died), she began to write essays, manifestoes, and socially conscious plays. A social climber, she strove to move among the elite and to lose her provincial accent.[citation needed]


In 1784, she wrote the anti-slavery play Zamore and Mirza which was received by the french comedy, performed in 1789 and published in 1792 under the title L'Esclavage des Nègres (Negro Slavery). Because she was a woman and because of her controversial subject, the play went unpublished until 1789 at the start of the French Revolution.[4]. Even then, Olympe showed her combativeness when she fought unsuccessfully to get her play staged. She also wrote on such gender-related topics as the right of divorce and the right to sexual relations outside of marriage. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on...


A passionate advocate of human rights, Olympe de Gouges greeted the outbreak of the Revolution with hope and joy, but soon became disenchanted, in that the fraternité of the Revolution was not extended to women (that is, that equal rights were not extended to women).


In 1791, she became part of the Cercle Social—an association with the goal of equal political and legal rights for women. The Cercle Social met at the home of well-known women's rights advocate Sophie de Condorcet. Here, she expressed, for the first time, her famous statement "a woman has the right to mount the scaffold. She must possess equally the right to mount the speaker's platform." Sophie de Condorcet (1764 Meulan - 8 September 1822, Paris) (or Madame de Condorcet) was born Marie-Louise-Sophie de Grouchy, daughter of Francoise Jacques Marquis de Grouchy (a former page of Louis XV) by his intellectual wife Marie Gilberte Henriette Freteau (d. ...


That same year, in response to the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, she wrote the Déclaration des droits de la Femme et de la Citoyenne ("Declaration of the Rights of Woman and the Citizen"), the first declaration of truly universal human rights. This was followed by her Contrat Social ("Social Contract", named after a famous work of Jean-Jacques Rousseau), proposing marriage based on gender equality. Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen: Revolutionary patriotism borrows familiar iconography of the Ten Commandments Wikisource has original text related to this article: Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen The Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (French: La... Rousseau redirects here. ...


She attempted to become involved in any matter she believed to involve injustice. She opposed the execution of Louis XVI of France, partly out of opposition to capital punishment and partly because she preferred a relatively tame and living king to the possibility of a rebel regency in exile. The late 19th century French historian Jules Michelet commented "She allowed herself to act and write about more than one affair that her weak head did not understand."[5]. Louis XVI, born Louis-Auguste de France (23 August 1754 – 21 January 1793) ruled as King of France and Navarre from 1774 until 1791, and then as King of the French from 1791 to 1792. ... Death penalty, death sentence, and execution redirect here. ... Jules Michelet (August 21, 1798 - February 9, 1874) was a French historian. ...


As her hopes were disappointed, she became more and more vehement in her writings. On 2 June 1793, the Jacobins arrested the Girondins (her allies) and sent them to the guillotine. Finally, her last piece Les trois urnes, ou le salut de la Patrie, par un voyageur aérien (The Three Urns, or the Health of the Country, By An Aerial Voyager) (1793) led to her arrest. That piece demanded a plebiscite on a choice of three potential forms of government: the first, indivisible Republic, the second, a federalist government or the third, a constitutional monarchy. She spent three months in jail and not having a lawyer, she tried to defend herself. She managed to publish (owing to her friends) two texts: olympe de Gouges au tribunal révolutionnaire, where she relates her interrogations, and the last "Une patriote persécutée" where she condemned the Terror. The Jacobins, who had already executed a queen, were in no mood to tolerate an advocate of women's rights. Olympe was sentenced to death on November the 2nd and executed on the guillotine on 3 November 1793, a month after Condorcet had been proscribed and several months after the Girondin leaders had been guillotined. is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1793 (MDCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Jacobins can refer to the Jacobin Club, a political organization of the French Revolutionary Era ca. ... The Girondists (in French Girondins, and sometimes Brissotins), comprised a political faction in France within the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention during the French Revolution. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1793 (MDCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Condorcet can refer to two separate things. ...


After her death, says Olivier Blanc, her son General Pierre Aubry de Gouges went to Guyana with his wife and five children. He died in 1802, after which his widow attempted to return to France but died on the boat. In Guadeloupe the two young daughters were married, Geneviève de Gouges to an English officer, and Charlotte de Gouges to an American politician, member of the Congress, who had plantations in Virginia. Now, many English and American families have Olympe de Gouges as their ancestor (Olivier Blanc).


Legacy in France

On 6 March, 2004, the junction of the Rues Béranger, Charlot, Turenne and Franche-Comté in Paris was proclaimed the Place Olympe de Gouges. The square was inaugurated by the mayor of the Third Arrondissement, Pierre Aidenbaum, along with the first deputy mayor of Paris, Anne Hidalgo. The actress Véronique Genest read an extract from the Declaration of the Rights of Woman. This article is about the capital of France. ...


2007 French presidential contender Ségolène Royal has expressed the wish of her remains being moved to the Panthéon. However, her remains like those of the other victims of the Reign of Terror have been lost through burial in communal graves, so any reburial would be ceremonial (as was done for Condorcet himself.) The 2007 French presidential election, the ninth of the Fifth French Republic was held to elect the successor to Jacques Chirac as president of France for a five-year term. ... Marie-Ségolène Royal (born 22 September 1953 in Dakar, Senegal, then a French colony), known as  , (IPA: ) is a French politician. ... The Panthéon The Panthéon is a building in the Latin Quarter in Paris, France. ... Condorcet can refer to two separate things. ...


Writings

Olympe de Gouges wrote her famous Declaration on the Rights of Women shortly after the French constitution of 1791 was created in the same year. She was alarmed that the constitution, which was to promote equal suffrage, did not address nor even consider woman’s suffrage. The Constitution gave that right only to men. It also did not address key issues like legal equality in marriage, the right for a woman to divorce her spouse, or a woman’s right to property. So she created a document that was to be, in her opinion, the missing part of the Constitution of 1791, in which women would be given the equal rights they deserve. Throughout the document, it is apparent to the reader that Gouges had been influenced by the Enlightenment way of thinking. Enlightened thinkers critically examined and criticized the traditional morals and institutions of the day, using “scientific reasoning.”


Gouges opens up her Declaration with a witty, and at times sarcastically bitter, introduction in which she demands of men why they have chosen to subjugate women as a lesser sex. Her opening statement put rather bluntly: “Man, are you capable of being just? It is a woman who poses the question; you will not deprive her of that right at least.” The later part of the statement shows her taking a stab at the fact that men have been ridiculously depriving women of what should be common rights, so she sarcastically asks if men will find it necessary to take away even her right to question. Gouges begins her long argument by stating that in Nature the sexes are forever mingled cooperating in “harmonious togetherness.” There she uses a bit of Enlightenment logic, if in nature the equality and the working together of the two sexes achieve harmony, so should France achieve a happier and more stable society if women are given equality among men.


After her opening paragraph she goes into the actual Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen, which she asks be reviewed and decreed by the National Assembly in their next meeting. Her preamble explains that the reason for current public misfortune and corrupt government is due to the oppression of women and their rights. The happiness and well being of society will only be insured once women’s rights are equally as important as men’s, especially in political institutions. In her document Gouges establishes women’s rights on the basis of their equality to men, that they are both human and capable of the same thoughts. However, Gouges also promotes the rights of women by emphasizing differences women have from men, differences that men ought to respect and take notice of. She argues that Women are superior in beauty as well as in courage during childbirth. Addressing characteristics that set women apart from men added, what she probably thought was, logical proof to her argument that men are not superior to women, therefore women are deserving at least to have the same rights.


The actual declaration itself bares the same outline and context as the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, but Gouges either changes the word “man” to “woman” or adds “ for both women and men.” In article II, the resemblance is exact to the previous declaration except that she adds “especially” before “the right to the resistance of oppression,” emphasizing again how important it is to her to end the oppression of women, and that the government should recognize this and take action.


A main difference between the two declarations is that the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen emphasizes the protection of the written “law” while the Declaration of the Rights of Women and the Female Citizen emphasizes protection of the “law” and of “Natural Laws.” Gouges emphasizes that these rights of women have always existed, that they were created at the beginning of time by God, that they are natural and true and they cannot be oppressed.


Article X contains the famous phrase: “Woman has the right to mount the scaffold; she must equally have the right to mount the rostrum.” If women have the right to die, they should have the right to speak.


She modifies article XI to say that women have the right to give their children the name of their father even if it is out of wedlock and even if the father has left her. Gouges is very passionate about this since she herself was deemed an illegitimate child.


In her Postscript Gouges tell women to wake up and discover that they have these rights! She assures them that reason is on their side. Gouges asks what they as women have gained from the French Revolution... the answer is nothing, but that they’ve been marked with more disdain. She exclaims that women should no longer tolerate this, they should step up, take action, and demand the equal rights they deserve. Gouges declares the morality that women are lesser is an “out of date” moral. In that Gouges shows strongly her enlightenment way of thinking – to break from old illogical traditions that are "out of date." She exclaims that to revoke women the right to partake in political practices is also “out of date.”


Her last paragraph is titled a "Social Contract between Men and Women." Taking a leaf from Rousseau’s book, the contract asks for communal cooperation. The wealth of a husband and wife should be distributed equally. Property will belong to both and to the children, whatever bed they come from. If divorced, land should be divided equally. She called this the “Marriage contract.” Gouges also asked to allow a poor man’s wife to have her children be adopted by a rich family – this will help with the community’s wealth and drive back disorder. Gouges finally requests near the end of the contract for a law to protect widows and young girls from men who give them false promises. This perhaps is the most important issue she wants to deal with in France. Back in the postscript section of her document, Gouges describes the consequences of a woman who is left by an unfaithful husband or who is widowed with no fortune to her name and of young experienced girls who are seduced by men that leave them with no money and no title for their children. Gouges therefore requests a law that that will force an inconsistent man to hold his obligation to these women, or to at least pay a reimbursement equal to his wealth.


One of her last persuasions in her document directs itself to men who still see women as lesser beings: “the foolproof way to evaluate the soul of women is to join them to all the activities of man, if man persists against this, let him share his fortune with woman by the wisdom of the laws.” She challenges men that, if they wish, they may scientifically evaluate the consequences of joining man and woman in equal political rights.


Olympe de Gouges’ personality comes through strongly in her writings, and her opinions are shameless. She wrote this declaration using powerful language and boldness that was dangerous for her to do at the time. A bold woman was often persecuted, and in fact, Gouges was executed two years later. However, in a long history of fighting for women’s rights, Gouges declaration played a very important and positive role in the struggle.


Notes

  1. ^ Pauline Paul. tr by Kai Artur Diers. "I Foresaw it All: The Amazing Life and Oeuvre of Olympe de Gouges". DIE ZEIT, No. 23, June 2, 1989. [1]. Also see this article.[2]
  2. ^ Paul Noack, Olympe de Gouges. p. 31
  3. ^ Pauline Paul. Op.cit.
  4. ^ Pauline Paul. Op.cit.
  5. ^ Cited in Luise F. Pusch, 300 Porträts berühmter Frauen, Insel Verlag, 1999, p.111

References

  • (French) Olivier Blanc , Marie-Olympe de Gouges, une humaniste à la fin du XVIIIè siècle, Editions René Viénet: Cahors, 2003 (annexes; bibliography; index; illustrations (257-270).
  • (German) Salomé Kestenholz, Die Gleichheit vor dem Schafott: Poträts französischer Revolutionärinnen, Luchterhand: Darmstadt, 1988.

See also

Map of the Palace at the outbreak of the French Revolution The Kings bedchamber, where the family hid at Versailles The March on Versailles was an event in the French Revolution. ... This petition was produced during the French Revolution and presented to the French National Assembly in November 1789 after The Womens March on Versailles on October 5, 1789, proposing a decree by the National Assembly to give women equality. ...

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Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury (February 26, 1671 – February 4, 1713), was an English politician, philosopher and writer. ... Sir Isaac Newton FRS (4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727) [ OS: 25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727][1] was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, and alchemist. ... For other persons of the same name, see Thomas Paine (disambiguation). ... Rt Rev Beilby Porteus, DD, Bishop of London (May 8, 1731 _ May 13, 1809) was a leading evangelical churchman and abolitionist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Mary Wollstonecraft (circa 1797) by John Opie Mary Wollstonecraft (27 April 1759 – 10 September 1797) was a British writer, philosopher and feminist. ... For the second husband of Henrietta Howard, Countess of Suffolk, see George Berkeley (MP). ... Edmund Burke (January 12, 1729[1] – July 9, 1797) was an Anglo-Irish statesman, author, orator, political theorist, and philosopher, who served for many years in the British House of Commons as a member of the Whig party. ... Jonathan Swift Jonathan Swift (November 30, 1667 – October 19, 1745) was an Irish cleric, satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer (first for Whigs then for Tories), and poet, famous for works like Gullivers Travels, A Modest Proposal, A Journal to Stella, The Drapiers Letters, The Battle of the Books, and... For other uses, see John Toland (disambiguation). ... The Scottish Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in Scotland, running from approximately 1740 to 1800. ... Joseph Black Joseph Black (April 16, 1728 - December 6, 1799) was a Scottish physicist and chemist. ... James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleck and 1st Baronet (October 29, 1740 - May 19, 1795) was a lawyer, diarist, and author born in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... For the chain gang fugitive and author from Georgia, see Robert Elliott Burns. ... Adam Ferguson, also known as Ferguson of Raith (June 20, 1723 (O.S.) - February 22, 1816) was a philosopher and historian of the Scottish Enlightenment. ... Francis Hutcheson (August 8, 1694–August 8, 1746) was an Irish philosopher and one of the founding fathers of the Scottish Enlightenment. ... For other persons named David Hume, see David Hume (disambiguation). ... James Hutton, painted by Abner Lowe. ... Henry Home, Lord Kames (1696 - December 27, 1782) was a Scottish philosopher of the 18th century. ... James Burnett, Lord Monboddo (1714 - May 26, 1799) was a Scottish judge, scholar and eccentric. ... James Macpherson (October 27, 1736–February 17, 1796), was a Scottish poet, known as the translator of the Ossian cycle of poems (also known as the Oisín cycle). ... For the Scottish footballer, see Thomas Reid (footballer). ... This article is about the Scottish historian. ... For other persons named Adam Smith, see Adam Smith (disambiguation). ... Dugald Stewart. ... George Turnbull (1698-1748) was a Scottish philosopher and writer on education. ... For other persons named James Watt, see James Watt (disambiguation). ... Latin Europe Latin Europe (Italian, Portuguese and Spanish: Europa latina; French: Europe latine; Romanian: Europa latină; Catalan: Europa llatina; Franco-Provençal: Eropa latina) is composed of those nations and areas in Europe that speak a Romance language and are seen as having a distinct culture from the Germanic and... Pierre Bayle. ... For other uses of Fontenelle, see Fontenelle (disambiguation). ... Montesquieu redirects here. ... François Quesnay (June 4, 1694 - December 16, 1774) was a French economist of the Physiocratic school. ... For other uses, see Voltaire (disambiguation). ... Georges-Louis Leclerc, Comte de Buffon, by François-Hubert Drouais (1727-1775). ... Rousseau redirects here. ... Portrait of Diderot by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1767 Denis Diderot (October 5, 1713 – July 31, 1784) was a French philosopher and writer. ... Claude Adrien Helvétius (February 26, 1715 - December 26, 1771) was a French philosopher and litterateur. ... Jean le Rond dAlembert, pastel by Maurice Quentin de La Tour Jean le Rond dAlembert (November 16, 1717 – October 29, 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist and philosopher. ... Baron dHolbach Paul-Henri Thiry, baron dHolbach (1723 – 1789) was a German-French author, philosopher and encyclopedist. ... Donatien Alphonse François de Sade (Marquis de Sade) (June 2, 1740 – December 2, 1814) (pronounced IPA: ) was a French aristocrat, french revolutionary and writer of philosophy-laden and often violent pornography. ... “Condorcet” redirects here. ... Lavoisier redirects here. ... Étienne Bonnot de Condillac (September 30, 1715 – August 3, 1780) was a French philosopher. ... Tocqueville redirects here. ... Giambattista Vico or Giovanni Battista Vico (June 23, 1668 – January 23, 1744) was an Italian philosopher, historian, and jurist. ... Cesare, Marquis of Beccaria-Bonesana (March 15, 1738 – November 28, 1794) was an Italian philosopher and politician best known for his treatise On Crimes and Punishments (1764), which condemned torture and the death penalty and was a founding work in the field of criminology. ... Detail of Pietro Verri monument in Milan. ... Alessandro Verri (November 9, 1741 - September 23, 1816) was an Italian author. ... Giuseppe Parini (Bosisio, now in Lecco province, May 23, 1729 - Milan, 1799) was an Italian satirist and poet. ... Carlo Goldoni Carlo Osvaldo Goldoni (25 February 1707 - 6 February 1793) was a celebrated Italian playwright, whom critics today rank among the European theatres greatest authors. ... Vittorio Alfieri painted by Davids pupil François-Xavier Fabre, in Florence 1793. ... Giuseppe MarcAntonio Baretti (April 24, 1719 - May 5, 1789) was an Italian critic. ... Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, Marquis of Pombal, by Louis-Michel van Loo, 1766) Sebastião José de Carvalho e Melo, 1st Count of Oeiras, 1st Marquis of Pombal (in Portuguese, Marquês de Pombal, pron. ... John V, King of Portugal (Portuguese João pron. ... Joseph I (Portuguese José, pron. ... Ienăchiţă Văcărescu (1740-1797) Romanian poet and boyar of Phanariote origin. ... Anton Pann (in the 1790s, Sliven, in Rumelia—November 2, 1854, Bucharest) born Antonie Pantoleon-Petroveanu (also mentioned as Anton Pantoleon), was a Wallachian poet and composer. ... Gheorghe Åžincai Gheorghe Åžincai (February 28, 1754 – November 2, 1816) was an ethnic Romanian Transylvanian historian, philologist, translator, poet, and representative of the Enlightenment-influenced Transylvanian School. ... Jovellanos painted by Goya Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos (5 January 1744 - 27 November 1811), Spanish statesman and author, was born at Gijón in Asturias, Spain. ... Leandro Fernández de Moratín, born March 10, 1760 – died June 21, 1828, was a Spanish dramatist and neoclassical poet. ... Benito Jerónimo Feijóo y Montenegro (8 October 1676 - 26 September 1764) was a Spanish monk and scholar noted for encouraging scientific thought in Spain. ... Charles III of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Jorge Juan y Santacilia Jorge Juan y Santacilia (January 5, 1713–June 21, 1773) was a Spanish mathematician, scientist, naval officer, and mariner. ... Antonio de Ulloa (January 12, 1716 _ July 3, 1795) was a Spanish general, explorer, author, astronomer, colonial administrator and the first Spanish governor of Louisiana. ... José Moñino, conde de Floridablanca, painted by Goya José Moñino, conde de Floridablanca Don José Moñino y Redondo, Count of Floridablanca (es: José Moñino y Redondo, conde de Floridablanca) (October 21, 1728 - December 30, 1808), Spanish statesman. ... This article is about Francisco Goya, a Spanish painter. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Jens Schielderup Sneedorff Jens Schielderup Sneedorff (22 August 1724–5 June 1764) was a Danish author, professor of political science and royal teacher and a central figure in Denmark-Norway in the Age of Enlightenment. ... Johann Friedrich Struensee By Jens Juel, 1771, Collection of Bomann Museum, Celle, Germany. ... {{unreferenced|article|date=March 2007]] Copper engraving depicting Eggert Ólafssons death. ... Anders Chydenius Anders Chydenius (26 February 1729 – 1 February 1803) was the leading classical liberal of Nordic history. ... Peter ForsskÃ¥l (sometimes also Pehr ForsskÃ¥l, Peter Forskaol, Petrus ForskÃ¥l or Pehr ForsskÃ¥hl) (born in Helsinki, 11 January 1732, died in Yemen, 11 July 1763), Swedish explorer, orientalist and naturalist. ... Gustav III, King of the Swedes, the Goths and the Vends, etc. ... Field Marshal and Count Arvid Bernhard Horn (April 6, 1664 â€“ April 17, 1742) was a statesman and a soldier of the Swedish empire during the period of Sweden-Finland). ... Johan Henrik Kellgren Johan Henrik Kellgren (1 December 1751-1795), Swedish poet and critic, was born at Floby in West Gothland. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... Civil liberties is the name given to freedoms that protect the individual from government. ... are you kiddin ? i was lookin for it for hours ... For other uses, see Ceremonial Deism. ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... Enlightened absolutism (also known as benevolent or enlightened despotism) is a form of despotism in which rulers were influenced by the Enlightenment. ... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... Haskalah (Hebrew: השכלה; enlightenment, education from sekhel intellect, mind ), the Jewish Enlightenment, was a movement among European Jews in the late 18th century that advocated adopting enlightenment values, pressing for better integration into European society, and increasing education in secular studies, Hebrew, and Jewish history. ... Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities — particularly rationality. ... Classical liberalism (also known as traditional liberalism[1] and laissez-faire liberalism[2]) is a doctrine stressing the importance of human rationality, individual property rights, natural rights, the protection of civil liberties, constitutional limitations of government, free markets, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of Adam... Natural philosophy or the philosophy of nature, known in Latin as philosophia naturalis, is a term applied to the objective study of nature and the physical universe that was regnant before the development of modern science. ... Rationality as a term is related to the idea of reason, a word which following Websters may be derived as much from older terms referring to thinking itself as from giving an account or an explanation. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... This article is about secularism. ... The Encyclopédistes were a group of 18th century writers in France who compiled the Encyclopédie (Encyclopedia) edited by Denis Diderot and Jean le Rond dAlembert. ... Weimar Classicism is, as many historians and scholars argue, a disputed literary movement that took place in Germany and Continental Europe. ...

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Olympe de Gouges (1748 – 1793) Women's History Month 2003 by Sunshine for Women (1786 words)
De Gouges addressed the issue by playing the part of an active citizen by writing political broadsides, by giving speeches, by attending the legislature, and by "petitioning" government officials on a variety of topics, including the abolition of slavery, the rights of illegitimate children, the royal veto, maternity hospitals, and even regicide.
By explicitly claiming the rights of the citizeness, de Gouges acknowledged that women's difference from men was sufficient enough that women needed to have their rights as women while at the same time acknowledging that men and women are similar enough that they have equal rights.
To de Gouges, the freedom of speech for women includes the right of a woman to publicly declare the name of the man who fathered her children, even if that man is a nobleman who raped her, a man who seduced her, or a man whom she seduced.
PAULINE PAUL -- I FORESAW IT ALL: THE AMAZING LIFE AND OEUVRE OF OLYMPE DE GOUGES  -- LOGOS 5.2 SPRING/SUMMER 2006 (2779 words)
Still, Olympe de Gouges, who could not claim anything with respect to the name and heritage of her father, was conscious of her noble origins, being “the daughter … of a laurelled head”.
A decade after her arrival in Paris, Olympe de Gouges had transformed from femme galante to femme de lettre, and it would be the Marquise de Montesson (the morganatic wife of the old Duke of Orleans) to introduce the theater aficionado and writer to the Comédie Française.
Olympe de Gouges remains femmes galante and femme savante and is reminiscent of ”happy, mythical times” in the past, is also reminiscent of minstrels, wisdom and noble knights who “knew how to defend their motherland and mistress on equal terms”.
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