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Encyclopedia > Olomouc
Olomouc, Czech Republic
Olomouc coat-of-arms
Region (kraj) Olomouc (Olomoucký)
Population 100 752 (2005)
Area 103 km²
Coordinates 49°36′ N 17°15′ E
Elevation 220 m AMSL
Founded N/A
Website http://www.olomoucko.cz/
Olomouc location map
town hall with astronomical clock
town hall with astronomical clock

Olomouc (German Olmütz, Polish Ołomuniec, Latin Eburum or Olomucium) is a city in Moravia, in the east of the Czech Republic. The city is located on the Morava river and is the ecclesiastical metropolis of Moravia. Image File history File links Olomouc_coat-of-arms. ... Region can be used to mean either: any more or less well-defined geographical area of a country or continent, defined by geography, culture or history in political geography, an administrative subdivision of a country or of the European Union. ... A kraj (plural: kraje) is the highest-level administrative unit in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and historically in Czechoslovakia. ... Olomouc Region (Czech: Olomoucký kraj) is an administrative unit (Czech: kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the north-western and central part of its historical region of Moravia (Morava) and in a small part of the historical region of Silesia (Slezsko). ... Olomouc Region (Czech: Olomoucký kraj) is an administrative unit (Czech: kraj) of the Czech Republic, located in the north-western and central part of its historical region of Moravia (Morava) and in a small part of the historical region of Silesia (Slezsko). ... The term above mean sea level (AMSL) refers to the elevation (on the ground) or altitude (in the air) of any object, relative to the average sea level. ... Image File history File links CZE_Olomouc_location. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1728x2304, 543 KB) en: town hall with astronomical clock in Olomouc (Czech Republic). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1728x2304, 543 KB) en: town hall with astronomical clock in Olomouc (Czech Republic). ... Prague astronomical clock Astronomical clock in Lund Cathedral An astronomical clock is a clock with special mechanisms and dials to display the relative positions of the sun, moon, zodiacal constellations, and sometimes major planets. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Moravia in relation to the current kraje of the Czech Republic Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava, German: Mähren, Polish: Morawy, Hungarian: Morvaország) is an historical region in the east of the Czech Republic. ... The Morava (as it is called in Czech and Slovak languages) or the March (as it is known in German) is a river located in Central Europe. ...

Contents


Sights

Olomouc contains several large squares, the chief of which is adorned with Holy Trinity Column, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The column is 115 ft. high and was built in 1716–1754. In 2000 the column was inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List as as one of the most exceptional examples of the apogee of central European Baroque artistic expression. The Holy Trinity Column in Olomouc is a magnificent Baroque group of statues, built in 1716-1754 to thank the God... UNESCO logo The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, commonly known as UNESCO, is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Site #86: Memphis and its Necropolis, including the Pyramids of Giza (Egypt). ... The plague Column of the Virgin Mary Immaculate in Kutná Hora, the Czech Republic, built between 1713 and 1715 Erecting religious monuments in the form of a column surmounted by a figure or a Christian symbol was a gesture of public faith that flourished in the Catholic countries of Europe...


The most prominent church is the St. Wenceslas cathedral. In the end of the 19th century it was rebuilt in neo-Gothic style, but it kept many parts from the original church, which had also been rebuilt many times (Romanesque crypt, Gothic cloister, Baroque chapels). The highest of its three spires is 328 ft. (image) The church neighbours with the Bishop's Palace (often incorrectly called the Přemyslid Palace), a 12th century Romanesque building. (image) The real Přemyslid Palace, i.e. the residence of Olomouc members of the governing Přemyslid Dynasty, used to stand nearby. Statue of Saint Wenceslaus in Olomouc (Czech Republic). ... Victoria Tower at the Palace of Westminster, London: Gothic details provided by A.W.N. Pugin Gothic Revival was an architectural movement with its origins in mid-18th century England. ... Interior of the Saint-Saturnin church St-Sernin basilica, Toulouse, 1080 – 1120: elevation of the east end Romanesque sculpture, cloister of St. ... See also Gothic art. ... For the Baroque style in a more general sense, see Baroque. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1671x2228, 709 KB) Popis en: St. ... Interior of the Saint-Saturnin church St-Sernin basilica, Toulouse, 1080 – 1120: elevation of the east end Romanesque sculpture, cloister of St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 1337 KB) Popis en: Round arches of romanesque architecture in Premyslid palace Olomouc (Czech Republic). ...


The St. Maurice church, a fine Gothic building of the 15th century, and the St. Michael church are also worth mentioning. Neo-Baroque chapel of St. John Sarkander stands on the place of a former town prison. Catholic priest John Sarkander was imprisoned here in the beginning of the Thirty Years' War. He was accused of collaboration with the enemy and tortured here, but did not reveal anything because of the Seal of Confession, and died. The torturing rack and Sarkander’s gravestone are preserved here. He was canonized by Pope John Paul II during his visit in Olomouc in 1995. The victory of Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631) The Thirty Years War was a conflict fought between the years 1618 and 1648, principally on the territory of todays Germany, but also involving most of the major continental powers. ... For Roman Catholic priests, the confidentiality of anything that they learn from penitents during the course of confession is absolute. ... The rack is a torture device. ... This article discusses the process of declaring saints. ... Pope John Paul II (Latin: ), born Karol Józef WojtyÅ‚a (May 18, 1920 – April 2, 2005) reigned as pope of the Roman Catholic Church for almost 27 years, from October 16, 1978 until his death, making his the second-longest pontificate. ...


Another place that John Paul II visited here was Svatý Kopeček, a part of Olomouc lying on a hill, with the magnificent Baroque church of the Visitation of the Virgin Mary looking down at the city. The Pope promoted the church to Minor Basilica. Pope John Paul II (Latin: ), born Karol Józef WojtyÅ‚a (May 18, 1920 – April 2, 2005) reigned as pope of the Roman Catholic Church for almost 27 years, from October 16, 1978 until his death, making his the second-longest pontificate. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens: dynamic figures spiral down around a void: draperies blow: a whirl of movement lit in a shaft of light, rendered in a free bravura handling of paint In the arts, Baroque (or baroque) is both a period and the artistic style that dominated it. ... The Basilica of Saint Peter is the largest church in Christianity and often used by the Pope. ...


The principal secular building is the town hall, completed in the 15th century, flanked on one side by a Gothic chapel, transformed now into a museum. It possesses a tower 250 ft. high adorned with an astronomical clock. See also Gothic art. ... Prague astronomical clock Astronomical clock in Lund Cathedral An astronomical clock is a clock with special mechanisms and dials to display the relative positions of the sun, moon, zodiacal constellations, and sometimes major planets. ...


The old university founded in 1573 and suppressed in 1860, was reopened in 1946 and called Palacký University. Events January - articles of Warsaw Confederation signed, sanctioning religious freedom in Poland. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... Palacký University, Olomouc is a university in Olomouc, Czech Republic. ...


Olomouc is also proud of its six Baroque fountains. The fountains survived in such a number thanks to cautious policy of the city council. While most European cities were removing old fountains after they had built their water supply piping, Olomouc decided to keep them as water reservoirs in case of fire. For their decoration ancient Roman motifs were used. Five of them depict Roman gods Jupiter, Mercury, Triton (image), Neptune and Hercules (image), and one depicts Julius Caesar, the legendary founder of the city. (image) Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens: dynamic figures spiral down around a void: draperies blow: a whirl of movement lit in a shaft of light, rendered in a free bravura handling of paint In the arts, Baroque (or baroque) is both a period and the artistic style that dominated it. ... The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed. ... The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed. ... Jupiter et Thétis - by Jean Ingres, 1811. ... This article treats Mercury in cult practice and in archaic Rome. ... Triton is a Greek god, the messenger of the deep. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1296x1728, 266 KB) en: Fountain of Tritons in Olomouc (Czech Republic). ... In Greek mythology, Poseidon (Ποσειδῶν) was the god of the sea, and of earthquakes, as Earth-Shaker, and of horses. ... Hercules and Cacus, by Baccio Bandinelli, 1525 - 1534. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1728x2304, 637 KB) en: Fountain of Herkules Olomouc (Czech Republic). ... A bust of Julius Caesar. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1551x2068, 637 KB) Popis en: Fountain of Caesar in Olomouc (Czech Republic). ...


History

Olomouc is said to occupy a site of a Roman fort founded in the imperial period, the original name of which, Mons Julii, would have been gradually corrupted to the present form. Though this is just a legend, archaeological excavations revealed remains of a Roman military camp from the time of Marcoman Wars here. The Roman Forum was the central area around which ancient Rome developed. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Originally a castrum is a celtic fortification, which is like a round walled castle in the top of a hill. ... The Marcomanni were a Germanic tribe, probably related to the Suebi or Suevi. ...


Olomouc was an important centre of the Great Moravian Empire in the 9th and early 10th century. At a later period it was long the capital of the province of Moravia. The bishopric of Olomouc was founded in 1063, and raised to the rank of an archbishopric in 1777. Great Moravia (Old Church Slavonic approximately Велья Морава, Czech Velká Morava, Slovak Veľká Morava, Latin Magna Moravia) was a Slav state existing on the territory of present-day Moravia and Slovakia between 833 and the early 10th century. ... Moravia in relation to the current kraje of the Czech Republic Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava, German: Mähren, Polish: Morawy, Hungarian: Morvaország) is an historical region in the east of the Czech Republic. ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ... Events Anselm of Canterbury becomes prior at Le Bec Sancho I becomes ruler of Aragon Bishopric of Olomouc is founded Births Deaths April 30 - Emperor Renzong (b. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... 1777 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1306 King Wenceslaus III stopped here on his way to Poland, where he wanted to fight Wladislaus I the Elbow-high to claim his rights to Polish crown, and was assassinated. With his death the whole Přemyslid dynasty died out. Events March 25 - Robert the Bruce becomes King of Scotland June 19 - Forces of Earl of Pembroke defeat Bruces Scottish rebels at the Battle of Methven Philip IV of France exiles all the Jews from France and confiscates their property In London, a city ordinance degrees that heating with... Wenceslaus III Premyslid (Czech and Slovak Václav, Hungarian Vencel), (October 6, 1289 - August 4, 1306) was the king of Hungary (1301 - 1305) and king of Bohemia (1305 - 1306). ... Wladislaus I on Jan Matejkos painting Wladislaus I the Short or Elbow-high (Polish: WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw I Łokietek) (1261–1333), was a King of Poland. ...


During the Thirty Years' War, in 1640, Olomouc was occupied by the Swedes for eight years. They left the city in ruins and so it ceded its position to Brno. Olomouc was originally fortified by Maria Theresa during the wars with Frederick the Great, who besieged the city unsuccessfully for seven weeks in 1758. In 1848 Olomouc was the scene of the emperor Ferdinand's abdication, and in 1850 an important conference between Austrian and German statesmen called Punctation of Olmütz took place here. On the conference German Confederation was restored and Prussia submitted its leadership to the Austrians. The victory of Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631) The Thirty Years War was a conflict fought between the years 1618 and 1648, principally on the territory of todays Germany, but also involving most of the major continental powers. ... Events December 1 - Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king. ... // Geography Brno (help· info) (-Czech, German: Brünn) is the second largest city in the Czech Republic, located in the southeast part of the country, at the confluence of the Svitava and Svratka rivers. ... H.I.M. Maria Theresa, Holy Roman Empress, Queen of Hungary and Bohemia, Archduchess of Austria, Great Principess of Transylvania, Duchess of Parma, Piacenza, and Guastalla Maria Theresa (May 13, 1717 – November 29, 1780) was the first and only female head of the Habsburg dynasty. ... Frederick the Great Frederick II of Prussia (Friedrich der Große, Frederick the Great, January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was the Hohenzollern king of Prussia 1740–86. ... 1758 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Emperor Ferdinand Ferdinand I Karl Leopold Joseph Franz Marchlin Emperor of Austria King of Hungary and Bohemia (April 19, 1793 – June 29, 1875) succeeded his father (Franz II Holy Roman Emperor/Franz I of Austria) as Emperor and King in 1835 and was forced to abdicate in 1848. ... 1850 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Punctation of Olmütz is a treaty between Prussia and Austria, dated November 29, 1850. ... The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was a loose association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 The word Prussia (Old Prussian: PrÅ«sa, German: Preußen, Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: PrÅ«sai, Latin: Borussia) has had various (often contradictory) meanings: The land of the Baltic Prussians (in what is now parts of southern Lithuania, the Kaliningrad...


The city was German since the middle-age. The official statistics said that the number of Germans was 3 times higher than the number of Czechs. Olomouc was enclosed with city walls almost until the end of the 19th century. This suited to the city council, because demolishing the walls would allow extending the city, which would result into settling a lot of Czechs from neighbouring villages. The city council preferred Olomouc smaller, but German. Expansion came after the WWI and establishing Czechoslovakia, when Olomouc integrated two neighbouring towns and 11 surrounding villages and thus gained new space for its growth. Combatants Allies: • Serbia, • Russia, • France, • Belgium, • British Empire and Dominions, • United States, • Italy, • ...and others Central Powers: • Germany, • Austria-Hungary, • Ottoman Empire, • Bulgaria Commanders {{{commander1}}} {{{commander2}}} Strength {{{strength1}}} {{{strength2}}} Casualties 5 million military, 3 million civilian (full list) 3 million military, 3 million civilian (full list) {{{notes}}} World War I...


Despite its considerable charms, Olomouc hasn't been discovered by tourists in the same way that Prague, Český Krumlov and Karlovy Vary have. Its inner city is the second largest historical monuments preserve in the country, after Prague. Prague (Czech: Praha, see also other names) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. ... ÄŒeský Krumlov ( (help· info)) (-Czech, German: Krumau) is a small city in the South Bohemia region of the Czech Republic, best known for the fine architecture and art of the historic old town and Krumlov Castle. ... Karlovy Vary â–¶ (help· info) or Carlsbad (German: Karlsbad), is a spa city situated in the western part of the Czech Republic on confluence of OhÅ™e and Teplá rivers. ... Prague (Czech: Praha, see also other names) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. ...

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Olomouc

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

External links

  • Municipal website (cz, en)
  • UNESCO World Heritage Site: Holy Trinity Column
  • Palacký University

Portals


  Results from FactBites:
 
Olomouc - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (852 words)
Olomouc (German Olmütz, Polish Ołomuniec, Latin Eburum or Olomucium) is a city in Moravia, in the east of the Czech Republic.
The bishopric of Olomouc was founded in 1063, and raised to the rank of an archbishopric in 1777.
Olomouc was originally fortified by Maria Theresa during the wars with Frederick the Great, who besieged the city unsuccessfully for seven weeks in 1758.
My Olomouc Experience (1377 words)
Olomouc is a wonderful town with cobbled streets, magnificent buildings and rumbling trams all centred around two main squares which act as the focal point for much of its vibrant atmosphere.
In Olomouc you are accommodated in halls of residence about 10 minutes walk from the university.
Although 40 years of communism has left its mark, not least on the outskirts of Olomouc with its tall smoke stacks, this is a vibrant town with all the brand names you might be familiar with available at usually much cheaper prices.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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