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Encyclopedia > Oliver Twist
Title Oliver Twist; or, the Parish Boy's Progress
Cover page of Oliver Twist, this the first novelization which appeared in 1838, six months before the serialization was completed. Kieran Talbot's name appears as "Cameron Hennig", although at Dickens request it was changed to his real name a week after this initial version appeared. Art by Lachlan Tyack titled "Oliver's reception by Fagin and the boys." Source: The New York Public Library, Berg Collection of English and American Literature.
Cover page of Oliver Twist. This is the first novelization which appeared in 1838.
Author Charles Dickens
Country United Kingdom
Language English
Genre(s) Novel
Publisher Chapman & Hall
Released 1838
Media type Print (Hardback & Paperback) (originally as Serial)
ISBN NA

Oliver Twist (1838) is Charles Dickens' second novel. The book was originally published in Bentley's Miscellany as a serial, in monthly installments that began appearing in the month of February 1837 and continued through April 1839. George Cruikshank provided one steel etching per month to illustrate each installment.[1] Image File history File links Oliver-twist. ... Dickens redirects here. ... In political geography and international politics a country is a geographical entity, a territory, most commonly associated with the notions of state or nation. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative, typically in prose. ... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... A hardcover (or hardback or hardbound) book is bound with rigid protective covers (typically of cardboard covered with cloth or heavy paper) and a stitched spine. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... The barcode of an ISBN . ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Dickens redirects here. ... Bentleys Miscellany was a literary magazine started by Richard Bentley. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Portrait of George Cruikshank Wood engraving published in Harpers Weekly newspaper March 16, 1878 A Young George Cruikshank George Cruikshank (September 27, 1792—February 1, 1878) was an English caricaturist and book illustrator. ...


Oliver Twist is the first English novel with a child protagonist,[2] and is also notable for Dickens' unromantic portrayal of criminals and their sordid lives.[3] The book's subtitle, The Parish Boy's Progress alludes to Bunyan's The Pilgrim's Progress and also to a pair of popular 18th-century caricature series by William Hogarth, "A Rake's Progress" and "A Harlot's Progress."[4] A protagonist is the main figure of a piece of literature or drama and has the main part or role. ... John Bunyan. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Pilgrims Progress The Pilgrims Progress from This World to That Which Is to Come by John Bunyan (published 1678) is an allegorical novel. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800 in the Gregorian calendar. ... William Hogarth (November 10, 1697 – October 26, 1764) was a major English painter, printmaker, pictorial satirist, and editorial cartoonist who has been credited as a pioneer in western sequential art. ... Plate 3 - Tom succumbs to the pleasures of the flesh at The Rose Tavern, Drury Lane. ... A Harlots Progress (also known as The Harlots Progress) is a series of six paintings (1731, now lost) and engravings (1732) by William Hogarth. ...


An early example of the social novel, the book calls the public's attention to various contemporary social evils, including the workhouse, child labour and the recruitment of children as criminals. Dickens mocks the hypocrisies of the time by surrounding the novel's serious themes with sarcasm and dark humour. The novel may have been inspired by the story of Robert Blincoe, an orphan whose account of his hardships as a child laborer in a cotton mill was widely read in the 1830s. The social novel is a genre of novel that originated in the early Victorian era in England. ... Former workhouse at Nantwich, dating from 1780 The Poor Law was the system for the provision of social security in operation in England and the rest of the United Kingdom from the 16th century until the establishment of the Welfare State in the 20th century. ... Child labour or labor is the phenomenon of children in employment. ... Sarcasm from Greek σαρκασμός (sarkasmos), mockery, sarcasm is sneering, jesting, or mocking a person, situation or thing. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Robert Blincoe (c. ... Events and Trends Electromagnetic induction discovered by Michael Faraday Dutch-speaking farmers known as Voortrekkers emigrate northwards from the Cape Colony Croquet invented in Ireland Railroad construction begins in earnest in the United States Egba refugees fleeing the Yoruba civil wars found the city of Abeokuta in south-west Nigeria...


Oliver Twist has been the subject of numerous film and television adaptations, and is the basis for a highly successful British musical, Oliver!. Musical theater (or theatre) is a form of theatre combining music, songs, dance, and spoken dialogue. ... Oliver! is a British musical, with music and lyrics by Lionel Bart. ...

Contents

Plot summary

"Please, sir, I want some more." Illustration by George Cruikshank

Oliver Twist is born into a life of poverty and misfortune in the workhouse of an unnamed town within a 75 mile radius of London. Orphaned almost from his first breath by his mother’s death in childbirth and his father’s unexplained absence, Oliver is meagerly provided for under the terms of the Poor Law, and spends the first nine years of his life at a "baby farm" in the 'care' of a woman named Mrs. Mann. Along with other juvenile offenders against the poor-laws, Oliver is brought up with little food and few comforts. Image File history File links Dickens_oliver_twist. ... Image File history File links Dickens_oliver_twist. ... Portrait of George Cruikshank Wood engraving published in Harpers Weekly newspaper March 16, 1878 A Young George Cruikshank George Cruikshank (September 27, 1792—February 1, 1878) was an English caricaturist and book illustrator. ... The Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 () was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom passed by the Whig government of Earl Grey that reformed the countrys poverty relief system. ...


Around the time of the orphan’s ninth birthday, Mr Bumble, a parish beadle, removes Oliver from the baby farm and puts him to work picking oakum at the main branch-workhouse. Oliver, who toils with very little food, remains in the workhouse for six months, until the desperately hungry boys decide to draw lots; the loser must ask for another portion of gruel. The task falls to Oliver, who at the next meal tremblingly comes forward, bowl in hand, and makes his famous request: "Please, sir, I want some more." Mr Buble is a character in Charles Dickens Oliver Twist who we are introduced to very early on in both the play and the novel. ... Look up Beadle on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Disambiguation: for the English television presenter please see Jeremy Beadle Beadle was originally a title given to a Saxon officer who summoned householders to council. ... Oakum is a preparation of tarred fibre used in shipbuilding, for caulking or packing joints of timbers in wood vessels and the deck planking of iron and steel ships. ... Former workhouse at Nantwich, dating from 1780 A workhouse was a place where people who were unable to support themselves could go to live and work. ...


A great uproar ensues. The board of well-fed gentlemen who administer the workhouse, while eating a meal fit for a king, are outraged by Oliver's 'ingratitude'. Wanting to be rid of this troublemaker, they offer five pounds to any person wishing to take on the boy as an apprentice. A brutal chimney sweep almost claims Oliver, but, when he begs despairingly not to be sent away with "that dreadful man" a kindly old magistrate refuses to sign the indentures. Later, Mr. Sowerberry, an undertaker employed by the parish, takes Oliver into his service. He treats Oliver well, and, because of the boy's sorrowful countenance, uses him as a "mute", or mourner, at children's funerals. His wife, however, takes an immediate dislike to Oliver – primarily because her husband seems to like him – and loses few opportunities to underfeed and mistreat him. He also suffers torments at the hands of Noah Claypole, a bullying and none-too-bright fellow apprentice who is jealous of Oliver's promotion to mute. If youre looking for the TV show, see The Apprentice. ... Chimney sweep in the 1850s A Chimney sweep is a person who cleans chimneys for a living. ... This article is about the vocation of a mortician and the death metal band; for the World Wrestling Entertainment superstar, see The Undertaker. ...


One day, in an attempt to bait Oliver, Noah insults the orphan’s late mother, calling her "a regular right-down bad 'un". Oliver flies into an unexpected passion, attacking and even besting the much bigger boy. Mrs. Sowerberry takes Noah's side, helps him subdue Oliver, and later goads her husband and the Beadle into again beating the young orphan. Alone that night, Oliver finally decides to run away. He wanders aimlessly for a time, until a well-placed tableau sets his wandering feet towards London. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


During his journey to London, Oliver encounters one Jack Dawkins, who is also affectionately known as the Artful Dodger, although young Oliver is oblivious to the hint. Dawkins provides Oliver with a free meal and tells him of a gentleman in London who will "give him lodgings for nothing, and never ask for change". Grateful for the unexpected assistance, Oliver follows Dawkins to the gentleman’s residence. In this way, Oliver unwittingly falls in with an infamous criminal known as Fagin, the "old gentleman" of whom Dawkins spoke. Ensnared, Oliver lives with Fagin and his criminal associates in their lair at Saffron Hill for some time, naively unaware of their criminal occupations. The Artful Dodger is a character in the novel, Oliver Twist, by Charles Dickens. ... Fagin is a fictional character in the Charles Dickens novel Oliver Twist. ... Historically a notorious criminal district just outside the city walls to the north. ...


Later, Oliver innocently goes out to "make handkerchiefs" with two of Fagin’s underlings: Dawkins and a boy of a humorous nature named Charley Bates. Oliver realizes too late that their real mission is to pick pockets, and, although he doesn't participate, he is hunted down and arrested. To the judge's evident disappointment, a witness clears Oliver, who, by now acutely ill, faints in the courtroom. A wealthy old gentleman named Mr. Brownlow, whom he was previously thought to have robbed, takes Oliver home and cares for him. Pickpocketing is a crime, a form of larceny which involves the stealing of money and valuables off the person of a victim without them noticing. ...


Oliver stays with Mr. Brownlow, recovers rapidly, and blossoms from the unaccustomed kindness. His bliss, however, is interrupted when Fagin, fearing Oliver might "peach" on his criminal gang, orchestrates Oliver's kidnapping. When Mr. Brownlow sends Oliver to pay for some books, one of the gang, Nancy, although reluctantly, accosts him with help from a brutal robber named Bill Sikes, and so Oliver is quickly bundled back to Fagin's lair. The thieves take the five pound note Mr. Brownlow had entrusted to him, and strip him of his fine new clothes. When Oliver dismays at his abduction, he flees and attempts to call for police assistance, but is ruthlessly dragged back to crime by the Dodger, Charlie, and Fagin. Nancy, however, is sympathetic toward Oliver and saves him from a beating by Fagin, and especially Sikes, who is Nancy's abusive lover. It has been suggested that Chivatos be merged into this article or section. ... Bill Sykes is a fictional character in the novel Oliver Twist by Charles Dickens He is one of Dickenss most menacing characters and a very strong force in the novel when it comes to having control over somebody or harming others. ...


In an attempt to again assimilate him into a life of crime, Oliver is forced by Fagin to participate in another crime; this time, a burglary. Nancy reluctantly assists in recruiting him, all the while assuring the boy that she will help him if she can. Sikes, after threatening to kill him if he does not cooperate, sends Oliver through a small window and orders him to unlock the front door. The robbery goes wrong, however, and Oliver is shot. After being abandoned by Sikes, a wounded Oliver ends up under the care of the people he was supposed to rob: Rose Maylie and the elderly Mrs. Maylie. Convinced of Oliver’s innocence, Rose takes the boy in and nurses him, once again, back to health. Rose Maylie is the heroine of Charles Dickens novel Oliver Twist. ...


Meanwhile, a mysterious man named Monks has found Fagin and is plotting with him to destroy Oliver's reputation. Nancy, by this time thoroughly ashamed of her role in Oliver's kidnapping, and fearful for the boy's safety, goes to Rose Maylie and Mr. Brownlow to warn them. She knows that Monks and Fagin are plotting to get their hands on the boy again. She manages to keep her meetings secret until Noah Claypole (who has fallen out with the undertaker and moved to London to seek his fortune), using the name "Morris Bolter," joins Fagin's gang for protection. During Noah's stay with Fagin, the Artful Dodger is caught with a stolen silver snuff box on his person, convicted at court and transported to Australia. Later, Noah is sent by Fagin to "dodge" (spy on) Nancy, and discovers her secret. Fagin angrily passes the information on to Sikes, twisting the story just enough to make it sound as if Nancy had informed on him (in actuality, she had shielded Sikes, whom she loves despite his brutal character). Believing her to be a traitor, Sikes murders Nancy in a fit of rage, and is himself killed when he accidentally hangs himself while fleeing an angry mob.


Monks is forced by Mr. Brownlow (an old friend of Oliver's father) to divulge his secrets: he is Oliver's paternal half-brother and, although he is legitimate, he was born of a loveless marriage. Oliver's mother, Agnes, was their father's true love. Monks has spent many years searching for his father's bastard child - not to befriend him, but to destroy him (see Henry Fielding's Tom Jones for similar circumstances). Brownlow asks Oliver to give half his inheritance (which proves to be meager) to Monks because he wants to give him a second chance; and Oliver, to please Brownlow, complies. Monks then moves to America, where he squanders his money, reverts to crime, and ultimately dies in prison. Fagin is arrested and condemned to the gallows; in an emotional scene, Oliver goes to Newgate Gaol to visit the old reprobate on the eve of his hanging. Henry Fielding (April 22, 1707 – October 8, 1754) was an English novelist and dramatist known for his rich earthy humor and satirical prowess and as the author of the novel Tom Jones. ... The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling (often known simply as Tom Jones) is a comic novel by Henry Fielding. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Newgate Prison is one of the most infamous prisons of English history. ...


On a happier note, Rose Maylie turns out to be the long-lost sister of Oliver's mother Agnes; she is therefore Oliver's aunt. She marries her long-time sweetheart Harry, and Oliver lives happily with his saviour, Mr. Brownlow. Noah becomes a paid informant; Mr. Bumble loses his job and is reduced to great poverty; and Charley Bates, horrified by Sikes' murder of Nancy, becomes an honest citizen, moves to the country, and works his way up to prosperity.


Characters in "Oliver Twist"

  • Oliver Twist – the title character, an orphan boy born in a workhouse
  • Fagin – a man who recruits and trains boys for thievery
  • Bill Sikes – a violent thief and eventual murderer
  • The Artful Dodger aka Jack Dawkins – one of Fagin's boy pickpockets
  • Charley Bates – another of Fagin's boy pickpockets
  • Nancy – Bill's girl; a thief trained by Fagin who longs for a better life
  • Betsy – (nearly always called simply Bet) a thief of Fagin's and friend of Nancy
  • Noah Claypole – untalented apprentice to Mr Sowerberry, and something of a bully
  • Mr. Brownlow – Oliver's saviour, a kindly old gentleman
  • Monks, aka Edward Leeford – Oliver's half-brother, a criminal type bent on destroying Oliver.
  • Rose Maylie– A kindly young woman, Oliver's second saviour, who turns out to be his aunt.
  • Mr Bumble – the parish Beadle and leader of the orphanage. He's officious, corrupt, a chronic mangler of the King's English, and a great source of comic relief.
  • Mr. Sowerberry – an Undertaker who takes Oliver into his service. He's not a bad sort, and rather likes Oliver.
  • Mrs. Sowerberry – Mr. Sowerberry's shrewish wife, who dislikes Oliver and treats him cruelly.
  • Charlotte – servant to Mrs Sowerberry; in love with Noah Claypole
  • Gamfield – a vicious chimney-sweep who nearly claims Oliver as apprentice
  • Fang – a harsh, unjust magistrate who almost sentences Oliver to three month's hard labour. Dickens based him on a real magistrate named Laing.
  • Mrs Bedwin – Motherly housekeeper to Mr Brownlow who nurses Oliver back to health
  • Mr Grimwig – an old friend of Mr Brownlow's who pretends to be a great cynic, but is really a sentimental softy.

Fagin is a fictional character in the Charles Dickens novel Oliver Twist. ... Bill Sykes is a fictional character in the novel Oliver Twist by Charles Dickens He is one of Dickenss most menacing characters and a very strong force in the novel when it comes to having control over somebody or harming others. ... The Artful Dodger is a character in the Charles Dickens novel Oliver Twist. ... Charley Bates is a supporting character in the Charles Dickens novel Oliver Twist. ... Nancy Sikes is the sympathetic lover of Bill Sikes in the novel Oliver Twist, in its film versions, and in the stage and film version of the musical Oliver!. She was corrupted at the age of six by Fagin, the seemingly lovable (but heartless) villain who persuades otherwise innocent youths... Rose Maylie is the heroine of Charles Dickens novel Oliver Twist. ... Mr Buble is a character in Charles Dickens Oliver Twist who we are introduced to very early on in both the play and the novel. ...

Major themes and symbols

Oliver Twist, one of Dickens's best-known novels, is a grimly comic indictment of the effects of industrialism upon 19th century England. Oliver, an innocent child, is trapped in an unforgiving society where, thanks in part to the harsh new Poor Laws, his only practical alternatives seem to be the workhouse, Fagin's den of thieves, a prison sentence, or an early grave. From this grim industrial/institutional setting, however, a fairy tale also emerges: In the midst of corruption and degradation, the essentially passive Oliver remains pure-hearted; he refrains from evil when those around him succumb; and, in proper fairy-tale fashion, he eventually receives his reward - just as his chief tormenters receive theirs. On the way to this happy ending, Dickens takes the opportunity to explore the kind of life an orphan, outcast boy could expect to lead in the London of the 1830s.[5] Image File history File links Information_icon. ...


Charity and love - and the lack thereof - are important motifs in Oliver Twist.[6] Although mistreated by almost everyone who has any authority over him, Oliver receives love and kindness from a few people – the old magistrate who saves him from Mr. Gamfield, the bookseller who gives evidence to clear him, and, of course, Mr. Brownlow, Rose Maylie, and Nancy. These unaccustomed acts of kindness make a great impression on Oliver, and save him from a variety of bad ends. In contrast to the false charity offered by Fagin, and the grudging pittance afforded him at the workhouse, Mr. Brownlow and Rose Maylie open their homes and hearts to Oliver, and Nancy loses her life when she defies her criminal "family" and helps him escape the life they've planned for him.


Ambivalence is a notable theme in the novel, and is most discernible in Nancy. Although she is a full-fledged criminal, indoctrinated and trained by Fagin since childhood, she retains enough empathy to repent her role in Oliver's kidnapping, and to take steps to try to atone. As one of Fagin's victims, corrupted but not yet morally dead, she gives eloquent voice to the horrors of the old man's little criminal empire. She wants to save Oliver from a similar fate; at the same time, she recoils from the idea of turning traitor, especially to Bill Sikes, whom she loves. When he was later criticised for giving a "thieving, whoring slut of the streets" such an unaccountable reversal of character, Dickens ascribed her change of heart to "the last fair drop of water at the bottom of a weed-choked well."[7] With Nancy, Dickens shows how the forces of corruption can distort a person's impulses toward the good (Nancy's "good character", by Fagin's lights, consists in being a clever thief who won't "peach") without extinguishing those impulses altogether. Look up ambivalence in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


England's class system is another important part of the novel's dynamics. Dickens shows how the Poor Law Amendment of 1834 influenced society: a middle class developed and began to exploit the lower classes[citation needed]. Mrs. Mann, Mr. Bumble and Mrs. Sowerberry are examples of middle class people who abuse members of the lower class. Oliver, an orphan without friends, means, or known relatives, is routinely despised and mistreated on that basis alone - often by people such as Noah Claypole who are only slightly above him on the social scale. When salvation arrives for Oliver, it comes primarily from the upper classes. Social class describes the relationships between people in hierarchical societies or cultures. ...


If Dickens intends to criticise the class system, however, he delivers a rather mixed message. Noah Claypole, a charity boy like Oliver, is idle, mean, and cowardly; Sikes is a thug; Fagin lives by corrupting children; and the Artful Dodger seems born for a life of crime. Most of the middle-class people Oliver encounters, such as the savagely hypocritical "gentlemen" of the workhouse board, are, if anything, worse.[8] Oliver, on the other hand, who has an air of refinement remarkable for a workhouse boy, proves to be of gentle birth. Although he has been abused and neglected all his life, he recoils, aghast, at the idea of victimizing anyone else. This apparently hereditary gentlemanliness makes Oliver Twist something of a changeling tale, not just an indictment of social injustice. Oliver, born for better things, struggles to survive in the savage world of the underclass before finally being rescued by his family and returned to his proper place. Trolls with the changeling they have raised, John Bauer, 1913. ... A social class is, at its most basic, a group of people that have similar social status. ...


In a style that would become characteristic, Dickens makes considerable use of symbolism. The "merry old gentleman" Fagin, for example, has satanic characteristics - he is a veteran corrupter of young boys who first appears standing over a fire holding a toasting-fork in lieu of a pitchfork, and the underworld he presides over has an infernal aspect.[9] Food, too, has symbolic value; Oliver's odyssey begins with a simple request for more gruel, and Mr. Bumble's shocked exclamation "Oliver Twist has asked for more!" indicates that the "more" Oliver hungers for is not just gruel.[10] Chapter 8--which contains the last noteworthy mention of food in the form of Fagin's dinner--marks the first time Oliver "ate his share" and represents the transformation in his life that occurs after he joined Fagin's gang.


Names are a rich source of comic symbolism in Dickens' writing, often marking their owners as semi-monstrous caricatures. Mrs. Mann, who has charge of the infant Oliver, is not the most motherly of women; Mr. Bumble, despite his impressive sense of his own dignity, continually mangles the official language he tries to use; and Mr. Fang, the magistrate who adjudicates Oliver's alleged theft of a handkerchief, is such a sadist that he nearly consigns the ailing boy to three month's hard labour - a sentence that would surely have killed him. The Sowerberry's are, of course, "sour berries", a reference to Mrs. Sowerberry's perpetual scowl, and, possibly, to Mr. Sowerberry's profession (burying) and to the poor provender Oliver receives from them. The "good" characters are also named according to their type; Mr. Grimwig, for example, is so called because his seemingly "grim", pessimistic outlook is actually a protective cover for his kind, sentimental soul. Oliver Twist's name, chosen according to an alphabetical system, at first reflects nothing more than his lowly status as just another "item of mortality" in a long list of others. The surname "Twist", however - although bestowed by the eminently prosaic Mr Bumble - foreshadows the strange turns of fortune which await its bearer. For the book of comics by Daniel Clowes see Caricature (Daniel Clowes collection) A common caricature of Charles Darwin focuses on his beard, eyebrows, and baldness, while often giving him the features of an ape or monkey. ...


The world of Oliver Twist is indeed a grim one. Dickens manages to contrive happy endings for most of the deserving characters, however; and although Oliver's escape from the slums is more or less miraculous, he clearly hopes to improve the chances of orphans like Oliver by opening the public's eyes to their vulnerability and suffering. In Oliver Twist, the gaze of knowing eyes can be a powerful force. Fagin, who for decades manages to conceal his criminal activities, ends up squirming in the "living light" of too many eyes as he stands in the dock, awaiting sentence. When Sikes kills Nancy, the memory of her eyes continues to accuse him even after he has fled the scene. Charlie Bates turns his back on crime when he sees the murderous cruelty of the man who has been held up to him as a model. With Oliver Twist, Dickens invites the public to become similarly enlightened.


Film, TV or theatrical adaptations

There have been many theatrical, film and television adaptations of Dickens' novel: Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... Film is a term that encompasses individual motion pictures, the field of film as an art form, and the motion picture industry. ...

Adaptations of the novel tend to simplify the original story. The way the book is normally interpreted on screen causes modern readers to focus on Bill Sikes as the villain. They thus fail to recognise how Fagin has trained Sikes and made him what he is; part of Dickens' message is that he might have done the same with Oliver had chance not intervened. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Film adaptation is the transfer of a written work to a feature film. ... A silent film is a film which has no accompanying soundtrack. ... See also: 1908 in film 1909 1910 in film years in film film Events none Births January 1 - Dana Andrews, actor (d. ... See also: 1911 in film 1912 1913 in film years in film film Events Mack Sennett, who had previously worked as an actor and comedy director with D. W. Griffith, formed a new company, Keystone Studios, that played an important role in developing slapstick comedy. ... Nathaniel Carl Goodwin (25 July 1857-31 January 1919) was an American actor and vaudevillian born in Boston. ... // Events November 19 - Samuel Goldfish (later renamed Samuel Goldwyn) and Edgar Selwyn establish Goldwyn Company (the company later became one of the most successful independent filmmakers). ... Tully Marshall was a film actor with an over sixty-year career in film. ... Hobart Bosworth in costume Hobart Bosworth (b. ... Marie Doro Marie Doro (May 25, 1882 - October 9, 1956) was a popular American stage actress & film actress of the early silent film era of the 1910 through the early 1920s. ... A breeches role (also pants role or trouser role) is a role in which an actress appears in male clothes (breeches being tight-fitting knee-length pants, the standard male garment at the time breeches roles were introduced). ... See also: 1921 in film 1922 1923 in film 1920s in film years in film film Events November 26 - Toll of the Sea debuts as the first general release film to use two-tone Technicolor (The Gulf Between was the first film to do so but it was not widely... John Leslie (Jackie) Coogan (October 26, 1914 – March 1, 1984) was an American actor who began his movie career as a child actor in silent films. ... There were two famous American actors named Lon Chaney, both known for their work in horror movies. ... See also: 1932 in film 1933 1934 in film 1930s in film years in film film // Events British Film Institute founded. ... Irving Pichel was an American actor and director. ... Dickie Moore can refer to different people: Dickie Moore (1931- ), a Canadian ice hockey player. ... Oliver Twist (1948) is the second of David Leans two film adaptations of Charles Dickens novels. ... A reel of film, which predates digital cinematography. ... See also: 1947 in film 1948 1949 in film 1940s in film years in film film // Events Top grossing films North America The Red Shoes, (55th in year of release, lifetime box office would place it in first) The Road to Rio Easter Parade Red River The Three Musketeers, Johnny... Sir David Lean, KBE (March 25, 1908 – April 16, 1991) was an English film director and producer, best remembered for big-screen epics such as Lawrence of Arabia, The Bridge on the River Kwai, and Doctor Zhivago . ... Sir Alec Guinness CH CBE (April 2, 1914 – August 5, 2000) was an Academy Award and Tony Award-winning English actor who became one of the most versatile and best-loved performers of his generation. ... Fagin is a fictional character in the Charles Dickens novel Oliver Twist. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... Lionel Bart (1930-1999) was a British composer of songs musicals, best known for Oliver! Bart was born Lionel Begleiter in London to Galician Jews, and grew up in Stepney. ... The Fantasticks is the longest-running musical in history. ... Oliver! is a British musical, with music and lyrics by Lionel Bart. ... David Merrick (November 27, 1911 - April 25, 2000) was an American theatrical producer and director, associated with both musicals and dramas, brilliant successes and embarrassing fl ops. ... Nickname: Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates: State California County Los Angeles County Incorporated April 4, 1850 Government  - Type Mayor-Council  - Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa  - City Attorney Rocky Delgadillo  - Governing body City Council Area  - City  498. ... Nickname: Location of the City and County of San Francisco, California Coordinates: Country United States of America State California City-County San Francisco Government  - Mayor Gavin Newsom Area  - City  47 sq mi (122 km²)  - Land  46. ... Nickname: Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (Latin for, We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes) Location in Wayne County, Michigan Coordinates: Country United States State Michigan County Wayne County Settled 1701 Incorporation 1806 Government  - Type Strong Mayor-Council  - Mayor Kwame Kilpatrick Area  - City  143. ... The Imperial Theater can also refer to the Imperial Garden Theater in Tokyo, Japan The Imperial Theater was the Schubert brothers fiftieth theater in New York City. ... Broadway theatre[1] is the most prestigious form of professional theatre in the U.S., as well as the most well known to the general public and most lucrative for the performers, technicians and others involved in putting on the shows. ... January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 359 days (360 in leap years) remaining. ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ... Oliver! is a 1968 musical film directed by Carol Reed and based on the stage musical Oliver!. Both the film and play are based on the famous Charles Dickens novel Oliver Twist. ... // October 30 - The film The Lion in Winter, starring Katharine Hepburn, debuts. ... // The Academy Award for Best Motion Picture is one of the Academy Awards, awards given to people working in the motion picture industry by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences, which are voted on by others within the industry. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... Mark Lester (b. ... Ronald Moodnick, known as Ron Moody (born January 8, 1924) is a British actor. ... Robert Oliver Reed (February 13, 1938 – May 2, 1999) was an English actor known for his macho image on and off screen. ... Shani Wallis(b. ... Jack Wild (30 September 1952–2 March 2006) was an English actor who achieved fame for his roles in both stage and screen productions of the Lionel Bart musical Oliver!. 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The renowned comic book creator, Will Eisner, disturbed by the anti-semitism in the typical depiction of Fagin, created a graphic novel in 2003 titled Fagin the Jew. In this book, the back story of the character and events of Oliver Twist are depicted from his point of view. A comic book is a magazine or book containing the art form of comics. ... William Erwin Eisner (March 6, 1917 – January 3, 2005) was an acclaimed American comics writer, artist and entrepreneur. ... The Eternal Jew: 1937 German poster. ... Trade paperback of Will Eisners A Contract with God (1978), often mistakenly cited as the first graphic novel. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Cover of Fagin the Jew by Will Eisner. ... In narratology, a back-story (also back story or backstory) is the history behind the situation extant at the start of the main story. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens (Paul Schlicke, Editor). Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999, p. 141.
  2. ^ According to many Dickens scholars such as Peter Ackroyd (in Dickens. New York: HarperCollins, 1990, pp. 216-7), although the early part of Fielding's Tom Jones features its protagonist as a child.
  3. ^ Donovan, Frank. The Children of Charles Dickens. London: Leslie Frewin, 1968, pp. 61-62
  4. ^ Dunn, Richard J.. Oliver Twist: Whole Heart and Soul (Twayne's Masterwork Series No. 118). New York: Macmillan, p. 37.
  5. ^ Miller, J. Hillis. "The Dark World of Oliver Twist" in Charles Dickens (Harold Bloom, editor), New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1987, p. 35
  6. ^ Walder, Dennis, "Oliver Twist and Charity" in Oliver Twist: a Norton Critical Edition (Fred Kaplan, Editor). New York: W.W. Norton, 1993, pp. 515-525
  7. ^ Donovan, Frank, ibid, p. 79.
  8. ^ Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens, ibid., p. 459.
  9. ^ Miller, ibid, p. 48
  10. ^ Miller, ibid, p. 31
  11. ^ Oxford Reader's Companion to Dickens, ibid., p. 479.

Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Peter Ackroyd (born October 5, 1949, London) is an English author. ... Tom Jones can be: The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling, a novel by Henry Fielding Tom Jones (movie), by Tony Richardson People Sir Tom Jones (singer) Tom Jones (writer), musicals T.G. Jones, Thomas George Jones, a footballer for Everton Wales Tom Jones (auto racer), a one-time Formula... J. Hillis Miller is an American deconstructive literary critic. ... W. W. Norton & Company is an American book publishing company. ...

External links

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Oliver Twist


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Oliver Twist
Characters: Fagin | Bill Sikes | The Artful Dodger | Nancy Sikes | Rose Maylie
Film adaptions: Oliver Twist (1948) | Oliver! | Oliver & Company | Oliver Twist (1997) | Twist | Boy called Twist | Oliver Twist (2005)
Other adaptions: Oliver! | Fagin the Jew | Oliver Twist (TV miniseries)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Oliver Twist (1964 words)
Oliver, injured in the chase, is cleared by a witness to the crime and is taken by the kindly Brownlow to his home to recuperate.
Oliver is forced by Fagin to accompany Sikes in an attempted robbery, needing a small boy to enter a window and open the door for the housebreakers.
Oliver is revealed to be the illegitimate son of Edwin Leeford and Agnes Fleming.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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