Oliver Heaviside (May 18, 1850 – February 3, 1925) was a selftaught English electrical engineer, mathematician, and physicist who adapted complex numbers to the study of electrical circuits, developed techniques for applying Laplace transforms to the solution of differential equations, reformulated Maxwell's field equations in terms of electric and magnetic forces and energy flux, and independently coformulated vector analysis. Although at odds with the scientific establishment for most of his life, Heaviside changed the face of mathematics and science for years to come. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...
May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ...
Year 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12day slower Julian calendar). ...
Camden Town is an area of north London in the London Borough of Camden. ...
This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...
Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification  by Athelstan AD 927 Area  Total 130,395 kmÂ² (1st in UK) 50,346 sq mi Population  2006 est. ...
February 3 is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...
1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ...
Torquay (IPA: ) is a town in Devon, England. ...
â€œDevonshireâ€ redirects here. ...
Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification  by Athelstan AD 927 Area  Total 130,395 kmÂ² (1st in UK) 50,346 sq mi Population  2006 est. ...
Image File history File links Flag_of_England_(bordered). ...
Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification  by Athelstan AD 927 Area  Total 130,395 kmÂ² (1st in UK) 50,346 sq mi Population  2006 est. ...
Image File history File links Flag_of_England_(bordered). ...
Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification  by Athelstan AD 927 Area  Total 130,395 kmÂ² (1st in UK) 50,346 sq mi Population  2006 est. ...
Electrical Engineers design power systemsâ€¦ â€¦ and complex electronic circuits. ...
Leonhard Euler is considered by many to be one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is the person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ...
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Charles Wheatstone Sir Charles Wheatstone (February 6, 1802  October 19, 1875) was the British inventor of many innovations including the English concertina the Stereoscope an early form of microphone the Playfair cipher (named for Lord Playfair, the person who publicized it) He was a major figure in the development of...
The KennellyHeaviside Layer is also known as the E region or just as Heaviside Layer (after Oliver Heaviside). ...
It has been suggested that Electric reactance be merged into this article or section. ...
The Heaviside step function, using the halfmaximum convention The Heaviside step function, sometimes called the unit step function and named in honor of Oliver Heaviside, is a discontinuous function whose value is zero for negative argument and one for positive argument: The function is used in the mathematics of...
In mathematics, a differential operator is a linear operator defined as a function of the differentiation operator. ...
Vector calculus (also called vector analysis) is a field of mathematics concerned with multivariate real analysis of vectors in two or more dimensions. ...
The Heaviside condition, stated by Oliver Heaviside, is used in the construction of telegraph cables etc to balance the effects of the cableâ€™s capacitance and inductance. ...
May 18 is the 138th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (139th in leap years). ...
Year 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12day slower Julian calendar). ...
February 3 is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...
1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ...
Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification  by Athelstan AD 927 Area  Total 130,395 kmÂ² (1st in UK) 50,346 sq mi Population  2006 est. ...
Electrical Engineers design power systemsâ€¦ â€¦ and complex electronic circuits. ...
Leonhard Euler is considered by many to be one of the greatest mathematicians of all time A mathematician is the person whose primary area of study and research is the field of mathematics. ...
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The complex numbers are an extension of the real numbers, in which all nonconstant polynomials have roots. ...
An electrical network or electrical circuit is an interconnection of analog electrical elements such as resistors, inductors, capacitors, diodes, switches and transistors. ...
In mathematics, the Laplace transform is a technique for analyzing linear timeinvariant systems such as electrical circuits, harmonic oscillators, optical devices, and mechanical systems, to name just a few. ...
In mathematics, a differential equation is an equation in which the derivatives of a function appear as variables. ...
In electromagnetism, Maxwells equations are a set of equations, developed in the latter half of the nineteenth century by James Clerk Maxwell. ...
The article on electrical energy is located elsewhere. ...
In physics, magnetism is a phenomenon by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ...
In physics, the force experienced by a body is defined as the rate of change of momentum with time. ...
In the various subfields of physics, there exist two common usages of the term flux, both with rigorous mathematical frameworks. ...
Vector calculus (also called vector analysis) is a field of mathematics concerned with multivariate real analysis of vectors in two or more dimensions. ...
Biography Early years Heaviside was born in London's Camden Town. He was short and redheaded, and suffered from scarlet fever during his youth. The illness had a lasting impact on him, and Heaviside was left partially deaf. Although he was a good scholar (placed fifth out of five hundred students in 1865), he left school at 16 and began learning about Morse code and electromagnetism. This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...
Camden Town is an area of north London in the London Borough of Camden. ...
Hearing impairment is a a full or partial decrease in the ability to detect sounds. ...
It has been suggested that Farnsworth method and Koch method be merged into this article or section. ...
Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field; a field encompassing all of space which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ...
Heaviside became a telegraph operator, initially in Denmark and, later, at the Great Northern Telegraph Company. Heaviside continued to study and, in 1872, while working as a chief operator in Newcastle upon Tyne, he started an analysis of electricity. In 1874, Heaviside left this position and researched in isolation at his parents' house. Here he helped develop transmission line theory (also known as the "telegrapher's equations"). This article is about a city in the United Kingdom. ...
Lightning strikes during a nighttime thunderstorm. ...
A transmission line is the material medium or structure that forms all or part of a path from one place to another for directing the transmission of energy, such as electromagnetic waves or acoustic waves, as well as electric power transmission. ...
Oliver Heaviside developed the transmission line theory known as the telegraphers equations. ...
Heaviside showed mathematically that uniformly distributed inductance in a telegraph line would diminish both attenuation and distortion, and that, if the inductance were great enough and the insulation resistance not too high, the circuit would be distortionless while currents of all frequencies would be equally attenuated. Heaviside's equations helped further the implementation of the telegraph. The Heaviside condition, stated by Oliver Heaviside, is used in the construction of telegraph cables etc to balance the effects of the cableâ€™s capacitance and inductance. ...
Attenuation is the reduction in amplitude and intensity of a signal with respect to distance traveled through a medium. ...
A distortion is the alteration of the original shape (or other characteristic) of an object, image, sound, waveform or other form of information or representation. ...
Inductance (or electric inductance) is a measure of the amount of magnetic flux produced for a given electric current. ...
This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...
Electrical resistance is a measure of the degree to which an electrical component opposes the passage of current. ...
Digital circuits are electric circuits based on a number of discrete voltage levels. ...
In electricity, current refers to electric current, which is the flow of electric charge. ...
FreQuency is a music video game developed by Harmonix and published by SCEI. It was released in November 2001. ...
Middle years In 1880, Heaviside researched the skin effect in telegraph transmission lines. Heaviside, after 1880, recast Maxwell's mathematical analysis from its original cumbersome form (they had already been recast as quaternions) to its modern vector terminology, thereby reducing the original twenty equations in twenty unknowns down to the four differential equations in four unknowns we now know as Maxwell's equations. The four reformulated Maxwell's equations describe the nature of static and moving electric charges and magnetic dipoles, and the relationship between the two, namely electromagnetic induction. The skin effect is the tendency of an alternating electric current (AC) to distribute itself within a conductor so that the current density near the surface of the conductor is greater than that at its core. ...
In mathematics, the quaternions are a noncommutative extension of the complex numbers. ...
In physics and in vector calculus, a spatial vector, or simply vector, is a concept characterized by a magnitude and a direction. ...
An illustration of a differential equation. ...
In electromagnetism, Maxwells equations are a set of equations, developed in the latter half of the nineteenth century by James Clerk Maxwell. ...
Between 1880 and 1887, Heaviside developed the operational calculus (involving the D notation for the differential operator, which he is credited with creating), a method of solving differential equations by transforming them into ordinary algebraic equations which caused a great deal of controversy when first introduced, owing to the lack of rigour in his derivation of it. He famously said, "Mathematics is an experimental science, and definitions do not come first, but later on." He was replying to criticism over the use of operators that weren't clearly defined. On another occasion he stated somewhat more defensively, "I do not refuse my dinner simply because I do not understand the process of digestion." In mathematics, operator theory is the branch of functional analysis which deals with bounded linear operators and their properties. ...
In mathematics, a differential operator is a linear operator defined as a function of the differentiation operator. ...
Algebraic geometry is a branch of mathematics which, as the name suggests, combines abstract algebra, especially commutative algebra, with geometry. ...
Look up Rigour in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
In 1887, Heaviside proposed that induction coils (inductors) should be added to the transatlantic telegraph cable (increasing selfinduction) in order to correct the distortion which it suffered. For political reasons, this was not done. The importance of Heaviside's work remained undiscovered for some time after publication in The Electrician, and so its rights lay in the public domain. AT&T later employed one of its own scientists, George A. Campbell, and an external investigator Michael Idvorsky Pupin to determine whether Heaviside's work was incomplete or incorrect in any way. Campbell and Pupin extended Heaviside's work, and AT&T filed for patents covering not only their research, but also the technical method of constructing the coils previously invented by Heaviside. AT&T later offered Heaviside money in exchange for his rights; it is possible that the Bell engineers' respect for Heaviside influenced this offer. However, Heaviside refused the offer, declining to accept any money unless the company were to give him full recognition. Heaviside was chronically poor, making his refusal of the offer even more striking. ^{[1]} In electronics, a loading coil is a coil (inductor) that does not provide coupling to any other circuit, but is inserted in a circuit to increase its inductance. ...
An inductor is a passive electrical device employed in electrical circuits for its property of inductance. ...
The first Transatlantic telegraph cable was a telegraph cable that crossed the Atlantic Ocean from Valentia Island, in western Ireland to Trinity Bay, in eastern Newfoundland. ...
AT&T (NYSE: T) is the largest provider of both local and long distance telephone services, wireless service under the brand Cingular Wireless, and DSL Internet access in the United States. ...
Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin, Ph. ...
In two papers of 1888 and 1889, Heaviside calculated the deformations of electric and magnetic fields surrounding a moving charge, as well as the effects of it entering a denser medium. This included a prediction of what is now known as Cherenkov radiation, and inspired Fitzgerald to suggest what now is known as the LorentzFitzgerald contraction. Cherenkov radiation glowing in the core of a TRIGA reactor Cherenkov radiation (also spelled Cerenkov or sometimes ÄŒerenkov) is electromagnetic radiation emitted when a charged particle passes through an insulator at a speed greater than the speed of light in that medium. ...
Length contraction, according to Albert Einsteins special theory of relativity, is the decrease in length experienced by people or objects traveling at a substantial fraction of the speed of light. ...
Around 1889, after Joseph John Thomson's research into the electron, Heaviside worked on the concept of electromagnetic mass. Heaviside treated this as "real" as material mass, capable of producing the same effects. Wilhelm Wien later verified Heaviside's expression (for low velocities). Sir Joseph John Thomson Sir Joseph John Thomson (18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940), often known as J. J. Thomson, was an English physicist, the discoverer of the electron. ...
e redirects here. ...
A concept is an abstract idea or a mental symbol, typically associated with a corresponding representation in language or symbology, that denotes all of the objects in a given category or class of entities, interactions, phenomena, or relationships between them. ...
The electromagnetic mass of an electrically charged object, such as an electron, is the apparent increase in its mass due to its interaction with the electromagnetic field that surrounds it. ...
Unsolved problems in physics: What causes anything to have mass? The U.S. National Prototype Kilogram, which currently serves as the primary standard for measuring mass in the U.S. Mass is the property of a physical object that quantifies the amount of matter and energy it is equivalent to. ...
Wilhelm Carl Werner Otto Fritz Franz Wien (January 13, 1864 â€“ August 30, 1928) was a German physicist who, in 1893, used theories about heat and electromagnetism to compose Wiens displacement law, which relates the maximum emission of a blackbody to its temperature. ...
The velocity of an object is its speed in a particular direction. ...
In 1891 the British Royal Society recognized Heaviside's contributions to the mathematical description of electromagnetic phenomena by naming him a Fellow of the Royal Society. In 1905 Heaviside was given an honorary doctorate by the University of Göttingen. The premises of The Royal Society in London (first four properties only). ...
The GeorgAugust University of GÃ¶ttingen (GeorgAugustUniversitÃ¤t GÃ¶ttingen, often called the Georgia Augusta) was founded in 1734 by George II, King of Great Britain and Elector of Hanover, and opened in 1737. ...
Later years In 1902, Heaviside proposed the existence of the KennellyHeaviside Layer of the ionosphere which bears his name. Heaviside's proposal included means by which radio signals are transmitted around the earth's curvature. The existence of the ionosphere was confirmed in 1923. The predictions by Heaviside, combined with Planck's radiation theory, probably discouraged further attempts to detect radio waves from the Sun and other astronomical objects. For whatever reason, there seem to have been no attempts for 30 years, until Jansky's development of radio astronomy in 1932. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ...
Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ...
Location within the British Isles Paignton seafront in the late evening, at high tide Paignton (pronounced Paynton) is an English coastal town on the English Riviera near Torquay, in the county of Devon. ...
The KennellyHeaviside Layer is also known as the E region or just as Heaviside Layer (after Oliver Heaviside). ...
Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck (April 23, 1858 â€“ October 4, 1947 in GÃ¶ttingen, Germany) was a German physicist. ...
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System. ...
See lists of astronomical objects for a list of the various lists of astronomical objects in Wikipedia. ...
Karl Guthe Jansky (October 22, 1905 â€“ February 14, 1950), was the American physicist and radio engineer who in 1932 discovered that the Milky Way galaxy emanates radio waves; he did not follow up his discovery, but it marked the birth of radio astronomy. ...
Radio astronomy is the study of celestialphenomena through measurement of radio waves emitted by physical processes occurring in space. ...
In later years his behaviour became quite eccentric, having been at odds with the scientific establishment for most of his life. Though he had been an active cyclist in his youth, his health seriously declined in his sixth decade. During this time Heaviside would sign correspondences with the initials "W.O.R.M." after his name though the letters did not stand for anything. Heaviside also started painting his fingernails pink and had granite blocks moved into his house for furniture. Heaviside died at Torquay in Devon, and is buried in Paignton cemetery. Most of his recognition was gained posthumously. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...
Quarrying granite for the Mormon Temple, Utah Territory. ...
Torquay (IPA: ) is a town in Devon, England. ...
â€œDevonshireâ€ redirects here. ...
Location within the British Isles Paignton seafront in the late evening, at high tide Paignton (pronounced Paynton) is an English coastal town on the English Riviera near Torquay, in the county of Devon. ...
Innovations and discoveries Heaviside advanced the idea of the ionosphere, making the prediction of the KennellyHeaviside Layer. Heaviside developed the transmission line theory (also known as the "telegrapher's equations"). Heaviside independently codiscovered the Poynting vector. Relationship of the atmosphere and ionosphere The ionosphere is the part of the atmosphere that is ionized by solar radiation. ...
The KennellyHeaviside Layer is also known as the E region or just as Heaviside Layer (after Oliver Heaviside). ...
A transmission line is the material medium or structure that forms all or part of a path from one place to another for directing the transmission of energy, such as electromagnetic waves or acoustic waves, as well as electric power transmission. ...
This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...
The Poynting vector describes the energy flux (JÂ·mâˆ’2Â·sâˆ’1) of an electromagnetic field. ...
Heaviside simplified and made useful for the sciences the original Maxwell's equations of electromagnetism. This innovation from the reformulation of Maxwell's original equations gives the four vector equations known today. Heaviside developed the Heaviside step function, which he used to model the flow of current in an electric circuit. Heaviside developed vectors (and vector calculus). Heaviside formed the operator method for linear differential equations. However, Heaviside's approach is short of vigorous mathematical basis. Thomas Bromwich supplemented Heaviside's operator method by providing a vigorous mathematics basis. (Please see Bromwich integral, which is just the inverse Laplace transform in modern text books.) Heaviside's operator method is more or less similar to the modern approach of using Laplace transform. In electromagnetism, Maxwells equations are a set of equations, developed in the latter half of the nineteenth century by James Clerk Maxwell. ...
Electromagnetism is the physics of the electromagnetic field; a field encompassing all of space which exerts a force on particles that possess the property of electric charge, and is in turn affected by the presence and motion of those particles. ...
The Heaviside step function, using the halfmaximum convention The Heaviside step function, sometimes called the unit step function and named in honor of Oliver Heaviside, is a discontinuous function whose value is zero for negative argument and one for positive argument: The function is used in the mathematics of...
An electrical network or electrical circuit is an interconnection of analog electrical elements such as resistors, inductors, capacitors, diodes, switches and transistors. ...
In physics and in vector calculus, a spatial vector, or simply vector, is a concept characterized by a magnitude and a direction. ...
Vector calculus (also called vector analysis) is a field of mathematics concerned with multivariate real analysis of vectors in two or more dimensions. ...
In mathematics, an operator is a function that performs some sort of operation on a number, variable, or function. ...
The word linear comes from the Latin word linearis, which means created by lines. ...
An illustration of a differential equation. ...
In mathematics, the Bromwich integral or inverse Laplace transform of F(s) is the function f(t) which has the property where is the Laplace transform. ...
In mathematics, the Laplace transform is a technique for analyzing linear timeinvariant systems such as electrical circuits, harmonic oscillators, optical devices, and mechanical systems, to name just a few. ...
Electromagnetic terms Oliver Heaviside coined the following terms: A neologism (Greek Î½ÎµÎ¿Î»Î¿Î³Î¹ÏƒÎ¼ÏŒÏ‚ [neologismos], from Î½ÎÎ¿Ï‚ [neos] new + Î»ÏŒÎ³Î¿Ï‚ [logos] word, speech, discourse + suffix Î¹ÏƒÎ¼ÏŒÏ‚ [ismos] ism) is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (coined) â€” often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize preexisting concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ...
Electret (formed of elektr from electricity and et from magnet) is material that has been permanently electrically charged (polarised). ...
In physics, the ferroelectric effect is an electrical phenomenon whereby certain ionic crystals may exhibit a spontaneous dipole moment. ...
Electrical conductance is the reciprocal of electrical resistance. ...
In electromagnetism, permeability is the degree of magnetization of a material that responds linearly to an applied magnetic field. ...
Inductance (or electric inductance) is a measure of the amount of magnetic flux produced for a given electric current. ...
Electrical impedance, or simply impedance, is a measure of opposition to a sinusoidal alternating electric current. ...
In electrical engineering, the admittance (Y) is the inverse of the impedance (Z). ...
Magnetic reluctance is the resistance of a material to a magnetic field. ...
In electrical engineering, the susceptance (B) is the imaginary part of the admittance. ...
In electrical engineering, the susceptance (B) is the imaginary part of the admittance. ...
See also  Physics: KennellyHeaviside Layer, Microwave, 1850 in science
 Mathematics: Analytical Society, Differential operator, Heaviside step function, Maxwell's equations, Quaternions
 People: William Rowan Hamilton, James Clerk Maxwell, Willard Gibbs, Mihajlo Pupin, Nikola Tesla
 Other: Heaviside condition
Physics (Greek: (phÃºsis), nature and (phusikÃ©), knowledge of nature) is the science concerned with the fundamental laws of the universe. ...
The KennellyHeaviside Layer is also known as the E region or just as Heaviside Layer (after Oliver Heaviside). ...
Microwaves are electromagnetic waves with wavelengths longer than those of terahertz (THz) frequencies, but relatively short for radio waves. ...
See also: Other events of 1850 List of years in science . ...
Euclid, Greek mathematician, 3rd century BC, as imagined by by Raphael in this detail from The School of Athens. ...
The Analytical Society was a group of individuals in early19th century Britain whose aim was to promote the use of Leibnizian or analytical calculus as opposed to Newtonian calculus. ...
In mathematics, a differential operator is a linear operator defined as a function of the differentiation operator. ...
The Heaviside step function, using the halfmaximum convention The Heaviside step function, sometimes called the unit step function and named in honor of Oliver Heaviside, is a discontinuous function whose value is zero for negative argument and one for positive argument: The function is used in the mathematics of...
In electromagnetism, Maxwells equations are a set of equations, developed in the latter half of the nineteenth century by James Clerk Maxwell. ...
In mathematics, the quaternions are a noncommutative extension of the complex numbers. ...
William Rowan Hamilton Sir William Rowan Hamilton (August 4, 1805 â€“ September 2, 1865) was an Irish mathematician, physicist, and astronomer who made important contributions to the development of optics, dynamics, and algebra. ...
James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 â€“ 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist. ...
Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, 1839 â€“ April 28, 1903) was an American mathematical physicist who contributed much of the theoretical foundation that led to the development of chemical thermodynamics and was one of the founders of vector analysis. ...
Mihajlo Idvorski Pupin, Ph. ...
Nikola Tesla (18561943)[1] was a worldrenowned Serbian inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer and electrical engineer. ...
The Heaviside condition, stated by Oliver Heaviside, is used in the construction of telegraph cables etc to balance the effects of the cableâ€™s capacitance and inductance. ...
Publications  Heaviside, Oliver, "Electromagnetic induction and its propagation". The Electrician, 1885, 1886, and 1887.
 Heaviside, Oliver, "Electrical Papers" 1887.
 Heaviside, Oliver, "The Electromagnetic Effects of a Moving charge". Electrician, 1888.
 Heaviside, Oliver, "On the Electromagnetic Effects due to the Motion of Electrification through a Dielectric". Phil.Mag.S.5 vol.27, 1889 p.324, 1889.
 Heaviside, Oliver, "On the Forces, Stresses, and Fluxes of Energy in the Electromagnetic Field". Philosopical Transaction of the Royal Society, London, 1893.
 Heaviside, Oliver, "A gravitational and electromagnetic analogy". The Electrician, 1893.
 Heaviside, Oliver, "Electromagnetic theory: The complete & unabridged edition". 1951. ISBN B0000CI0WA
 Heaviside, Oliver, "Electromagnetic Theory". American Mathematical Society, 1970. ISBN 082840237X
 Heaviside, Oliver, "Electrical Papers". American Mathematical Society, 1999. ISBN 0828402353
 Heaviside, Oliver, "Electrical Papers". American Mathematical Society, 2003. ISBN 0821828401
1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12day slower Julian calendar). ...
1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18  Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ...
Further reading Sorted by date.  Lee, G., "Oliver Heaviside". London, 1947.
 "The Heaviside Centenary Volume". The Institution of Electrical Engineers. London, 1950.
 Josephs, H, J., "Oliver Heaviside : a biography". London, 1963.
 Josephs, H, J., "The Heaviside Papers found at Paignton in 1957.". Electromagnetic Theory by Oliver Heaviside. New York, 1971.
 Moore, D. H., "Heaviside Operational Calculus". New York, 1971. ISBN 0444000909
 Buchwald, J. Z., "From Maxwell to microphysics". Chicago, 1985. ISBN 0226078825
 Searle, G. F. C., "Oliver Heaviside, the Man". St Albans, 1987. ISBN 0906340055
 Nahin, P. J., "Oliver Heaviside, Sage in Solitude". IEEE Press, New York, 1988. ISBN 0879422386
 Laithwaite, E. R., "Oliver Heaviside  establishment shaker". Electrical Review, November 12, 1982.
 Hunt, B. J., "The Maxwellians". Ithaca NY, 1991.ISBN 0801482348
 Lynch, A. C., "The Sources for a Biography of Oliver Heaviside". History of Technology, Vol. 13, ed. G. HollisterShort, London & New York, 1991.
 Yavetz, I., "From Obscurity to Enigma: The Work of Oliver Heaviside, 18721889". Basel, 1995. ISBN 3764351802
 Pickover, Clifford A., "Strange Brains and Genius, The Secret Lives of Eccentric Scientists and Madmen". June 2, 1999. ISBN 0688168949
 Nahin, Paul J., "Oliver Heaviside: The Life, Work, and Times of an Electrical Genius of the Victorian Age". November, 2002. ISBN 0801869099
External links and references  The MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, "Oliver Heaviside". School of Mathematics and Statistics. University of St Andrews, Scotland
 Heather, Alan, "Oliver Heaviside". Torbay Amateur Radio Society.
 "Mr. Oliver Heaviside". Obituary, The Times. (GIF File format)
 Katz, Eugenii, "Oliver Heaviside". Hebrew University of Jerusalem.
 Lienhard, John H., "No. 426: Oliver Heaviside". The Engines of Our Ingenuity.
 Ghigo, F., "PreHistory of Radio Astronomy, Oliver Heaviside (18501925)". National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Green Bank, West Virginia.
 Wolfram, Stephen, "Heaviside, Oliver (18501925)". Wolfram Media, Inc.
 Naughton, Russell, "Oliver W. Heaviside: 1850  1925". Adventures in CyberSound.
 Bexte, Peter, "Kabel im Denkraum" (German)
 Tr. "Cable in the thinking area"
 McGinty, Phil, "Oliver Heaviside". Devon Life, Torbay Library Services.
 Gustafson, Grant, "Heaviside's Methods". math.utah.edu. (PDF)
 The Dibner Library Portrait Collection, "Oliver Heaviside".
 "Physical units". 1911 Encyclopdia
An example of a GIF image. ...
A file format is a particular way to encode information for storage in a computer file. ...
Portable Document Format (PDF), sometimes mistaken for Printable Document Format, is an open file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 and is now being prepared for submission as an ISO standard[1]. It is used for representing twodimensional documents in a device independent and resolution independent fixedlayout...
Notes  ^ Norbert Wiener (1993). Invention: The Care and Feeding of Ideas. MIT Press, 7075.
This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. EncyclopÃ¦dia Britannica, the 11th edition The EncyclopÃ¦dia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910â€“1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the EncyclopÃ¦dia Britannica. ...
The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...
