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Encyclopedia > Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell

An unfinished miniature portrait of Oliver Cromwell by Samuel Cooper, 1657. Download high resolution version (529x650, 47 KB)Unfinished portrait miniature of Oliver Cromwell by Samuel Cooper. ... Some links to this page should perhaps link to miniature (illuminated manuscript). ... Unfinished portrait miniature of Oliver Cromwell, 1657. ...


In office
16 December 1653 – 3 September 1658
Preceded by Charles I (as King)
Succeeded by Richard Cromwell

Born 25 April 1599(1599-04-25)
Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire
Died 3 September 1658 (aged 59)
Whitehall, London
Nationality English
Spouse Elizabeth Bourchier
Relations Parents: Robert Cromwell (d.1617) and Elizabeth Steward (d.1654)
Children Robert Cromwell (b.1621)
Oliver Cromwell (b. 1623)
Bridget Cromwell (b. 1624)

Richard Cromwell (John Clarke) (b. 1626)
Henry Cromwell, Lord Deputy of Ireland (b. 20 Jan 1628)
Elizabeth Cromwell (b. 1629)
Mary Cromwell (b. est 1637)
Frances Cromwell (b. est 1638) Lord Protector is a particular English title for Heads of State, with two meanings (and full styles) at different periods of history. ... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (Latin: Peace is obtained by war) Capital London Head of State Lord Protector Parliament First, Second and Third Protectorate Parliaments The Protectorate in British history refers to the period 1653–59 during which the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland was governed by Lords Protector. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Richard Cromwell (4 October 1626 – 12 July 1712) was the third son of Oliver Cromwell, and the second Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, for little over eight months, from 3 September 1658 until 25 May 1659. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1599 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Huntingdon is a town in the county of Cambridgeshire in East Anglia, England. ... Cambridgeshire (abbreviated Cambs) is a county in England, bordering Lincolnshire to the north, Norfolk to the northeast, Suffolk to the east, Essex and Hertfordshire to the south, and Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire to the west. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... Whitehall, London, looking south towards the Houses of Parliament. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Richard Cromwell (4 October 1626 – 12 July 1712) was the third son of Oliver Cromwell, and the second Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, for little over eight months, from 3 September 1658 until 25 May 1659. ... ore this time he had refused a gift of property worth £1500 a year, basing his refusal on the grounds of the poverty of the country, a poverty which was not the least of his troubles. ...

Alma mater Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge
Religion Independent
Signature Oliver Cromwell's signature

Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. His New Model Army defeated the royalists in the English Civil War. After the execution of King Charles I in 1649, Cromwell dominated the short-lived Commonwealth of England, conquered Ireland and Scotland, and ruled as Lord Protector from 1653 until his death in 1658. Cromwell was born into the ranks of the middle gentry, and remained relatively obscure for his first forty years, slipping down to the level of yeoman farmer for a number of years in the 1630s due to personal and financial circumstances. However, he returned to the ranks of the gentry thanks to an inheritance from his uncle. A religious conversion experience during the same decade made an Independent style of Puritanism a core tenet of his life and actions. Cromwell was returned to Parliament as Member of Parliament (MP) for Cambridge in the Short (1640) and Long (1640-49) Parliaments, and later entered the English Civil War on the side of the "Roundheads" or Parliamentarians. A brilliant soldier (nicknamed "Old Ironsides") he rose from leading a single cavalry troop to eventual command of the entire army. Cromwell was the third person to sign [x-kebabi rock-x][Charles I of England|Charles I]]'s death warrant in 1649 and was an MP in the Rump Parliament (1649-1653), being chosen by the Rump to take command of the English campaign in Ireland during 1649-50. He then led a campaign against the Scottish army between 1650-51. On 20 April 1653 he dismissed the Rump Parliament by force, setting up a short-lived nominated assembly known as the Barebone's Parliament before being made Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland on 16 December 1653 until his death. When the Royalists returned to power in 1660, his corpse was dug up, hung in chains, and beheaded. Cromwell has been a very controversial figure in the history of Britain and Ireland – a regicidal dictator to some historians (such as David Hume and Christopher Hill) and a hero of liberty to others (such as Thomas Carlyle and Samuel Rawson Gardiner). In Britain he is held in high esteem, being elected as one of the Top 10 Britons of all time in a BBC poll.[1] However, his measures against Irish Catholics have been characterised by some historians as genocidal or near-genocidal, [2] and in Ireland itself he and his memory are widely despised.[3][4] College name The College of the Lady Frances Sidney Sussex Motto Dieu me Garde de Calomnie (French: God preserve me from calumny) Founder Lady Frances Sidney, Countess of Sussex Established 1596 Location Sidney Street Admittance Men and women Master Prof. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 248 pixelsFull resolution (1191 × 369 pixel, file size: 12 KB, MIME type: image/png) autograph of Oliver Cromwell File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1599 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... see also Politics of the United Kingdom This politics-related article is a stub. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lord Protector is a particular English title for Heads of State, with two meanings (and full styles) at different periods of history. ... Lord Protector is a particular English title for Heads of State, with two meanings (and full styles) at different periods of history. ... This article is about the country. ... For the band, see New Model Army (band). ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Yeoman is a word with several modern and historical meanings. ... Religious conversion is the adoption of a new religious identity, or a change from one religious identity to another. ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... This article is about the city in England. ... The Short Parliament (April 13-May 5, 1640) of King Charles I is so called because it lasted only three weeks. ... The Long Parliament is the name of the English Parliament called by Charles I, in 1640, following the Bishops Wars. ... For other uses, see English Civil War (disambiguation). ... The Roundheads was the nickname given to supporters of the Parliamentarian cause in the English Civil War. ... Ironside was the name given to a trooper in the cavalry formed by English political leader Oliver Cromwell in the 17th century. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... The Rump Parliament was the name of the English Parliament immediately following the Long Parliament, after Prides Purge of December 6, 1648 had removed those Members of Parliament hostile to the intentions of the Grandees in the New Model Army to try King Charles I for high treason. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... Barebones Parliament, also known as the Nominated Assembly and the Parliament of Saints, came into being on July 4, 1653, and was the last attempt of the English Commonwealth to find a stable political form before the installation of Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... For other uses, see Restoration. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Posthumous execution is the ritual execution of an already dead body. ... Bayeux Tapestry depicting events leading to Norman conquest of England, a moment that defined much of the history of the British Isles since. ... For other uses, see Regicide (disambiguation). ... A dictator is an authoritarian, often totalitarian ruler (e. ... This article is about the philosopher. ... John Edward Christopher Hill (February 6, 1912 - February 23, 2003) was an English Marxist historian and the author of many history textbooks. ... For other uses, see Liberty (disambiguation). ... The most familiar view of Carlyle is as the bearded sage with a penetrating gaze Thomas Carlyle (December 4, 1795 – February 5, 1881) was a Scottish essayist, satirist, and historian, whose work was hugely influential during the Victorian era. ... Samuel Rawson Gardiner (March 4, 1829 - February 24, 1902) was an English historian. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Irish Catholics is a term used to describe Irish people or people of Irish descent who adhere to the Roman Catholic faith. ...

Contents

Early years: 1599–1640

Relatively few dikhed sources survive about the first forty years of Cromwell's life. He was born in Huntingdon on 25 April 1599,[5] to Elizabeth and Robert Cromwell (c.1560-1617). He was descended from Catherine Cromwell (born circa 1482), an older sister of Tudor statesman Thomas Cromwell. Catherine was married to Morgan ap Williams, son of William ap Yevan of Wales and Joan Tudor (reportedly a granddaughter of Owen Tudor, which would make Cromwell a distant cousin of his Stuart foes). The family line continued through Richard Cromwell (c. 1500–1544), Henry Cromwell (c. 1524–January 6, 1603), then to Oliver's father Robert Cromwell (c. 1560–1617), who married Elizabeth Steward or Stewart (1564–1654) on the day of Cromwell's birth. Thus, Thomas was Oliver's second great-granduncle.[6] Huntingdon is a town in the county of Cambridgeshire in East Anglia, England. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1599 was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Thomas Cromwell: detail from a portrait by Hans Holbein, 1532-3 Thomas Cromwell, 1st Earl of Essex ( 1485 - July 28, 1540) was an English statesman, one of the most important political figures of the reign of Henry VIII of England. ... This article is about the country. ... Jasper Tudor, 1st Duke of Bedford (ca 1431- December 21/26, 1495) was the uncle of King Henry VII of England and the architect of his successful conquest of England and Wales in 1485. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The social status of Cromwell's family at his birth was relatively low within the gentry class. His father was a younger son, and one of ten siblings who survived into adulthood. As a result, Robert's inheritance was limited to a house in Huntingdon and a small amount of land. This land would have generated an income of up to £300 a year, near the bottom of the range of gentry incomes.[7] Cromwell himself, much later in 1654, said "I was by birth a gentleman, living neither in considerable height, nor yet in obscurity.[8]

Plaque outside what used to be Huntingdon grammar school. The building now houses the Cromwell Museum.
Plaque outside what used to be Huntingdon grammar school. The building now houses the Cromwell Museum.

Records survive of Cromwell's baptism and of his attendance at Huntingdon grammar school. He went on to study at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, which was then a recently founded college with a strong puritan ethos. He left in June 1617 without taking a degree, immediately after the death of his father. Early biographers claim he then attended Lincoln's Inn, but there is no record of him in the Inn's archives. He is likely to have returned home to Huntingdon, given that his mother was widowed, his seven sisters were unmarried, and there was hence a need to take charge of the family.[9] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 309 pixelsFull resolution (3088 × 1194 pixel, file size: 375 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 309 pixelsFull resolution (3088 × 1194 pixel, file size: 375 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Hinchingbrooke School is a large school situated on the outskirts of Huntingdon in Cambridgeshire. ... Hinchingbrooke School is a large school situated on the outskirts of Huntingdon in Cambridgeshire. ... College name The College of the Lady Frances Sidney Sussex Motto Dieu me Garde de Calomnie (French: God preserve me from calumny) Founder Lady Frances Sidney, Countess of Sussex Established 1596 Location Sidney Street Admittance Men and women Master Prof. ... For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Ahmed I (1603-1617) to Mustafa I (1617-1623). ... Part of Lincolns Inn drawn by Thomas Shepherd c. ...


On 22 August 1620, Cromwell married Elizabeth Bourchier (1598–1665). They would have eight children; Cromwell's successor Richard Cromwell (1626–1712) was their third son.[10] Elizabeth's father Sir James Bourchier was a London merchant who owned extensive land in Essex and had strong connections with puritan gentry families there. The marriage brought Cromwell into contact with Oliver St John and also with leading members of the London merchant community, and behind them the influence of the earls of Warwick and Holland. Membership of this godly network would prove crucial to Cromwell’s military and political career. At this stage, though, there is little evidence of Cromwell’s own religion. His letter in 1626 to Henry Downhall, an Arminian minister, suggests that Cromwell had yet to be influenced by radical puritanism.[11] However, there is evidence that Cromwell went through a period of personal crisis during the late 1620s and early 1630s. He sought treatment for valde melancolicus (depression) from London doctor Theodore de Mayerne in 1628. He was also caught up in a fight amongst the gentry of Huntingdon over a new charter for the town, as a result of which he was called before the Privy Council in 1630.[12] is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1620 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Richard Cromwell (4 October 1626 – 12 July 1712) was the third son of Oliver Cromwell, and the second Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, for little over eight months, from 3 September 1658 until 25 May 1659. ... For other meanings of Essex, see Essex (disambiguation). ... Oliver St John (c. ... There are several entries for people with the name Robert Rich: There is an ambient musician by the name Robert Rich Robert Rich is a pen name used by American screenwriter and novelist Dalton Trumbo Robert Rich, 2nd Earl of Warwick was a British naval officer and politician. ... Henry Rich, 1st Earl of Holland was baptized on August 19, 1590 and he was probably born earlier in the same year. ... Events September 30 - Nurhaci, chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty dies and is succeeded by his son Hong Taiji. ... Arminianism is a Protestant Christian theology founded by the Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius. ... On the Threshold of Eternity. ... Sir Theodore de Mayerne (1573-1655?) was a Swiss-born physician who treated kings of France and England and advanced the theories of Paracelsus. ... 1628 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically in a monarchy. ...


In 1631 Cromwell sold most of his properties in Huntingdon—probably as a result of the dispute—and moved to a farmstead in St Ives. This was a major step down in society compared to his previous position, and seems to have had a major emotional and spiritual impact. A 1638 letter survives from Cromwell to the wife of Oliver St John, and gives an account of his spiritual awakening. The letter outlines how, having been the "the chief of sinners", Cromwell had been called to be among "the congregation of the firstborn".[13] The language of this letter, which is saturated with biblical quotations and which represents Cromwell as having been saved from sin by God's mercy, places his faith firmly within the Independent beliefs that the Reformation had not gone far enough, that much of England was still living in sin and unsaved, and that Catholic beliefs and ceremonies needed to be fully removed from the church. Cromwell's conversion to these beliefs may have been prompted by the step down from his previous position in Huntingdon. // Events February 5 - Roger Williams emigrates to Boston. ... St Ives is a medium-sized market town the east of England (around 15 miles north-west of the city of Cambridge). ... Events March 29 - Swedish colonists establish first settlement in Delaware, called New Sweden. ...

Oliver Cromwell's house in Ely
Oliver Cromwell's house in Ely

In 1636, Cromwell inherited control of various properties in Ely from his uncle on his mother's side, as well as his uncle's job as tithe collector for Ely Cathedral. As a result, his income is likely to have risen to around £3-400 per year.[14] As a result, by the end of the 1630s Cromwell had returned to the ranks of the gentry. He had become a committed puritan and had also established important family links to leading godly families in Essex and London. In his own eyes, he had come through a period of crisis by virtue of God’s providence. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,648 × 2,736 pixels, file size: 4. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (3,648 × 2,736 pixels, file size: 4. ... Statistics Population: 15,102 Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: TL535799 Administration District: East Cambridgeshire Shire county: Cambridgeshire Region: East of England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Cambridgeshire Historic county: Cambridgeshire Services Police force: Ambulance service: East of England Post office and telephone Post town: ELY...


Member of Parliament: 1628–1629 and 1640–1642

Cromwell became the Member of Parliament for Huntingdon in the Parliament of 1628–1629, as a client of the Montagus. He made little impression: records for the Parliament show only one speech (against the Arminian Bishop Richard Neile), which was poorly received.[15] After dissolving this Parliament, Charles I ruled without a Parliament for the next eleven years. When Charles faced the Scottish rebellion known as the Bishops' Wars, shortage of funds forced him to call a Parliament again in 1640. Cromwell was returned to this Parliament as member for Cambridge, but it lasted for only three weeks and became known as the Short Parliament. Huntingdon is a town in the county of Cambridgeshire in East Anglia, England. ... Arminianism is a Protestant Christian theology founded by the Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius. ... Richard Neile (1562-1640) was an English churchman, bishop of several English dioceses and Archbishop of York from 1631 until his death. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... The Bishops’ Wars—Bellum Episcopale—refers to two armed encounters between Charles I and the Scottish Covenanters in 1639 and 1640, which helped to set the stage for the English Civil War and the subsequent Wars of the Three Kingdoms // The Scottish Reformation in 1560 was intended to settle the... This article is about the city in England. ... The Short Parliament (April 13-May 5, 1640) of King Charles I is so called because it lasted only three weeks. ...


A second Parliament was called later the same year. This was to become known as the Long Parliament. Cromwell was again returned to this Parliament as member for Cambridge. As with the Parliament of 1628-9, it is likely that Cromwell owed his position to the patronage of others, which would explain the fact that in the first week of the Parliament he was in charge of presenting a petition for the release of John Lilburne, who had become a puritan martyr after being arrested for importing religious tracts from Holland. Otherwise it is unlikely that a relatively unknown member would have been given this task. For the first two years of the Long Parliament, Cromwell was linked to the godly group of aristocrats in the House of Lords and MPs in the Commons with which he had already established familial and religious links in the 1630s, such as the earls of Essex, Warwick and Bedford, Oliver St John, and Viscount Saye and Sele.[16] At this stage, the group had an agenda of godly reformation: the executive checked by regular parliaments, and the moderate extension of liberty of conscience. Cromwell appears to have taken a role in some of this group's political manoeuvres. In May 1641, for example, it was Cromwell who put forward the second reading of the Annual Parliaments Bill, and who later took a role in drafting the Root and Branch Bill for the abolition of episcopacy.[17] The Long Parliament is the name of the English Parliament called by Charles I, in 1640, following the Bishops Wars. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Robert Devereux, 3rd Earl of Essex, (January 11 1591 – 14 September 1646), was the son and heir of the unfortunate Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, and succeeded to his fathers title in 1604, three years after the previous earl had been executed for treason. ... There are several entries for people with the name Robert Rich: There is an ambient musician by the name Robert Rich Robert Rich is a pen name used by American screenwriter and novelist Dalton Trumbo Robert Rich, 2nd Earl of Warwick was a British naval officer and politician. ... Francis Russell, 4th Earl of Bedford (1593-1641), was the only son of William Rusell, Lord Russell of Thornhaugh, to which barony he succeeded in August 1613. ... William Fiennes, 1st Viscount Saye and Sele (May 28, 1582–April 14, 1662), was the only son of Richard Fiennes, 7th Baron Saye and Sele, and was descended from James Fiennes, Lord Saye and Sele, who was lord chamberlain and lord treasurer under Henry VI and was beheaded by the...


Military Commander: 1642–1646

Oliver Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell

Failure to resolve the issues before the Long Parliament led to armed conflict between Parliament and Charles I in the autumn of 1642. Before joining Parliament's forces, Cromwell's only military experience was in the trained bands, the local county militia. Now 43 years old, he recruited a cavalry troop in Cambridgeshire after blocking a shipment of silver from Cambridge colleges that was meant for the king. Cromwell and his troop then fought at the indecisive battle of Edgehill in October 1642. The troop was recruited to be a full regiment in the winter of 1642/3, making up part of the Eastern Association under the Earl of Manchester. Cromwell gained experience and victories in a number of successful actions in East Anglia in 1643, notably at the battle of Gainsborough on July 28.[18] After this he was made governor of Ely and made a colonel in the Eastern Association. Image File history File links Oliver_CromwellUT.jpg‎ From the English Wikipedia History 23:00, 29 July 2004 Raul654 (51708 bytes) (Reverted to earlier revision) 06:56, 26 April 2003 . ... Image File history File links Oliver_CromwellUT.jpg‎ From the English Wikipedia History 23:00, 29 July 2004 Raul654 (51708 bytes) (Reverted to earlier revision) 06:56, 26 April 2003 . ... The Battle of Edgehill (or Edge Hill) was the first pitched battle of the First English Civil War. ... The Eastern Association was a Parliamentarian or Roundhead army during the English Civil War. ... Edward Montagu, 2nd Earl of Manchester KG (1602 – May 5, 1671), eldest son of the first earl by his first wife, Catherine Spencer, granddaughter of Sir John Spencer of Althorpe, was born in 1602, and was educated at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge. ... Norfolk and Suffolk, the core area of East Anglia. ... The Battle of Gainsborough was a battle in the English Civil War. ...


By the time of the Battle of Marston Moor in July, 1644, Cromwell had risen to the rank of Lieutenant General of horse in Manchester's army. The success of his cavalry in breaking the ranks of the Royalist horse and then attacking their infantry from the rear at Marston Moor was a major factor in the Parliamentarian victory in the battle. Cromwell fought at the head of his troops in the battle and was wounded in the head. Marston Moor secured the north of England for the Parliamentarians, but failed to end Royalist resistance. The indecisive outcome of the second Battle of Newbury in October meant that by the end of 1644, the war still showed no signs of ending. Cromwell's experience at Newbury, where Manchester had let the King's army slip out of an encircling manoeuvre, led to a serious dispute with Manchester, whom he believed to be less than enthusiastic in his conduct of the war. Manchester later accused Cromwell of recruiting men of "low birth" as officers in the army, to which he replied: "If you choose godly honest men to be captains of horse, honest men will follow them... I would rather have a plain russet-coated captain who knows what he fights for and loves what he knows than that which you call a gentleman and is nothing else".[19] At this time, Cromwell also fell into dispute with Major-General Lawrence Crawford, a Scottish Covenanter Presbyterian attached to Manchester's army, who objected to Cromwell's encouragement of unorthodox Independents and Anabaptists. Cromwell's differences with the Scots (at that time allies of the Parliament) would later develop into outright enmity in 1648 and in 1650-51. Combatants Scottish Covenanters, Parliamentarians Royalists Commanders Earl of Leven, Earl of Manchester, Lord Fairfax Prince Rupert of the Rhine, Marquess of Newcastle Strength 7,000 horse, 500+ dragoons, 14,000 foot, 30 - 40 guns 6,000 horse, 11,000 foot, 14 guns Casualties 300 killed 4,000 killed, 1,500... Combatants Parliamentarians Royalists Commanders Earl of Essex Sir William Waller Earl of Manchester King Charles I Prince Maurice Strength 7,000 horse 12,000 foot 3,500 horse 5,000 foot Casualties unknown unknown The Second Battle of Newbury was a battle of the English Civil War fought on October... Lawrence Crawford (1611 - 1645) was a Scottish soldier who nevertheless fought in English or other armies on the continent of Europe. ... James VI of Scotland (James I of England) was opposed by the Covenanters in his attempt to bring the Anglican Church into Scotland The Covenanters formed an important movement in the religion and politics of Scotland in the 17th century. ...


Partly in response to the failure to capitalise on their victory at Marston Moor, Parliament passed the Self-Denying Ordinance in early 1645. This forced members of the Commons and the Lords such as Manchester to choose between civil office and military command. All of them — with the exception of Cromwell, whose commission was given continued extensions — chose to renounce their military positions. The Ordinance also decreed that the army be "remodeled" on a national basis, replacing the old county associations. In April 1645 the New Model Army finally took to the field, with Sir Thomas Fairfax in command and Cromwell as Lieutenant-General of cavalry, and second-in-command. By this time, the Parliamentarian's field army outnumbered the King's by roughly two to one. At the Battle of Naseby in June 1645, the New Model smashed the King's major army. Cromwell led his wing with great success at Naseby, again routing the Royalist cavalry. At the battle of Langport on July 10, Cromwell participated in the defeat of the last sizable Royalist field army. Naseby and Langport effectively ended the King's hopes of victory and the subsequent Parliamentarian campaigns involved taking the remaining fortified Royalist positions in the west of England. In October 1645, Cromwell besieged and took Basing House, where he was accused of killing 100 of the 300 man Royalist garrison there after they had surrendered.[20] Cromwell also took part in sieges at Bridgwater, Sherborne, Bristol, Devizes, and Winchester, then spending the first half of 1646 mopping up resistance in Devon and Cornwall. Charles I surrendered to the Scots on 5 May 1646, effectively ending the First English Civil War. Cromwell and Fairfax took the formal surrender of the Royalists at Oxford in June. The first Self-denying Ordinance was a bill moved on 9 December 1644 to deprive members of Parliament from holding command in the army or the navy of the Parliamentary forces during the English Civil War. ... For the band, see New Model Army (band). ... ... Combatants Parliamentarians Royalists Commanders Sir Thomas Fairfax Oliver Cromwell King Charles I Prince Rupert of the Rhine Strength 6,000 horse 7,000 foot 4,100 horse 3,300 foot Casualties 150 total casualties[1] approximately 1,000 killed, 5,000 captured[1] The Battle of Naseby was the key... The Battle of Langport was a Parliamentarian victory in the English Civil War, which destroyed the last Royalist field army, and ultimately gave Parliament control of the West of England, which had hitherto been a major source of manpower, raw materials and imports for the Royalists. ... Basing House, Hampshire, was a major English Tudor palace and castle that once rivalled Hampton Court Palace in its size and opulence. ... , Bridgwater in Somerset, England, is a market town, the administrative centre of the Sedgemoor district, and the leading industrial town in the county. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the English city. ... , Devizes is a town and civil parish in the English county of Wiltshire. ... Winchester is a historic city in southern England, with a population of around 40,000 within a 3 mile radius of its centre. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1646 (MDCXLVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the city of Oxford in England. ...


Cromwell had no formal training in military tactics, and followed the common practice of ranging his cavalry in three ranks and pressing forward. This method relied on impact rather than firepower. His strengths were in an instinctive ability to lead and train his men, and in his moral authority. In a war fought mostly by amateurs, these strengths were significant, and are likely to have contributed to the discipline of Cromwell’s cavalry.[21]


Politics: 1647–1649

In February 1647 Cromwell suffered from an illness that kept him out of political life for over a month. By the time of his recovery, the Parliamentarians were split over the issue of the king. A majority in both Houses pushed for a settlement that would pay off the Scottish army, disband much of the New Model Army, and restore Charles I in return for a Presbyterian settlement of the Church. Cromwell rejected the Scottish model of Presbyterianism, which threatened to replace one authoritarian hierarchy with another. The New Model Army, radicalised by the failure of the Parliament to pay the wages it was owed, petitioned against these changes, but the Commons declared the petition unlawful. During May 1647, Cromwell was sent to the army's headquarters in Saffron Walden to negotiate with them, but failed to reach agreement. In June 1647, a troop of cavalry under Cornet George Joyce seized the king from Parliament's imprisonment. Although Cromwell is known to have met with Joyce on 31 May, it is impossible to be sure what Cromwell's role in this event was.[22] Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Saffron Walden is a small market town in the Uttlesford district of Essex, England. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Cromwell and Henry Ireton then drafted a manifesto — the "Heads of Proposals" — designed to check the powers of the executive, set up regularly elected parliaments, and restore a non-compulsory episcopalian settlement.[23] Many in the army, such as the Levellers led by John Lilburne, thought this was insufficient demanding full political equality for all men, leading to tense debates in Putney during the autumn of 1647 between Cromwell, Ireton and the army. The Putney Debates ultimately broke up without reaching a resolution.[24] The debates, and the escape of Charles I from Hampton Court on 12 November, are likely to have hardened Cromwell's resolve against the king. The Heads Of Proposals was a set of propositions intended to be a basis for a constitutional settlement after King Charles I was defeated in the first English Civil War[1]. It was drafted in the summer of 1647 by Commisionary-General Henry Ireton and Major-General John Lambert. ... The Levellers were a mid 17th century English political movement, who came to prominence during the English Civil Wars. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The Putney Debates were a series of discussions between members of the New Model Army and the Levellers, concerning the makeup of a new constitution for England. ...


The failure to conclude a political agreement with the king eventually led to the outbreak of the Second English Civil War in 1648, when the King tried to regain power by force of arms. Cromwell first put down a Royalist uprising in south Wales and then marched north to deal with a pro-Royalist Scottish army (the Engagers) who had invaded England. At Preston, Cromwell, in sole command for the first time with an army of 9,000, won a brilliant victory against an army twice that size.[25] Combatants Royalist Forces Parliamentary Forces: Commanders King Charles I Duke of Hamilton Earl of Norwich Baron Capel Oliver Cromwell Thomas Fairfax Thomas Horton The Second English Civil War (1648–1649) was the second of three wars known as the English Civil War (or Wars) which refers to the series of... The Engagers in Scottish history were a moderate faction of the Covenanter movement, who ruled Scotland during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ... Two battles are known as the Battle of Preston: The Battle of Preston (1648) was a victory for Oliver Cromwell over the Royalists during the English Civil War. ...


During 1648, Cromwell's letters and speeches started to become heavily based on biblical imagery, many of them meditations on the meaning of particular passages. For example, after the battle of Preston, study of Psalms 17 and 105 led him to tell Parliament that "they that are implacable and will not leave troubling the land may be speedily destroyed out of the land". A letter to Oliver St John in September 1648 urged him to read Isaiah 8, in which the kingdom falls and only the godly survive. This letter suggests that it was Cromwell's faith, rather than a commitment to radical politics, coupled with Parliament's decision to engage in negotiations with the king at the Treaty of Newport, that convinced him that God had spoken against both the king and Parliament as lawful authorities. For Cromwell, the army was now God's chosen instrument.[26] The episode shows Cromwell’s firm belief in "Providentialism"—that God was actively directing the affairs of the world, through the actions of "chosen people" (whom God had "provided" for such purposes). Cromwell believed, during the Civil Wars, that he was one of these people, and he interpreted victories as indications of God's approval of his actions, and defeats as signs that God was directing him in another direction. This article is about the Book of Isaiah. ... A belief that Gods will is evident in all things, both great and small. ...


In December 1648, those MPs who wished to continue negotiations with the king were prevented from sitting by a troop of soldiers headed by Colonel Thomas Pride, an episode soon to be known as Pride's Purge. Those remaining, known as the Rump Parliament, agreed that Charles should be tried on a charge of treason. Cromwell was still in the north of England, dealing with Royalist resistance when these events took place. However, after he returned to London, on the day after Pride's Purge, he became a determined supporter of those pushing for the king's trial and execution. He believed that killing Charles was the only way to bring the civil wars to an end. The death warrant for Charles was eventually signed by 59 of the trying court's members, including Cromwell (who was the third to sign it). Charles was executed on 30 January 1649. For the recipient of the Victoria Cross see Thomas Pride (VC). ... Prides Purge was the occasion when troops under the command of Colonel Thomas Pride forcibly removed from the House of Commons all those who were not supporters of Oliver Cromwell. ... The Rump Parliament was the name of the English Parliament immediately following the Long Parliament, after Prides Purge of December 6, 1648 had removed those Members of Parliament hostile to the intentions of the Grandees in the New Model Army to try King Charles I for high treason. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ...


Establishment of the Commonwealth: 1649

Commonwealth Coat of Arms. 1649 - 1660
Commonwealth Coat of Arms. 1649 - 1660

After the execution of the King, a republic was declared, known as the Commonwealth of England. The Rump Parliament exercised both executive and legislative powers, with a smaller Council of State also having some executive functions. Cromwell remained a member of the Rump and was appointed a member of the Council. In the early months after the execution of Charles I Cromwell tried but failed to unite the original group of 'Royal Independents' centred around St John and Saye and Sele, that had fractured during 1648. Cromwell had been connected to this group since before the outbreak of war in 1642 and had been closely associated with them during the 1640s. However only St John was persuaded to retain his seat in Parliament. The Royalists, meanwhile, had regrouped in Ireland, having signed a treaty with the Irish Confederate Catholics. In March, Cromwell was chosen by the Rump to command a campaign against them. Preparations for an invasion of Ireland occupied Cromwell in the subsequent months. After quelling Leveller mutinies within the English army at Andover and Burford in May, Cromwell departed for Ireland from Bristol at the end of July. Image File history File links Coa-commonwealth. ... Image File history File links Coa-commonwealth. ... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... The English Council of State was first appointed by the Rump Parliament on 14 February 1649 after the execution of King Charles I. It was abolished on 25 April 1660 by the Convention Parliament just before the Restoration Charless execution on 30 January was delayed for several hours so... Kilkenny Castle, where the Confederate General Assembly met. ... See Levellers (disambiguation) for alternative meanings. ... Statistics Population: 52,000 Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: SU3645 Administration District: Test Valley Region: South East England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Hampshire Historic county: Hampshire Services Police force: Hampshire Constabulary Fire and rescue: {{{Fire}}} Ambulance: South Central Post office and telephone Post town... Looking north through Burford. ... This article is about the English city. ...


Irish Campaign: 1649–50

See also: Irish Confederate Wars and Cromwellian conquest of Ireland The Irish Confederate Wars were fought in Ireland between 1641 and 1653. ... Combatants English Royalists and Irish Catholic Confederate troops English Parliamentarian New Model Army troops and allied Protestants in Ireland Commanders James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde (1649 - Dec. ...


Cromwell led a Parliamentary invasion of Ireland from 1649–50. Parliament's key opposition was the military threat posed by the alliance of the Irish Confederate Catholics and English royalists (signed in 1649). The Confederate-Royalist alliance was judged to be the biggest single threat facing the Commonwealth. However, the political situation in Ireland in 1649 was extremely fractured: there were also separate forces of Irish Catholics who were opposed to the royalist alliance, and Protestant royalist forces that were gradually moving towards Parliament. Cromwell said in a speech to the army Council on 23 March that "I had rather be overthrown by a Cavalierish interest than a Scotch interest; I had rather be overthrown by a Scotch interest than an Irish interest and I think of all this is the most dangerous". [27] Kilkenny Castle, where the Confederate General Assembly met. ...


Cromwell's hostility to the Irish was religious as well as political. He was passionately opposed to the Roman Catholic Church, which he saw as denying the primacy of the Bible in favour of papal and clerical authority, and which he blamed for tyranny and persecution of Protestants in Europe.[28] Cromwell's association of Catholicism with persecution was deepened with the Irish Rebellion of 1641. This rebellion was marked by massacres by native Irish Catholics of English and Scottish Protestant settlers in Ireland. These factors contributed to Cromwell's harshness in his military campaign in Ireland.[29] Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Irish Rebellion of 1641 began as an attempted coup détat by Irish Catholic gentry, but rapidly degenerated into bloody intercommunal violence between native Irish Catholics and English and Scottish Protestant settlers. ...


Parliament had planned to re-conquer Ireland since 1641 and had already sent an invasion force there in 1647. Cromwell's invasion of 1649 was much larger and, with the civil war in England over, could be regularly reinforced and re-supplied. His nine month military campaign was brief and effective, though it did not end the war in Ireland. Before his invasion, Parliamentarian forces held only outposts in Dublin and Derry. When he departed Ireland, they occupied most of the eastern and northern parts of the country. After his landing at Dublin on 15 August 1649 (itself only recently secured for the Parliament at the battle of Rathmines), Cromwell took the fortified port towns of Drogheda and Wexford to secure logistical supply from England. At the siege of Drogheda in September 1649, Cromwell's troops massacred nearly 3,500 people after the town's capture—comprising around 2,700 Royalist soldiers and all the men in the town carrying arms, including some civilians, prisoners, and Roman Catholic priests.[30] At the Siege of Wexford in October, another massacre took place under confused circumstances. While Cromwell himself was trying to negotiate surrender terms, some of his soldiers broke into the town, killed 2,000 Irish troops and up to 1,500 civilians, and burned much of the town.[31] For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... For other places with similar names, see Derry (disambiguation) and Londonderry (disambiguation). ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ... The battle of Rathmines was fought in around the modern Dublin suburb of Rathmines in August 1649, during the Irish Confederate Wars, the Irish theatre of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference O088754 Statistics Province: Leinster County: Elevation: 1 m Population (2006)  - Proper  - Environs    28,973[1]  6,117[1] Website: www. ... This article is about the Irish town. ... Drogheda, a town in eastern Ireland, was besieged twice in the 1640s, during the Irish Confederate Wars, the Irish theatre of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... Combatants Irish Catholic Confederate and English Royalist troops English Parliamentarian New Model Army Commanders David Sinnot Oliver Cromwell Strength c4,800 6,000 Casualties c. ...


After the fall of Drogheda, Cromwell sent a column north to Ulster to secure the north of the country and went on to besiege Waterford, Kilkenny and Clonmel in Ireland's south-east. Kilkenny surrendered on terms, as did many other towns like New Ross and Carlow, but Cromwell failed to take Waterford and at the siege of Clonmel in May 1650, he lost up to 2000 men in abortive assaults before the town surrendered.[32] One of his major victories in Ireland was diplomatic rather than military. With the help of Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery, Cromwell persuaded the Protestant Royalist troops in Cork to change sides and fight with the Parliament[33] At this point, word reached Cromwell that Charles II had landed in Scotland and been proclaimed king by the Covenanter regime. Cromwell therefore returned to England from Youghal on May 26 1650 to counter this threat.[34] This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ... The city of Waterford in south eastern Ireland was besieged from 1649-50 during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 52. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference S199229 Statistics Province: Munster County: Population (2002)  - Town:  - Rural: 16,910 Clonmel (Cluain Meala in Irish) is the largest inland town in the south of Republic of Ireland. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , , Irish Grid Reference S715278 Statistics Province: Leinster County: Elevation: 75 m (246 ft) Population (2002)  - Town:  - Rural:   4,810  1,727 New Ross (Irish: ) is a small town in southwest County Wexford, Republic of Ireland, in the southeast of Ireland. ... For Carlow in Germany, see Carlow, Germany. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference S604123 Statistics Province: Munster County: Area: 41. ... Combatants Irish Catholic Confederate troops from Ulster English Parliamentarian New Model Army Commanders Hugh Dubh ONeill Oliver Cromwell Strength c1500 8000 Casualties low c1500-2500 The Siege of Clonmel took place in April - May 1650 during the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland when the town of Clonmel in County Tipperary... Roger Boyle, 1st Earl of Orrery (April 25, 1621 - October 26, 1679), British soldier, statesman and dramatist, 3rd surviving son of Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Cork, was created baron of Broghill on February 28, 1627. ... This article is about the city in the Republic of Ireland. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... James VI of Scotland (James I of England) was opposed by the Covenanters in his attempt to bring the Anglican Church into Scotland The Covenanters formed an important movement in the religion and politics of Scotland in the 17th century. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: 51. ...


The Parliamentarian conquest of Ireland dragged on for almost three years after Cromwell's departure. The campaigns under Cromwell's successors Henry Ireton and Edmund Ludlow mostly consisted of long sieges of fortified cities and guerrilla warfare in the countryside. The last Catholic held town, Galway, surrendered in April 1652 and the last Irish troops capitulated in April of the following year.[35] Henry Ireton Henry Ireton (1611 - November 26, 1651), was an English general in the army of Parliament during the English Civil War. ... Edmund Ludlow (c. ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Irish Grid Reference M300256 Statistics Province: Connacht County: Dáil Éireann: Galway West European Parliament: North-West Dialling Code: 091 Postal District(s): G Area: 50. ...

Ireland in 1641 and 1703 showing the change of ownership of Ireland from Catholic to Protestant hands. The religious affiliations of the Irish people changed little over the period, with Protestants making only a small minority except in the areas of the north west affected by the plantation of Ulster (seen in the first map). However, by the end of the 17th century, as a result of Cromwell's campaign, the relationship between ownership of Ireland (and therefore political power) and religion affiliation had been settled.

In the wake of the Commonwealth's conquest, the public practice of Catholicism was banned and Catholic priests were executed when captured. In addition, roughly 12,000 Irish people were sold into slavery under the Commonwealth.[36] All Catholic-owned land was confiscated in the Act for the Settlement of Ireland 1652 and given to Scottish and English settlers, the Parliament's financial creditors and Parliamentary soldiers. The remaining Catholic landowners were allocated poorer land in the province of Connacht. Under the Commonwealth, Catholic landownership dropped from 60% of the total to just 8%.[37] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Plantation of Ulster was a planned process of colonisation which took place in the northern Irish province of Ulster during the early 17th century in the reign of James I of England. ... The Act for the Settlement of Ireland 1662 was passed by the Long Parliament, who had taken power in England after the English Civil War, after the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, itself in response to the Irish Rebellion of 1641. ... Statistics Area: 17,713. ...


Debate over Cromwell's impact on Ireland

The extent of Cromwell's brutality[38][39] in Ireland has been strongly debated. Cromwell never accepted that he was responsible for the killing of civilians in Ireland, claiming that he had acted harshly, but only against those "in arms". In September 1649, he justified his sack of Drogheda as revenge for the massacres of Protestant settlers in Ulster in 1641, calling the massacre "the righteous judgement of God on these barbarous wretches, who have imbued their hands with so much innocent blood".[40] However, Drogheda had never been held by the rebels in 1641—many of its garrison were in fact English royalists. On the other hand, the worst atrocities committed in Ireland, such as mass evictions, killings and deportation for slave labour to Bermuda and Barbados, were carried out under the command of other generals after Cromwell had left for England.[41] On entering Ireland, Cromwell demanded that no supplies were to be seized from the civilian inhabitants, and that everything should be fairly purchased; "I do hereby warn....all Officers, Soldiers and others under my command not to do any wrong or violence toward Country People or any persons whatsoever, unless they be actually in arms or office with the enemy.....as they shall answer to the contrary at their utmost peril". Several English soldiers were hanged for disobeying these orders.[42] This article is about the nine-county Irish province. ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ...


While the massacre at Drogheda (and Wexford) might not have been untypical in the context of the recently ended German Thirty Years War [43], which reduced the male population of Germany by up to half, there are few comparable incidents during Parliament's campaigns in England or Scotland. One possible comparison is Cromwell's siege of Basing House in 1645 - the seat of the prominent Catholic the Marquess of Winchester - which resulted in about 300 of the garrison of 1,200 being killed after being refused quarter. Contemporaries also reported civilian casualties. However, the scale of the deaths at Basing House was much smaller.[44] Cromwell himself said of the slaughter at Drogheda in his first letter back to the Council of State: "I believe we put to the sword the whole number of the defendants. I do not think thirty of the whole number escaped with their lives".[45] Cromwell's orders—"in the heat of the action, I forbade them to spare any that were in arms in the town"—followed a request for surrender at the start of the siege, which was refused. The military protocol of the day was that a town or garrison that rejected the chance to surrender was not entitled to quarter.[46] The refusal of the garrison at Drogheda to do this, even after the walls had been breached, was to Cromwell justification for the massacre.[47] Where Cromwell negotiated the surrender of fortified towns, as at Carlow, New Ross, and Clonmel, he respected the terms of surrender and protected the lives and property of the townspeople.[48]At Wexford, Cromwell again began negotiations for surrender. However, the captain of Wexford castle surrendered during the middle of the negotiations, and in the confusion some of his troops began indiscriminate killing and looting.[49] Amateur[50] Irish historian (and Drogheda native) Tom Reilly has taken this argument further, claiming that the accepted versions of the campaigns in Drogheda and Wexford in which wholesale killings of civilians on Cromwell's orders took place "were a 19th century fiction".[51] However, Reilly's conclusions have been largely rejected by other scholars. [52][53] Under the laws of war ... it is especially forbidden . ... This article or section contains too many quotations for an encyclopedic entry. ...


Although Cromwell's time spent on campaign in Ireland was limited, and although he did not take on executive powers until 1653, he is often the central focus of wider debates about whether the Commonwealth conducted a deliberate programme of genocide or ethnic cleansing in Ireland. The sieges of Drogheda and Wexford have been prominently mentioned in histories and literature up to the present day. James Joyce, for example, mentioned Drogheda in his novel Ulysses: "What about sanctimonious Cromwell and his ironsides that put the women and children of Drogheda to the sword with the bible text God is love pasted round the mouth of his cannon?". Similarly, Winston Churchill described the impact of Cromwell on Anglo-Irish relations: "upon all of these Cromwell's record was a lasting bane. By an uncompleted process of terror, by an iniquitous land settlement, by the virtual proscription of the Catholic religion, by the bloody deeds already described, he cut new gulfs between the nations and the creeds. 'Hell or Connaught' were the terms he thrust upon the native inhabitants, and they for their part, across three hundred years, have used as their keenest expression of hatred 'The Curse of Cromwell on you.' ... Upon all of us there still lies 'the curse of Cromwell'".[54] Cromwell is still a figure of hatred in Ireland, his name being associated with massacre, religious persecution, and mass dispossession of the Catholic community there. A traditional Irish curse was malacht Cromail ort or "The curse of Cromwell upon you". This article is about the writer and poet. ... Ulysses is a novel by James Joyce, first serialized in parts in the American journal The Little Review from March 1918 to December 1920, and then published in its entirety by Sylvia Beach on February 2, 1922, in Paris. ... Churchill redirects here. ...


The key surviving statement of Cromwell's own views on the conquest of Ireland is his Declaration of the lord lieutenant of Ireland for the undeceiving of deluded and seduced people of January 1650.[55] In this he was scathing about Catholicism, saying that "I shall not, where I have the power... suffer the exercise of the Mass".[56] However, he also declared that: "as for the people, what thoughts they have in the matter of religion in their own breasts I cannot reach; but I shall think it my duty, if they walk honestly and peaceably, not to cause them in the least to suffer for the same".[57] Private soldiers who surrendered their arms "and shall live peaceably and honestly at their several homes, they shall be permitted so to do".[58] As with many incidents in Cromwell's career, there is debate about the extent of his sincerity in making these statements: the Rump Parliament's later Act of Settlement of 1652 set out a much harsher policy of execution and confiscation of property of anyone who had supported the uprisings. The Act for the Settlement of Ireland 1662 was passed by the Long Parliament, who had taken power in England after the English Civil War, after the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, itself in response to the Irish Rebellion of 1641. ...


Scottish Campaign: 1650–1651

Cromwell left Ireland in May 1650 and several months later, invaded Scotland after the Scots had proclaimed Charles I's son as Charles II. Cromwell was much less hostile to Scottish Presbyterians, some of whom had been his allies in the First English Civil War, than he was to Irish Catholics. He described the Scots as "a people fearing His [God's] name, though deceived".[59] He made a famous appeal to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, urging them to see the error of the royal alliance—"I beseech you, in the bowels of Christ, think it possible you may be mistaken".[60] The Scots' reply was robust: "would you have us to be sceptics in our religion?". This decision to negotiate with Charles II led Cromwell to believe that war was necessary.[61] Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ...


His appeal rejected, Cromwell's veteran troops went on to invade Scotland. At first, the campaign went badly, as Cromwell's men were short of supplies and held up at fortifications manned by Scottish troops under David Leslie. Cromwell was on the brink of evacuating his army by sea from Dunbar. However, on September 3 1650, in an unexpected battle, Cromwell smashed the main Covenanter army at the battle of Dunbar, killing 4,000 Scottish soldiers, taking another 10,000 prisoner and then capturing the Scottish capital of Edinburgh.[62] The victory was of such a magnitude that Cromwell called it, "A high act of the Lord's Providence to us [and] one of the most signal mercies God hath done for England and His people".[63] The following year, Charles II and his Scottish allies made a desperate attempt to invade England and capture London while Cromwell was engaged in Scotland. Cromwell followed them south and caught them at Worcester on 3 September 1653. At the subsequent Battle of Worcester, Cromwell's forces destroyed the last major Scottish Royalist army. Many of the Scottish prisoners of war taken in the campaigns died of disease, and others were sent to penal colonies in Barbados. In the final stages of the Scottish campaign, Cromwell's men, under George Monck sacked the town of Dundee, killing up to 2,000 of its 12,000 population and destroying the 60 ships in the city's harbour.[64] During the Commonwealth, Scotland was ruled from England, and was kept under military occupation, with a line of fortifications sealing off the Highlands, which had provided manpower for Royalist armies in Scotland, from the rest of the country. The north west Highlands was the scene of another pro-royalist uprising in 1653-55, which was only put down with deployment of 6,000 English troops there.[65] Presbyterianism was allowed to be practised as before, but the Kirk (the Scottish church) did not have the backing of the civil courts to impose its rulings, as it had previously.[66] David Leslie, Lord Newark (c. ... This article is about Dunbar in Scotland. ... Cromwell at Dunbar, Andrew Carrick Gow The Battle of Dunbar (3 September 1650) was a battle of the Third English Civil War. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city of Worcester in England. ... Combatants English Parlimentry forces loyal to Oliver Cromwell English and Scottish Royalists loyal to King Charles II Strength 31,000 less than 16,000 Casualties 200 3,000 killed, more than 10,000 prisoners The Battle of Worcester took place on 3 September 1651 at Worcester, England and was the... George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle by Sir Peter Lely, painted 1665–1666. ... For other uses, see Dundee (disambiguation). ... Lowland-Highland divide Highland Sign with welcome in English and Gaelic The Scottish Highlands (A Ghàidhealtachd in Gaelic) include the rugged and mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ... Presbyterianism is a Christian denomination following Jesus which is most prevalent within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ... Kirk can mean church in general or the Church of Scotland in particular. ...


Cromwell's conquest, unwelcome as it was, left no significant lasting legacy of bitterness in Scotland. The rule of the Commonwealth and Protectorate was, the Highlands aside, largely peaceful. Moreover, there was no wholesale confiscations of land or property. Three out of every four Justices of the Peace in Commonwealth Scotland were Scots and the country was governed jointly by the English military authorities and a Scottish Council of State.[67] Although not often favourably regarded, Cromwell's name rarely meets the hatred in Scotland that it does in Ireland. A Justice of the Peace (JP) is a magistrate appointed by a commission to keep the peace, dispense summary justice and deal with local administrative applications in common law jurisdictions. ...


Return to England and dissolution of the Rump Parliament: 1651-53

From the middle of 1649 until 1651, Cromwell was away on campaign. In the meantime, with the king gone (and with him their common cause), the various factions in Parliament began to engage in infighting. On his return, Cromwell tried to galvanise the Rump into setting dates for new elections, uniting the three kingdoms under one polity, and to put in place a broad-brush, tolerant national church. However, the Rump vacillated in setting election dates, and although it put in place a basic liberty of conscience, it failed to produce an alternative for tithes or dismantle other aspects of the existing religious settlement. In frustration, in April 1653 Cromwell demanded that the Rump establish a caretaker government of 40 members (drawn both from the Rump and the army) and then abdicate. However, the Rump returned to debating its own bill for a new government.[68] Cromwell was so angered by this that on April 20, 1653, supported by about forty musketeers, he cleared the chamber and dissolved the Parliament by force. Several accounts exist of this incident: in one, Cromwell is supposed to have said "you are no Parliament, I say you are no Parliament; I will put an end to your sitting".[69] At least two accounts agree that Cromwell snatched up the mace, symbol of Parliament's power, and demanded that the "bauble" be taken away.[70] Cromwell's troops were commanded by Charles Worsley, later one of his Major Generals and one of his most trusted advisors, to whom he entrusted the Mace. Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Charles Worsley, 1622-56, was a Major-General during the English Civil War. ...


The establishment of Barebone's Parliament: 1653

After the dissolution of the Rump, power passed temporarily to a council that debated what form the constitution should take. They took up the suggestion of Major-General Thomas Harrison for a "sanhedrin" of saints. Although Cromwell did not subscribe to Harrison's apocalyptic, Fifth Monarchist beliefs – which saw a sanhedrin as the starting point for Christ's rule on earth – he was attracted by the idea of an assembly made up of a cross-section of sects. In his speech at the opening of the assembly on 4 July 1653, Cromwell thanked God’s providence that he believed had brought England to this point and set out their divine mission: “truly God hath called you to this work by, I think, as wonderful providences as ever passed upon the sons of men in so short a time”.[71] Sometimes known as the Parliament of Saints, the assembly was also called the Barebone's Parliament after one of its members, Praise-God Barebone. The assembly was tasked with finding a permanent constitutional and religious settlement (Cromwell was invited to be a member but declined). However, the assembly’s failure to do so led to its members voting to dissolve it on 12 December 1653.[72] Thomas Harrison (1606–October 13, 1660) was a Puritan soldier and later a leader of the Fifth Monarchists. ... For the tractate in the Mishnah, see Sanhedrin (tractate). ... The Fifth Monarchists or Fifth Monarchy Men were active from 1649 to 1661 during the Interregnum, following the English Civil Wars of the 1600s. ... Barebones Parliament, also known as the Nominated Assembly and the Parliament of Saints, came into being on July 4, 1653, and was the last attempt of the English Commonwealth to find a stable political form before the installation of Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector. ... Praise-God Barebone (or Barbon) (c. ...


The Protectorate: 1653-1658

Styles of
Lord Protector of the Commonwealth
Reference style His Highness
Spoken style Your Highness
Alternative style Sir

After the dissolution of the Barebone's Parliament, John Lambert put forward a new constitution known as the Instrument of Government, closely modelled on the Heads of Proposals. It made Cromwell Lord Protector for life to undertake “the chief magistracy and the administration of government”. Cromwell was sworn in as Lord Protector on 16 December 1653, with a ceremony in which he wore plain black clothing, rather than any monarchical regalia.[73] However, from this point on Cromwell signed his name 'Oliver P', standing for Oliver Protector - in a similar style to that used by English monarchs - and it soon became the norm for others to address him as "Your highness".[74] As Protector, he had the power to call and dissolve parliaments but was obliged under the Instrument to seek the majority vote of a Council of State. Nevertheless, Cromwell's power was buttressed by his continuing popularity among the army. A style of office, or honorific, is a form of address which by tradition or law precedes a reference to a person who holds a title or post, or to the political office itself. ... Highness, often used with a personal possessive pronoun (His/Her/Your Highness, the first two abbreviated HH) and/or an adjective referring to the rank of the dynasty (e. ... See: John Lambert, Parliamentary general in the English Civil War. ... The Instrument of Government was Englands first codified constitution. ... The Heads Of Proposals was a set of propositions intended to be a basis for a constitutional settlement after King Charles I was defeated in the first English Civil War[1]. It was drafted in the summer of 1647 by Commisionary-General Henry Ireton and Major-General John Lambert. ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 2 - New Amsterdam (later renamed New York City) is incorporated. ...

Cromwell's signature before becoming Lord Protector in 1653, and afterwards. 'Oliver P', standing for Oliver Protector, echoes the similar style in which English monarchs had signed their names: for example, 'Elizabeth R' standing for Elizabeth Regina.
Cromwell's signature before becoming Lord Protector in 1653, and afterwards. 'Oliver P', standing for Oliver Protector, echoes the similar style in which English monarchs had signed their names: for example, 'Elizabeth R' standing for Elizabeth Regina.

Cromwell had two key objectives as Lord Protector. The first was "healing and settling" the nation after the chaos of the civil wars and the regicide.[75] To Cromwell, the form this healing took was unimportant. Forms of government were to him "but... dross and dung in comparison of Christ".[76] More important was preservation of the traditional social order. In the period before the calling of a Parliament, Cromwell and his Council demonstrated this with a relative lack of political reforms. Small-scale reform such as that carried out on the judicial system were outweighed by attempts to restore order to English politics. Direct taxation was reduced slightly and peace was made with the Dutch, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. Cromwell famously stressed quest to restore order in his speech to the first Protectorate parliament at its inaugural meeting on 3 September 1654. he declared that "healing and settling" were the "great end of your meeting".[77] However, the Parliament was quickly dominated by those pushing for more radical, properly republican reforms. After some initial gestures approving appointments previously made by Cromwell, the Parliament began to work on a radical programme of constitutional reform. Rather than opposing Parliament’s bill, Cromwell dissolved them on 22 January 1655. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 673 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1339 × 1193 pixel, file size: 166 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 673 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1339 × 1193 pixel, file size: 166 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The First Protectorate Parliament was summoned by the Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell under the terms of the Instrument of Government. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens. ...


Cromwell's second objective was spiritual and moral reform. He aimed to restore liberty of conscience and promote both outward and inly godliness throughout England.[78] During the early months of the Protectorate, a set of "triers" was established to assess the suitability of future parish ministers, and a related set of "ejectors" was set up dismiss ministers and schoolmasters who were deemed unsuitable for office. The triers and the ejectors were intended to be at the vanguard of Cromwell's reform of parish worship. This second objective is also the context in which to see the constitutional experiment of the Major Generals that followed the dissolution of the first Protectorate Parliament. After a royalist uprising in March 1655, led by Sir John Penruddock, Cromwell (influenced by Lambert) divided England into military districts ruled by Army Major Generals who answered only to him. The fifteen major generals and deputy major generals—called "godly governors"—were central not only to national security, but Cromwell's crusade to reform the nation's morals. The generals not only supervised militia forces and security commissions, but collected taxes and ensured support for the government in the English and Welsh provinces. Commissioners for securing the peace of the commonwealth were appointed to work with them in every county. While a few of these commissioners were career politicians, most were zealous puritans who welcomed the major-generals with open arms and embraced their work with enthusiasm. However, the major-generals lasted less than a year. Many feared they threatened their reform efforts and authority. Their position was further harmed by a tax proposal by Major General John Desborough to provide financial backing for their work, which the second Protectorate parliament—instated in September 1656—voted down for fear of a permanent military state. Ultimately, however, Cromwell's failure to support his men, sacrificing them to his opponents, caused their demise. Their activities between November 1655 and September 1656 had, however, reopened the wounds of the 1640s and deepened antipathies to the regime.[79] The Rule of the Major-Generals from August 1655 – January 1657[1], was a period of direct military government during Oliver Cromwells Protectorate. ... The Penruddock uprising was one of a series of coordinated uprisings planned by the Sealed Knot for a Royalist insurrection to start in March 1655 during the Protectorate of the Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell. ... Sir John Penruddock (1619-1655) was an English Cavalier during the English Civil War and the English Interregnum who led the Penruddock uprising of 1655. ... The Second Protectorate Parliament sat for two sessions from 17 September 1656 until 4 February 1658 with Thomas Widdrington as the Speaker of the House. ...

Half-Crown coin of Oliver Cromwell, 1658. The Latin inscription reads: OLIVAR.D.G.RP.ANG.SCO.ET.HIB&cPRO (OLIVARIUS DEI GRATIA REIPUBLICAE ANGLIAE SCOTIAE ET HIBERNIAE ET CETERORUM PROTECTOR), meaning "Oliver, by the Grace of God Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland and other (territories)".
Half-Crown coin of Oliver Cromwell, 1658. The Latin inscription reads: OLIVAR.D.G.RP.ANG.SCO.ET.HIB&cPRO (OLIVARIUS DEI GRATIA REIPUBLICAE ANGLIAE SCOTIAE ET HIBERNIAE ET CETERORUM PROTECTOR), meaning "Oliver, by the Grace of God Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland and other (territories)".

As Lord Protector, Cromwell was aware of the contribution the Jewish community made to the economic success of Holland, now England's leading commercial rival. It was this—allied to Cromwell’s toleration of the right to private worship of those who fell outside evangelical puritanism—that led to his encouraging Jews to return to England in 1657, over 350 years after their banishment by Edward I, in the hope that they would help speed up the recovery of the country after the disruption of the Civil Wars.[80] ImageMetadata File history File links Cromwellcoin. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Cromwellcoin. ... Half-Crown coin of Oliver Cromwell, 1658 The half-crown was a denomination of British money worth two shillings and sixpence, being one-eighth of a pound. ... The Resettlement of the Jews in England was a historic commercial dgfasdfasdfasdfasdfasfsdfd the History of the Jews in England. ... Edward I (17 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), popularly known as Longshanks[1], also as Edward the Lawgiver or the English Justinian because of his legal reforms, and as Hammer of the Scots,[2] achieved fame as the monarch who conquered Wales and tried to do the same to Scotland. ...


In 1657, Cromwell was offered the crown by Parliament as part of a revised constitutional settlement, presenting him with a dilemma, since he had been "instrumental" in abolishing the monarchy. Cromwell agonised for six weeks over the offer. He was attracted by the prospect of stability it held out, but in a speech on 13 April 1657 he made clear that God's providence had spoken against the office of king: “I would not seek to set up that which Providence hath destroyed and laid in the dust, and I would not build Jericho again”.[81] The reference to Jericho harks back to a previous occasion on which Cromwell had wrestled with his conscience when the news reached England of the defeat of an expedition against the Spanish-held island of Hispaniola in the West Indies in 1655—comparing himself to Achan, who had brought the Israelites defeat after bringing plunder back to camp after the capture of Jericho.[82] is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 8 - Miles Sindercombe, would-be-assassin of Oliver Cromwell, and his group are captured in London February - Admiral Robert Blake defeats the Spanish West Indian Fleet in a battle over the seizure of Jamaica. ... The Taking of Jericho, by Jean Fouquet Near central Jericho, November 1996 Jericho (Arabic  , Hebrew  , ʼArīḥā; Standard YÉ™riḥo Tiberian YÉ™rîḫô / YÉ™rîḥô; meaning fragrant.[1] Greek Ἱεριχώ) is a town in Palestine, located within the Jericho Governorate, near the Jordan River. ... Early map of Hispaniola Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest and most populous island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of Cuba to the west, and Puerto Rico to the east. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... Achan (ākăn) - called also Achar - is a figure mentioned by the Book of Joshua in connection with the fall of Jericho and conquest of Ai. ...


Instead, Cromwell was ceremonially re-installed as Lord Protector on 26 June 1657 (with greater powers than had previously been granted him under this title) at Westminster Hall, sitting upon King Edward's Chair which was specially moved from Westminster Abbey for the occasion. The event in part echoed a coronation, utilising many of its symbols and regalia, such as a purple ermine-lined robe, a sword of justice and a sceptre (but not a crown or an orb). But, most notably, the office of Lord Protector was still not to become hereditary, though Cromwell was now able to nominate his own successor. Cromwell's new rights and powers were laid out in the Humble Petition and Advice, a legislative instrument which replaced the Instrument of Government. Despite failing to restore the Crown, this new constitution did set up many of the vestiges of the ancient constitution including a pseudo-House of Lords known as the 'Other House' of Parliament. Furthermore, Oliver Cromwell increasingly took on more of the trappings of monarchy. In particular, he creared two baronages after the acceptance of the Humble Petition and Advice- Charles Howard was made Viscount Morpeth and Baron Gisland in July 1657 and Edmund Dunch was created Baron Burnell of East Wittenham in April 1658. Cromwell himself, however, was at pains to minimise his role, describing himself as a constable or watchman. Clock Tower and New Palace Yard from the west The Palace of Westminster, on the banks of the River Thames in Westminster, London, is the home of the House of Commons and the House of Lords, which form the Parliament of the United Kingdom. ... King Edwards Chair, sometimes known as St Edwards Chair or The Coronation Chair, is the throne on which the British monarch sits for the coronation. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... A asses is a ceremony marking the investment of a monarch with regal power through, amongst other symbolic acts, the placement of a crown upon his or her head. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Death and posthumous execution

Oliver Cromwell's death mask at Warwick Castle.
Oliver Cromwell's death mask at Warwick Castle.

Cromwell is thought to have suffered from malaria (probably first contracted while on campaign in Ireland) and from "stone", a common term for urinary/kidney infections. In 1658 he was struck by a sudden bout of malarial fever, followed directly by an attack of urinary/kidney symptoms. A Venetian physician tracked Cromwell's final illness, saying Cromwell's personal physicians were mismanaging his health, leading to a rapid decline and death, which was also hastened by the death of his favourite daughter Elizabeth Cromwell in August at age 29. He died at Whitehall on 3 September 1658, the anniversary of his great victories at Dunbar and Worcester.[83] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2304, 567 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Oliver Cromwell Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2304, 567 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Oliver Cromwell Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... For an episode of the television series Rome, see Death Mask (Rome). ... The east front of Warwick Castle as painted by Canaletto in 1752. ... Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites. ... “Bladder stone” redirects here. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... This article is about Dunbar in Scotland. ... This article is about the city of Worcester in England. ...


He was succeeded as Lord Protector by his son Richard. Although Richard was not entirely without ability, he had no power base in either Parliament or the Army, and was forced to resign in May 1659, bringing the Protectorate to an end. In the period immediately following his abdication the head of the army, George Monck, took power for less than a year, at which point Parliament restored Charles II as king. George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle by Sir Peter Lely, painted 1665–1666. ... Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was the King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. ...


In 1661, Oliver Cromwell's body was exhumed from Westminster Abbey, and was subjected to the ritual of a posthumous execution, as were the remains of John Bradshaw and Henry Ireton. Symbolically, this took place on January 30; the same date that Charles I had been executed. His body was hanged in chains at Tyburn. Finally, his disinterred body was thrown into a pit, while his severed head was displayed on a pole outside Westminster Abbey until 1685. Afterwards the head changed hands several times, including the sale in 1814 to a man named Josiah Henry Wilkinson[84], before eventually being buried in the grounds of Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge, in 1960.[85][86] By other animals Humans are not the only species to bury their dead. ... The Collegiate Church of St Peter, Westminster, which is almost always referred to by its original name of Westminster Abbey, is a mainly Gothic church, on the scale of a cathedral (and indeed often mistaken for one), in Westminster, London, just to the west of the Palace of Westminster. ... Posthumous execution is the ritual execution of an already dead body. ... John Bradshaw (1602-October 31, 1659) was one of the judges to preside over the trial and subsequent death sentence of Charles I of England. ... Henry Ireton Henry Ireton (1611 - November 26, 1651), was an English general in the army of Parliament during the English Civil War. ... Tyburn was a former village in the county of Middlesex close to the current location of Marble Arch. ... College name The College of the Lady Frances Sidney Sussex Motto Dieu me Garde de Calomnie (French: God preserve me from calumny) Founder Lady Frances Sidney, Countess of Sussex Established 1596 Location Sidney Street Admittance Men and women Master Prof. ...

Plaque commemorating the reinterment of Cromwell's head at Sidney Sussex College.
Plaque commemorating the reinterment of Cromwell's head at Sidney Sussex College.

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (821x583, 349 KB) Own photograph Doctorpete 11:37, 15 November 2006 (UTC) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (821x583, 349 KB) Own photograph Doctorpete 11:37, 15 November 2006 (UTC) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... College name The College of the Lady Frances Sidney Sussex Motto Dieu me Garde de Calomnie (French: God preserve me from calumny) Founder Lady Frances Sidney, Countess of Sussex Established 1596 Location Sidney Street Admittance Men and women Master Prof. ...

Posthumous reputation

During his lifetime, some tracts painted him as a hypocrite motivated by power—for example, The Machiavilian Cromwell and The Juglers Discovered, both part of an attack on Cromwell by the Levellers after 1647, present him as a Machiavellian figure.[87] More positive contemporary assessments—for instance John Spittlehouse in A Warning Piece Discharged—typically compared him to Moses, rescuing the English by taking them safely through the Red Sea of the civil wars.[88] Several biographies were published soon after his death. An example is The Perfect Politician, which described how Cromwell "loved men more than books" and gave a nuanced assessment of him as an energetic campaigner for liberty of conscience brought down by pride and ambition.[89] An equally nuanced but less positive assessment was published in 1667 by Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon, in his History of the Rebellion and Civil Wars in England. Clarendon famously declared that Cromwell "will be looked upon by posterity as a brave bad man".[90] He argued that Cromwell's rise to power had been helped not only by his great spirit and energy, but also by his wickedness and ruthlessness. Clarendon never knew Cromwell well, and his account was written after the Restoration of the monarchy (which may have shaped the narrative) —but it is still looked upon by some as a "masterpiece".[91] The Levellers were a mid 17th century English political movement, who came to prominence during the English Civil Wars. ... Detail of the portrait of Machiavelli, ca 1500, in the robes of a Florentine public official Niccolò Machiavelli (May 3, 1469—June 21, 1527) was an Italian political philosopher during the Renaissance. ... Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon (18 February 1609–9 December 1674) was an English historian, statesman and grandfather of two queens regnant, Mary II and Anne. ... For other uses, see Restoration. ...


In the early eighteenth century, Cromwell’s image began to be adopted and reshaped by the Whigs, as part of a wider project to give their political objectives historical legitimacy. A version of Edmund Ludlow’s Memoirs, re-written by John Toland to excise the radical puritan elements and replace them with a Whiggish brand of republicanism, presented the Cromwellian Protectorate as a military tyranny. Through Ludlow, Toland portrayed Cromwell as a despot who crushed the beginnings of democratic rule in the 1640s.[92] The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to the mid 19th centuries. ... Edmund Ludlow (c. ... John Toland (November 30, 1670 - March 11, 1722) Very little is known about his true origins other than the fact that he was born in Ardagh on the Inishowen Peninsula, a predominantly Catholic and Irish speaking region, in north west Ulster. ... Whiggishness is a generic term of description for some approaches, in the fields of politics and historiography, supposed to accept or adapt attitudes of the Whig politicians in the past of the United Kingdom. ...

Cromwell lifting the Coffin-lid and looking at the Body of Charles, by Delaroche.
Cromwell lifting the Coffin-lid and looking at the Body of Charles, by Delaroche.

During the early nineteenth century, Cromwell began to be adopted by Romantic artists and poets. Victor Hugo's 1827 play Cromwell is often considered symbolic of the French romantic movement, and represents Cromwell as a ruthless yet dynamic Romantic hero. Similarly, the French painter Hippolyte Delaroche painted a picture in 1831 inspired by the legend of Cromwell visiting Charles I's body after his execution that gives a similar impression of a world-changing individual with a strong will and personality. Thomas Carlyle continued this reassessment of Cromwell in the 1840s by presenting Cromwell as a hero in the battle between good and evil and a model for restoring morality to an age Carlyle believed to be dominated by timidity, meaningless rhetoric, and moral compromise. Cromwell's actions, including his campaigns in Ireland and his dissolution of the Long Parliament, according to Carlyle, had to be appreciated and praised as a whole. However, readers were free to interpret Carlyle selectively. His picture of Cromwell appealed to nonconformists, who saw him as a champion of denominational independence, and to working-class radicals (including some Marxists), who saw him as a man of the people who had stood up against monarchical and aristocratic oppression.[93] Nonconformist churches supported a campaign to have Cromwell's statue erected outside the Palace of Westminster; Ford Madox Brown and other artists depicted Cromwell as a heroic figure in paintings such as Cromwell, Protector of the Vaudois.[94] In 1899, when commemorative events to mark the anniversary of Cromwell's birth took place, they were all organised by the Congregational and Baptist churches. At the London ceremony David Lloyd George said that he believed in Cromwell because "he was a great fighting dissenter".[95] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced ) (February 26, 1802 — May 22, 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Cromwell is a play by Victor Hugo written in 1827. ... Hippolyte Delaroche, commonly known as Paul (July 17, 1797 - November 4, 1856), French painter, was born in Paris. ... The most familiar view of Carlyle is as the bearded sage with a penetrating gaze Thomas Carlyle (December 4, 1795 – February 5, 1881) was a Scottish essayist, satirist, and historian, whose work was hugely influential during the Victorian era. ... “Houses of Parliament” redirects here. ... The Last of England, 1855 Ford Madox Brown (April 16, 1821 – October 6, 1893) was an English painter of moral and historical subjects, notable for his distinctively graphic and often Hogarthian version of the Pre-Raphaelite style. ... Cromwell, Protector of the Vaudois (1877) is a painting by Ford Madox Brown which depicts Oliver Cromwell in conversation with John Milton dictating a letter to Andrew Marvell protesting at the Piedmont Easter massacre (1655), an attack on the Vaudois (Waldenses), a persecuted Protestant sect in Piedmont, northern Italy. ... Congregational churches are Protestant Christian churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... David Lloyd George, 1st Earl Lloyd-George of Dwyfor, OM, PC (17 January 1863 – 26 March 1945) was a British statesman who was Prime Minister throughout the latter half of World War I and the first four years of the subsequent peace. ...

Statue of Cromwell by Hamo Thornycroft outside the Palace of Westminster, London.
Statue of Cromwell by Hamo Thornycroft outside the Palace of Westminster, London.

By the late nineteenth century, Carlyle’s portrayal of Cromwell, stressing the centrality of puritan morality and earnestness, had become assimilated into Whig and Liberal historiography. The Oxford civil war historian Samuel Rawson Gardiner concluded that "the man—it is ever so with the noblest—was greater than his work".[96] Gardiner stressed Cromwell’s dynamic and mercurial character, and his role in dismantling absolute monarchy, while underestimating Cromwell’s religious conviction.[97] Cromwell’s foreign policy also provided an attractive forerunner of Victorian imperial expansion, with Gardiner stressing his “constancy of effort to make England great by land and sea”.[98] Oliver Cromwell - Statue - Palace of Westminster - Westminster - London - England - 240404 Photo taken by Tagishsimon on the 24th April 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Oliver Cromwell - Statue - Palace of Westminster - Westminster - London - England - 240404 Photo taken by Tagishsimon on the 24th April 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... (William) Hamo Thornycroft (1850–1925) was a British sculptor, responsible for several London landmarks. ... Whig history is a pejorative name given to a view of history that is shared by a number of eighteenth and nineteenth century British writers on historical subjects. ... This article is about the historic Liberal Party. ... Historiography studies the processes by which historical knowledge is obtained and transmitted. ... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Samuel Rawson Gardiner (March 4, 1829 - February 24, 1902) was an English historian. ...


In the first half of the twentieth century, Cromwell's reputation was often shaped by the rise of fascism in Germany and Italy. Wilbur Cortez Abbott, for example — a Harvard historian — devoted much of his career to compiling and editing a multi-volume collection of Cromwell's letters and speeches. In the course of this work, which was published between 1937 and 1947, Abbott began to argue that Cromwell was a proto-fascist. However, subsequent historians such as John Morrill have criticised both Abbott's interpretation of Cromwell and his editorial approach.[99] Ernest Barker similarly compared the Independents to the Nazis. Nevertheless, not all historical comparisons made at this time drew on contemporary military dictators. Leon Trotsky, for example, compared Cromwell to Lenin, arguing that "Lenin is a Proletarian Cromwell of the Twentieth Century".[100] John Morrill is a British historian who specialises in the political, religious, social and cultural histories of early-modern Britain. ... Sir Ernest Barker (1874-1960) was a British political scientist. ... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... Lenin redirects here. ...


Late twentieth-century historians have re-examined the nature of Cromwell’s faith and of his authoritarian regime. Austin Woolrych explored the issue of "dictatorship" in depth, arguing that Cromwell was subject to two conflicting forces: his obligation to the army and his desire to achieve a lasting settlement by winning back the confidence of the political nation as a whole. Woolrych argued that the dictatorial elements of Cromwell's rule stemmed not so much from its military origins or the participation of army officers in civil government, as from his constant commitment to the interest of the people of God and his conviction that suppressing vice and encouraging virtue constituted the chief end of government.[101]


Historians such as John Morrill, Blair Worden and J.C. Davis have developed this theme, revealing the extent to which Cromwell’s writing and speeches are suffused with biblical references, and arguing that his radical actions were driven by his zeal for godly reformation.[102]


Locally Cromwell has retained popularity in Cambridgeshire, where he was known as "Lord of the Fens". In Cambridge, he is commemorated in a painted glass window portrait in the Emmanuel United Reformed Church; St Ives, Huntingdonshire has erected his statue in the town centre. Cambridgeshire (abbreviated Cambs) is a county in England, bordering Lincolnshire to the north, Norfolk to the northeast, Suffolk to the east, Essex and Hertfordshire to the south, and Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire to the west. ... This article is about the city in England. ... Logo of The United Reformed Church The United Reformed Church (URC) is a Christian denomination (church) in the United Kingdom. ... St Ives is a medium-sized market town around 15 miles north-west of Cambridge, in the district of Huntingdonshire, England. ...


References

  • Adamson, John (1990). "Oliver Cromwell and the Long Parliament", in Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (Longman), ISBN 0-582-01675-4.
  • Adamson, John (1987). "The English Nobility and the Projected Settlement of 1647", in Historical Journal, 30, 3.
  • Carlyle, Thomas (ed.) (1904 edition). Oliver Cromwell's letters and speeches, with elucidations [8]PDF (40.2 MiB); [9]
  • Coward, Barry (2003). The Stuart Age: England, 1603-1714, (Longman), ISBN 0-582-77251-6.
  • Durston, Christopher (1998). The Fall of Cromwell's Major-Generals, in English Historical Review 1998 113(450): pp.18-37, ISSN 0013-8266 .
  • Gardiner, Samuel Rawson (1901). Oliver Cromwell, ISBN 1-4179-4961-9. [10]
  • Gaunt, Peter (1996). Oliver Cromwell (Blackwell), ISBN 0-631-18356-6.
  • Hirst, Derek (1990). The Lord Protector, 1653-8, in Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (Longman), ISBN 0-582-01675-4.
  • Kenyon, John & Ohlmeyer, Jane (eds.) (2000). The Civil Wars: A Military History of England, Scotland, and Ireland 1638-1660 (Oxford University Press), ISBN 0-19-280278-X. [11]
  • Kishlansky, Mark (1990), "Saye What?" in Historical Journal 33, 4.
  • Lenihan, Padraig (2000). Confederate Catholics at War (Cork University Press), ISBN 1-85918-244-5
  • Morrill, John (1990). '"Cromwell and his contemporaries", in Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (Longman), ISBN 0-582-01675-4.
  • Morrill, John (1990). "The Making of Oliver Cromwell", in Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (Longman), ISBN 0-582-01675-4.
  • Roots, Ivan (1989). Speeches of Oliver Cromwell (Everyman classics), ISBN 0-460-01254-1.
  • Woolrych, Austin (1982). Commonwealth to Protectorate (Clarendon Press), ISBN 0-19-822659-4.
  • Woolrych, Austin (1990). "Cromwell as a soldier" in Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (Longman), ISBN 0-582-01675-4.
  • Woolrych, Austin (1987). Soldiers and Statesmen: the General Council of the Army and its Debates (Clarendon Press), ISBN 0-19-822752-3.
  • Worden, Blair (1985). "Oliver Cromwell and the sin of Achan", in Beales, D. and Best, G. (eds.) History, Society and the Churches, ISBN 0-521-02189-8.
  • Worden, Blair (2001). Roundhead Reputations: the English Civil Wars and the passions of posterity (Penguin), ISBN 0-14-100694-3.
  • Worden, Blair (1977). The Rump Parliament (Cambridge University Press), ISBN 0-521-29213-1.
  • Worden, Blair (2000). "Thomas Carlyle and Oliver Cromwell", in Proceedings Of The British Academy 105: pp.131-170. ISSN 0068-1202 .
  • Young, Peter and Holmes, Richard (2000). The English Civil War (Wordsworth), ISBN 1-84022-222-0.
  • BBC Radio 4 - This Sceptred Isle - The Execution of Charles I. "Sorrell accuses Murdoch of panic buying", BBC Radio 4. Accessed November 4, 2007.

“PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/entertainment/tv_and_radio/2341661.stm
  2. ^ genocidal or near-genocidal:
    • Breton Albert (ed). 1995, Nationalism and Rationality, Cambridge University Press, Chapter Regulating nations and ethnic communities by Brendam O'Leary and John McGarry p 248. "Oliver Cromwell offered the Irish Catholics a choice between genocide and forced mass population transfer. They could go 'To Hell or to Connaught!'"
    • Coogan Tim-Pat, . 2002. The Troubles: Ireland's Ordeal and the Search for Peace. ISBN 978-0312294182. Page 6. "The massacres by Catholics of Protestants, which occurred in the religious wars of the 1640s, were magnified for propagandist purposes to justify Cromwell's subsequent genocide."
    • Ellis, Peter Berresford. 2002. Eyewitness to Irish History. John Wiley & Sons Inc. Page 108. ISBN-13: 978-0471266334. "It was to be the justification for Cromwell's genocidal campaign and settlement."
    • Levene Mark, 2005, Genocide in the Age of the Nation-State, I.B.Tauris: London: "Considered overall, an Irish population collapse from 1.5 or possibly over 2 million inhabitants at the onset of the Irish wars in 1641, to no more than 850,000 eleven years later represents an absolutely devastating demographic catastrophe. Undoubted the largest proportion of this massive death toll did not arise from direct massacre but from hunger and then bubonic plagues, especially from the outbreak between 1649 and 1652. Even so, the relationship to the worst years of the fighting is all too apparent.
      [The Act of Settlement of Ireland], and the parliamentary legislation which succeeded it the following year, is the nearest thing on paper in the English, and more broadly British, domestic record, to a programme of state-sanctioned and systematic ethnic cleansing of another people. The fact that it did not include 'total' genocide in its remit, or that it failed to put into practice the vast majority of its proposed expulsions, ultimately, however, says less about the lethal determination of its makers and more about the political, structural and financial weakness of the early modern English state. For instance, though the Act begins rather ominously by claiming that it was not its intention to extirpate the whole Irish nation, it then goes on to list five categories of people who, as participators in or alleged supporters of the 1641 rebellion and its aftermath, would automatically be forfeit of their lives. It has been suggested that as many as 100,000 people would have been liable under these headings. A further five categories - by implication an even larger body of 'passive' supporters of the rebellion - were to be spared their lives but not their property."
    • Levene, Mark. 2005. Genocide in the Age of the Nation State: Volume 2. Page 55, 56 & 57. A sample quote describes the Cromwellian campaign and settlement as "a conscious attempt to reduce a distinct ethnic population". ISBN-13: 978-1845110574
    • Levene, Mark and Roberts Penny. 1999, The Massacre in History, Berghahn Books: Oxford: "Further evidence for a massacre-ridden civil war in Ireland appears to come from population figures. Though military and civilian deaths from civil war were not light in England or in Scotland, in neither country did war inflict a clear drop in population level. It was otherwise in Ireland. Up to 1641 the population had risen steadily: one million in 1500, 1.4 in 1600, 2.1 in 1641; but then there occurred a sharp fall so that numbers stood at 1.7 million by 1672. After this, renewed growth took the population to 2.2 million in 1687, and 2.8 in 1712. By far the greater part of this massive decline - some four hundred thousand people or 19 percent of the 1641 population - took place in the 1640s and 1650, and was the direct or indirect result of over a decade of warfare. Ireland's civil war death toll is comparable to the devastation suffered during the Second World War by countries such as the Soviet Union, Poland, or Yugoslavia, and suggests that the war-time massacres which so contributed to these horrific modern figures, also occurred in mid-seventeenth-century Ireland."
    • Lutz,James M and Lutz Brenda J, 2004. Global Terrorism, Routledge, London, p.193: "The draconian laws applied by Oliver Cromwell in Ireland were an early version of ethnic cleansing. The Catholic Irish were to be expelled to the northwestern areas of the island. Relocation rather than extermination was the goal."
    • O'Leary, Brendan, Callaghy Thomas M., Ian S. Lustick, 2001, Right-Sizing the State: The Politics of Moving Borders, Oxford University Press: "Ethnic expulsion is a right-peopling strategy, the intended, direct or indirect, forcible movement by state officials, or sanctioned paramilitaries, of the whole or part of a community from its current homeland, usually beyond the sovereign borders of the state. A population can also be forcibly 'repatriated', or pushed back towards its alleged 'homeland', as happened to blacks during the high tide of apartheid in South Africa. We may distinguish two paradigm forms: creating 'Serbian exiles', that is coerced transfers within a state or empire, and 'creating refugees', that is, the expulsion of populations beyond the sovereign border. Examples of the former include the treatment of indigenous peoples throughout the world; the Irish Catholics moved by Oliver Cromwell to Connaught during 1649-50 and after; and national minorities within the Soviet Union."
    • Stewart, Frances. War and Underdevelopment: Economic and Social Consequences of Conflict v. 1, (Queen Elizabeth House Series in Development Studies), Oxford University Press. 2000. "Faced with the prospect of an Irish alliance with Charles II, Cromwell carried out a series of massacres to subdue the Irish. Then, once Cromwell had returned to England, the English Commissary, General Henry Ireton, adopted a deliberate policy of crop burning and starvation, which was responsible for the majority of an estimated 600,000 deaths out of a total Irish population of 1,400,000."

    • Ethnic Cleansing of Ireland, International Institute of Social History Website (Based in the Netherlands), "Roman Catholic Irish were subdued to ethnic cleansing policy by Oliver Cromwell. After his suppression of a rebellion against the English in 1649 he ordered that the Irish were allowed to live west of the Shannon river only. During guerrilla warfare that followed thousands of Irish died or were sold as slaves to America. Cromwell had promised Irish land to the business investors and soldiers who had helped him perform his expeditions. The 'Act for the Attainder of the Rebels in Ireland' of 17 September 1656 is part of this programme. The land of rebels is attained and 'rebels' are defined in such a way that all Catholics match. By the end of 1656 four fifths of the Irish land was in Protestant hands."
  3. ^ "Of all these doings in Cromwell's Irish Chapter, each of us may say what he will. Yet to everyone it will at least be intelligible how his name came to be hated in the tenacious heart of Ireland". John Morley, Biography of Oliver Cromwell. Page 298. 1900 and 2001. ISBN-13: 978-1421267074.; "Cromwell is still a hate figure in Ireland today because of the brutal effectiveness of his campaigns in Ireland. Of course, his victories in Ireland made him a hero in Protestant England." [1] British National Archives web site. Accessed March 2007; [2] From a history site dedicated to the English Civil War. "... making Cromwell's name into one of the most hated in Irish history". Accessed March 2007. Site currently offline. WayBack Machine holds archive here [3]
  4. ^  ; From the Channel 4 History site: [4] "Cromwell's name has always been execrated by Irish Catholics for the massacre at Drogheda. He is also hated for the transplanting of Protestant settlers to Ireland, a policy established in the reign of Elizabeth I." Accessed March 2007.
  5. ^ http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/biog/oliver-cromwell.htm
  6. ^ http://www.tudorplace.com.ar/CROMWELL.htm
  7. ^ Gaunt, p.31.
  8. ^ Speech to the First Protectorate Parliament, 4 September 1654, quoted in Roots, Ivan (1989). Speeches of Oliver Cromwell (Everyman classics), ISBN 0-460-01254-1, p.42.
  9. ^ Morrill, John (1990). "The Making of Oliver Cromwell", in Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (Longman), ISBN 0-582-01675-4, p.24.
  10. ^ Gardiner, Samuel Rawson (1901). Oliver Cromwell, ISBN 1-4179-4961-9, p.4; Gaunt, Peter (1996). Oliver Cromwell (Blackwell), ISBN 0-631-18356-6, p.23.
  11. ^ Morrill, p.34.
  12. ^ Morrill, pp.24–33.
  13. ^ Morrill, p.34.
  14. ^ Gaunt, p.34.
  15. ^ Morrill, pp.25-26.
  16. ^ Adamson, John (1990). "Oliver Cromwell and the Long Parliament", in Morrill, p.57.
  17. ^ Adamson, p.53.
  18. ^ http://www.british-civil-wars.co.uk/military/1643-lincolnshire.htm#gainsborough
  19. ^ Letter to Sir William Spring, September 1643, quoted in Carlyle, Thomas (ed.) (1904 edition). Oliver Cromwell's letters and speeches, with elucidations, vol I, p.154; also quoted in Young and Holmes (2000). The English Civil War, (Wordsworth), ISBN 1-84022-222-0, p.107.
  20. ^ Kenyon, John & Ohlmeyer, Jane (eds.) (2000). The Civil Wars: A Military History of England, Scotland, and Ireland 1638-1660 (Oxford University Press), ISBN 0-19-280278-X, p.141
  21. ^ Woolrych, Austin (1990). Cromwell as a soldier, in Morrill, pp.117–118.
  22. ^ Coward, pp.188-95.
  23. ^ Although there is debate over whether Cromwell and Ireton were the authors of the Heads of Proposals or acting on behalf of Saye and Sele: Adamson, John (1987). "The English Nobility and the Projected Settlement of 1647", in Historical Journal, 30, 3; Kishlansky, Mark (1990). "Saye What?" in Historical Journal 33, 4.
  24. ^ Woolrych, Austin (1987). Soldiers and Statesmen: the General Council of the Army and its Debates (Clarendon Press), ISBN 0-19-822752-3, ch.2–5.
  25. ^ Gardiner, pp.144–47; Gaunt (1997) 94-97.
  26. ^ Adamson, pp.76–84.
  27. ^ Quoted in Lenihan, Padraig (2000). Confederate Catholics at War (Cork University Press), ISBN 1-85918-244-5, p.115.
  28. ^ Fraser, pp.74-76.
  29. ^ Fraser, pp.326-328.
  30. ^ Kenyon & Ohlmeyer, p.98.
  31. ^ Fraser, Antonia (1973). Cromwell, Our Chief of Men, and Cromwell: the Lord Protector (Phoenix Press), ISBN 0-7538-1331-9 pp.344-46.
  32. ^ Kenyon & Ohlmeyer, p.100.
  33. ^ Fraser, pp.321-322; Lenihan, p.113.
  34. ^ Fraser, p.355.
  35. ^ Kenyon & Ohlmeyer, p.100.
  36. ^ Kenyon, Ohlmeyer, p.314.
  37. ^ Lenihan, p.111.
  38. ^ Christopher Hill, 1972, God's Englishman: Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution, Penguin Books: London, p.108: "The brutality of the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland is not one of the pleasanter aspects of our hero's career ..."
  39. ^ Barry Coward, 1991, Oliver Cromwell, Pearson Education: Rugby, p.74: "Revenge was not Cromwell's only motive for the brutality he condoned at Wexford and Drogheda, but it was the dominant one ..."
  40. ^ Kenyon & Ohlmeyer, p.98.
  41. ^ Lenihan, p.122; "After Cromwell returned to England in 1650, the conflict degenerated into a grindingly slow counter insurgency campaign punctuated by some quite protracted sieges...the famine of 1651 onwards was a man made response to stubborn guerrilla warfare. Collective reprisals against the civilian population included forcing them out of designated 'no man's lands' and the systematic destruction of foodstuffs".
  42. ^ Reilly, Tom, Cromwell - An Honourable Enemy: The Untold Story of the Cromwellian Invasion of Ireland (2000).
  43. ^ Woolrych, Austin (1990). Cromwell as soldier, in Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (Longman), ISBN 0-582-01675-4, p. 112: "viewed in the context of the German wars that had just ended after thirty years of fighting, the massacres at Drogheda and Wexford shrink to typical casualties of seventeenth-century warfare".
  44. ^ J.C. Davis, Oliver Cromwell, pp. 108-110.
  45. ^ Abbott, Writings and Speeches, vol II, p.124.
  46. ^ Woolrych, Austin (1990). Cromwell as soldier, p. 111; Gaunt, p. 117.
  47. ^ Lenihan, p.168.
  48. ^ Gaunt, p.116.
  49. ^ Stevenson, Cromwell, Scotland and Ireland, in Morrill, p.151.
  50. ^ [5] "From the Author"..."The reaction - among the under forties on the whole - was good, but among historians and the over forties it was bad. They can't seem to accept that an amateur could discover such a fundamental flaw in Irish history ie that neither Cromwell or his men ever engaged in the killing of any unarmed civilians throughout his entire nine month campaign."
  51. ^ Reilly, Tom, Cromwell - An Honourable Enemy: The Untold Story of the Cromwellian Invasion of Ireland (2000).
  52. ^ John Morrill. "Rewriting Cromwell: A Case of Deafening Silences." Canadian Journal of History. Dec 2003: 19.
  53. ^ Eugene Coyle. Review of Cromwell - An Honourable Enemy. History Ireland
  54. ^ Winston S. Churchill, 1957, A History of the English Speaking Peoples. The Age of Revolution, Dodd, Mead and Company:New York (p. 9): "We have seen the many ties which at one time or another have joined the inhabitants of the Western islands, and even in Ireland itself offered a tolerable way of life to Protestants and Catholics alike. Upon all of these Cromwell's record was a lasting bane. By an uncompleted process of terror, by an iniquitous land settlement, by the virtual proscription of the Catholic religion, by the bloody deeds already described, he cut new gulfs between the nations and the creeds. "Hell or Connaught" were the terms he thrust upon the native inhabitants, and they for their part, across three hundred years, have used as their keenest expression of hatred "The Curse or Cromwell on you." The consequences of Cromwell's rule in Ireland have distressed and at times distracted English politics down even to the present day. To heal them baffled the skill and loyalties of successive generations. They became for a time a potent obstacle to the harmony of the English-speaking people through-out the world. Upon all of us there still lies "the curse of Cromwell"".
  55. ^ Abbott, W.C. (1929). Writings and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell, Harvard University Press, pp.196-205.
  56. ^ Abbott, p.202.
  57. ^ Abbott, p.202.
  58. ^ Abbott, p.205.
  59. ^ Lenihan, p.115.
  60. ^ Gardiner, p.194.
  61. ^ Stevenson, David (1990). Cromwell, Scotland and Ireland, in Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (Longman), ISBN 0-582-01675-4, p.155.
  62. ^ Kenyon & Ohlmeyer, p.66.
  63. ^ Kenyon & Ohlmeyer, p.66.
  64. ^ http://www.undiscoveredscotland.co.uk/usbiography/biographies/olivercromwell.html
  65. ^ Kenyon & Ohlmeyer, p.306.
  66. ^ Parker, Geoffrey (2003). Empire, War and Faith in Early Modern Europe, p.281.
  67. ^ Kenyon & Ohlmeyer, p.320.
  68. ^ Worden, Blair (1977). The Rump Parliament (Cambridge University Press), ISBN 0-521-29213-1, ch.16-17.
  69. ^ Abbott, p. 643.
  70. ^ Abbott, p.642-643.
  71. ^ Roots, Ivan (1989). Speeches of Oliver Cromwell (Everyman classics), ISBN 0-460-01254-1, pp.8-27.
  72. ^ Woolrych, Austin (1982). Commonwealth to Protectorate (Clarendon Press), ISBN 0-19-822659-4, ch.5-10.
  73. ^ Gaunt, p.155.
  74. ^ Gaunt, p.156.
  75. ^ Hirst, Derek (1990). "The Lord Protector, 1653–8", in Morrill, p.172.
  76. ^ Quoted in Hirst, p.127.
  77. ^ Roots, pp.41-56.
  78. ^ Hirst, p.173.
  79. ^ Durston, Christopher (1998). The Fall of Cromwell's Major-Generals in English Historical Review 1998 113(450): pp.18–37, ISSN 0013-8266 .
  80. ^ Hirst, p.137.
  81. ^ Roots, p.128.
  82. ^ Worden, Blair (1985). "Oliver Cromwell and the sin of Achan", in Beales, D. and Best, G. (eds.) History, Society and the Churches, ISBN 0-521-02189-8, pp.141–145.
  83. ^ Gaunt, p.204.
  84. ^ [6]
  85. ^ Gaunt, p.4.
  86. ^ Cromwell's head, the Cromwell Museum, Cambridgeshire County Council
  87. ^ Morrill, John (1990). "Cromwell and his contemporaries", in Morrill, pp.263–4.
  88. ^ Morrill, pp.271–2.
  89. ^ Morrill, pp.279–281.
  90. ^ Quoted in Gaunt, p.9.
  91. ^ Gaunt, p.9.
  92. ^ Worden, Blair (2001). Roundhead Reputations: The English Civil Wars and the Passions of Posterity (Penguin), ISBN 0-14-100694-3, pp.53–59.
  93. ^ Worden, Blair (2000). "Thomas Carlyle and Oliver Cromwell", in Proceedings Of The British Academy 105: pp.131–170. ISSN 0068-1202 .
  94. ^ Trodd, C, Culture and Energy, Ford Madox Brown and the Cromwellian grotesque, Victorian Culture and the Idea of the Grotesque, Ashgate, 1998, pp68-73
  95. ^ The Times, 26 April 1899, p.12.
  96. ^ Gardiner, p.315.
  97. ^ Worden, pp.256–260.
  98. ^ Gardiner, p.318.
  99. ^ Morrill, John (1990). "Textualising and Contextualising Cromwell", in Historical Journal, 33, 3, pp.629-639.
  100. ^ Trotsky, Leon (1974). Trotsky's Writings on Britain (New Park).
  101. ^ Woolrych, Austin (1990). "The Cromwellian Protectorate: a Military Dictatorship?" in History 1990 75(244): 207-231, ISSN 0018-2648.
  102. ^ Morrill (2004). "Cromwell, Oliver (1599–1658)", in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, (Oxford University Press) [7]; Worden, Blair (1985). "Oliver Cromwell and the sin of Achan". In Beales, D. and Best, G., History, Society and the Churches; Davis, J.C. (1990). "Cromwell’s religion", in Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (Longman).

For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... Cambridgeshire (abbreviated Cambs) is a county in England, bordering Lincolnshire to the north, Norfolk to the northeast, Suffolk to the east, Essex and Hertfordshire to the south, and Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire to the west. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Bibliography

Biographies

  • Adamson, John (1990). "Oliver Cromwell and the Long Parliament", in Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (Longman), ISBN 0-582-01675-4.
  • Ashley, Maurice (1958). The Greatness of Oliver Cromwell (Macmillan). [12]
  • Bennett, Martyn. Oliver Cromwell (2006), ISBN 0-415-31922-6.
  • Clifford, Alan (1999). Oliver Cromwell: the lessons and legacy of the Protectorate (Charenton Reformed Publishing), ISBN 0-9526716-2-X. Religious study.
  • Davis, J. C. (2001). Oliver Cromwell (Hodder Arnold), ISBN 0-340-73118-4.
  • Fraser, Antonia (1973). Cromwell, Our Chief of Men, and Cromwell: the Lord Protector (Phoenix Press), ISBN 0-7538-1331-9. Popular narrative.
  • Firth, C.H. (1900). Oliver Cromwell and the Rule of the Puritans ISBN 1-4021-4474-1.
  • Gardiner, Samuel Rawson (1901). Oliver Cromwell, ISBN 1-4179-4961-9. Classic biography. [13]
  • Gaunt, Peter (1996). Oliver Cromwell (Blackwell), ISBN 0-631-18356-6. Short biography.
  • Hill, Christopher (1970). God's Englishman: Oliver Cromwell And The English Revolution (Penguin), ISBN 0-297-00043-8.
  • Hirst, Derek (1990). "The Lord Protector, 1653-8", in Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (Longman), ISBN 0-582-01675-4
  • Mason, James and Angela Leonard (1998). Oliver Cromwell (Longman), ISBN 0-582-29734-6.
  • Morrill, John (2004). "Cromwell, Oliver (1599–1658)", in Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, (Oxford University Press) [14]
  • Morrill, John (1990). "The Making of Oliver Cromwell", in Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (Longman), ISBN 0-582-01675-4.
  • Paul, Robert (1958). The Lord Protector: Religion And Politics In The Life Of Oliver Cromwell. [15]
  • Smith, David (ed.) (2003). Oliver Cromwell and the Interregnum (Blackwell), ISBN 0-631-22725-3.
  • Wedgwood, C.V. (1939). Oliver Cromwell (Duckworth), ISBN 0-7156-0656-5.
  • Worden, Blair (1985). "Oliver Cromwell and the sin of Achan", in Beales, D. and Best, G. (eds.) History, Society and the Churches, ISBN 0-521-02189-8.

John Edward Christopher Hill (February 6, 1912 - February 23, 2003) was an English Marxist historian and the author of many history textbooks. ...

Military studies

  • Durston, Christopher (2000). "'Settling the Hearts and Quieting the Minds of All Good People': the Major-generals and the Puritan Minorities of Interregnum England", in History 2000 85(278): pp.247-267, ISSN 0018-2648 . Full text online at Ebsco.
  • Durston, Christopher (1998). "The Fall of Cromwell's Major-Generals", in English Historical Review 1998 113(450): pp.18-37, ISSN 0013-8266
  • Firth, C.H. (1921). Cromwell's Army (Greenhill Books), ISBN 1-85367-120-7.
  • Gillingham, J. (1976). Portrait Of A Soldier: Cromwell (Weidenfeld & Nicholson), ISBN 0-297-77148-5.
  • Kenyon, John & Ohlmeyer, Jane (eds.) (2000). The Civil Wars: A Military History of England, Scotland, and Ireland 1638-1660 (Oxford University Press), ISBN 0-19-280278-X. [16]
  • Kitson, Frank (2004). Old Ironsides: The Military Biography of Oliver Cromwell (Weidenfeld Military), ISBN 0-297-84688-4.
  • Marshall, Alan (2004). Oliver Cromwell: Soldier: The Military Life of a Revolutionary at War (Brassey's), ISBN 1-85753-343-7.
  • Woolrych, Austin (1990). "The Cromwellian Protectorate: a Military Dictatorship?" in History 1990 75(244): 207-231, ISSN 0018-2648 . Full text online at Ebsco.
  • Woolrych, Austin (1990). "Cromwell as a soldier", in Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (Longman), ISBN 0-582-01675-4.
  • Young, Peter and Holmes, Richard (2000). The English Civil War, (Wordsworth), ISBN 1-84022-222-0.

Surveys of era

  • Coward, Barry (2002). The Cromwellian Protectorate (Manchester University Press), ISBN 0-7190-4317-4.
  • Coward, Barry (2003). The Stuart Age: England, 1603-1714, (Longman), ISBN 0-582-77251-6. Survey of political history of the era.
  • Davies, Godfrey (1959). The Early Stuarts, 1603-1660 (Oxford University Press), ISBN 0-19-821704-8. online. Political, religious, and diplomatic overview of the era.
  • Korr, Charles P. (1975). Cromwell and the New Model Foreign Policy: England's Policy toward France, 1649-1658 (University of California Press), ISBN 0-520-02281-5. online
  • Macinnes, Allan (2005). The British Revolution, 1629-1660 (Palgrave Macmillan), ISBN 0-333-59750-8.
  • Morrill, John (1990). "Cromwell and his contemporaries". In Morrill, John (ed.), Oliver Cromwell and the English Revolution (Longman), ISBN 0-582-01675-4.
  • Trevor-Roper, Hugh (1967). Oliver Cromwell and his Parliaments, in his Religion, the Reformation and Social Change (Macmillan). onlinePDF (256 KiB)
  • Venning, Timothy (1995). Cromwellian Foreign Policy (Palgrave Macmillan), ISBN 0-333-63388-1.
  • Woolrych, Austin (1982). Commonwealth to Protectorate (Clarendon Press), ISBN 0-19-822659-4.
  • Woolrych, Austin (2002). Britain in Revolution 1625-1660 (Oxford University Press), ISBN 0-19-927268-6.
  • Worden, Blair (2001). Roundhead Reputations: the English Civil Wars and the passions of posterity (Penguin), ISBN 0-14-100694-3.

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Primary sources

  • Abbott, W.C. (ed.) (1937-47). Writings and Speeches of Oliver Cromwell, 4 vols. The standard academic reference for Cromwell's own words. [17].
  • Carlyle, Thomas (ed.) (1904 edition), Oliver Cromwell's letters and speeches, with elucidations. [18]PDF (40.2 MiB); [19]
  • Haykin, Michael A. G. (ed.) (1999). To Honour God: The Spirituality of Oliver Cromwell (Joshua Press), ISBN 1-894400-03-8. Excerpts from Cromwell's religious writings.
  • Morrill, John (1990). "Textualizing and Contextualizing Cromwell", in Historical Journal 1990 33(3): pp.629-639. ISSN 0018-246X . Full text online at Jstor. Examines the Carlyle and Abbott editions.
  • Roots, Ivan (1989). Speeches of Oliver Cromwell (Everyman classics), ISBN 0-460-01254-1.
  • Worden, Blair (2000). Thomas Carlyle and Oliver Cromwell, in Proceedings Of The British Academy 105: pp.131-170, ISSN 0068-1202.

“PDF” redirects here. ... MiB redirects here. ...

External links

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Political offices
Preceded by
King Charles I
Head of State of England, Scotland and Ireland
December 16, 1653-September 3, 1658
Succeeded by
Richard Cromwell
Academic offices
Preceded by
Earl of Pembroke
Chancellor of the University of Oxford
1650–1657
Succeeded by
Richard Cromwell
Persondata
NAME Cromwell, Oliver
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION English military and political leader
DATE OF BIRTH 25 April 1599
PLACE OF BIRTH Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire, England
DATE OF DEATH 3 September 1658
PLACE OF DEATH Whitehall, London, England

  Results from FactBites:
 
Oliver Cromwell (233 words)
Oliver Cromwell was born near Burlington in 1752.
He was well-liked in Burlington, and although he was unable to read or write, local lawyers, judges and politicians came to his aid, and he was granted a pension of $96 a year.
In 1983, the Oliver Cromwell Black History Society was organized to research and preserve Black Heritage, in Burlington and elsewhere.
BBC - History - Oliver Cromwell (334 words)
Oliver Cromwell played a leading role in bringing Charles I to trial and execution, and was a key figure during the civil war.
Oliver Cromwell rose from the middle ranks of English society to be Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, the only non-royal ever to hold that position.
Oliver Cromwell was born on 25 April 1599 in Huntingdon.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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