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Encyclopedia > Olive oil
Olive oil
Olive oil

Olive oil bottle. Olive Oyl in Little Swee Pea (1936). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 220 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1055 × 2872 pixel, file size: 553 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...


Fat composition
Saturated fats Palmitic acid: 7.5–20.0 %
Stearic acid: 0.5–5.0 %
Arachidic acid: <0.8%
Behenic acid: <0.3%
Myristic acid: <0.1%
Lignoceric acid: <1.0%
Unsaturated fats yes
    Monounsaturated fats Oleic acid: 55.0–83.0%
Palmitoleic acid: 0.3–3.5%
    Polyunsaturated fats Linoleic acid: 3.5–21.0 %
Linolenic acid: <1.5%

Properties
Food energy per 100g 3700 kJ (890 kcal)
Melting point −6.0 °C (21 °F)
Boiling point 300 °C (570 °F)
Smoke point 190 °C (375 °F) (virgin)
210 °C (410 °F) (refined)
Specific gravity at 20 °C 0.9150–0.9180 (@ 15.5 °C)
Viscosity at 20 °C 84 cP
Refractive index 1.4677–1.4705 (virgin and refined)
1.4680–1.4707 (pomace)
Iodine value 75–94 (virgin and refined)
75–92 (pomace)
Acid value maximum: 6.6 (refined and pomace)
0.6 (extra-virgin)
Saponification value 184–196 (virgin and refined)
182–193 (pomace)
Peroxide value 20 (virgin)
10 (refined and pomace)

Olive oil is a fruit oil obtained from the olive (Olea europaea; family Oleaceae along with lilacs, jasmine and ash trees), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. It is commonly used in cooking, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, and soaps and as a fuel for traditional oil lamps. A saturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there are no double bonds between the carbon atoms of the fatty acid chain. ... Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, is one of the most common saturated fatty acids found in animals and plants. ... A spacefilling model of the Stearic Acid molecule A diagram of the Stearic Acid molecule Stearic acid (IUPAC systematic name: octadecanoic acid) is one of the useful types of saturated fatty acids that comes from many animal and vegetable fats and oils. ... Arachidic acid also called eicosanoic acid is a saturated fatty acid found in peanut oil. ... Behenic acid, also docosanoic acid, is a normal carboxylic acid, a fatty acid with formula C21H43COOH. In appearance, it consists of white to cream color crystals or powder with a melting point of 74-78°C and boiling point of 306°C. At 9%, it is a major component of... Myristic acid, also called Tetradecanoic acid, is a common saturated fatty acid found in dairy products. ... Lignoceric acid, also tetracosanoic acid, is a saturated fatty acid with formula C23H47COOH. Lignoceric acid is a byproduct of lignin production. ... An unsaturated fat is a fat or fatty acid in which there are one or more double bonds in the fatty acid chain. ... In nutrition, monounsaturated fats are dietary fats with one double-bonded carbon in the molecule, with all of the others single-bonded carbons. ... Oleic acid is a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid found in various animal and vegetable sources. ... Palmitoleic acid, or (Z)-9-hexadecenoic acid, is a monounsaturated fatty acid that is a common constituent of the glycerides of human adipose tissue. ... // In nutrition, polyunsaturated fat is an abbreviation of polyunsaturated fatty acid. ... Linoleic acid (LA) is an unsaturated omega-6 fatty acid. ... Chemical structure of alpha-linolenic acid Linolenic acid is an 18-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acid with three double bonds. ... Food energy is the amount of energy in food that is available through digestion. ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... The smoke point refers to the point in which a cooking fat or oil is heated until it breaks down. ... Relative density (also known as specific gravity) is a measure of the density of a material. ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... The poise (P) is the cgs unit of viscosity, 1 P = 1 g·cm-1·s-1 The SI analog is 1 pascal second (Pa·s) = 1 kg·m-1·s-1 = 10 P. It is named after Jean Louis Marie Poiseuille. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... The iodine value (or iodine adsorption value or iodine number) in chemistry is the mass of iodine in grams that is consumed by 100 grams of a chemical substance. ... In chemistry, acid value (or neutralization number or acid number or acidity) is the mass of potassium hydroxide (KOH) in milligrams that is required to neutralize one gram of chemical substance. ... Saponification value (or saponification number, also referred to as sap in short) represents the number of milligrams of potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide required to saponify 1g of fat under the conditions specified. ... This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer or more simplified. ... Genera Abeliophyllum- Chionanthus- Fringetree Comoranthus- Dimetra- Fontanesia- Forestieria- Swamp-privet Forsythia- Forsythia Fraxinus- Ash Haenianthus- Hesperelaea- Jasminum- Jasmine Ligustrum- Privet Menodora- Myxopyrum- Nestegis- Noronhia- Notelaea- Nyctanthes- Olea- Olive Osmanthus- Osmanthus Phillyrea- Mock-privet Picconia- Priogymnanthus- Schrebera- Syringa- Lilac Oleaceae, the olive family, is a plant family containing 24 extant genera... Look up lilac in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the shrub of genus Jasminum. ... Species See text European Ash in flower Narrow-leafed Ash (Fraxinus angustifolia) shoot with leaves Closeup of European Ash seeds 19th century illustration of Manna Ash (Fraxinus ornus) An ash can be any of four different tree genera from four very distinct families (see end of page for disambiguation), but... Look up crop in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. ... Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... Make-up redirects here. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... For other uses, see Soap (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... Antique bronze oil lamp with Christian symbol (replica) A terra-cotta oil lamp, Antique oil lamp (replica) An oil lamp is a simple vessel used to produce light continuously for a period of time from a fuel source. ...

Contents

Market

Over 750 million olive trees are cultivated worldwide, about 95% of those are in the Mediterranean region. Most of global production comes from Southern Europe, North Africa and Middle East. Of the European production, 93% comes from Spain, Italy, Greece, and Turkey (countries are sorted by annual production). Spain's production alone accounts for 40% to 45% of world production, which was 2.6 million metric tons in 2002[1]. In 2006 Turkey accounted for over 5% of world production, this figure is similar to the province of Jaen production alone, in Spain, well known as the biggest olive groves in the world.[2]. Binomial name L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Syria and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ... Jaén is a city in south-central Spain, the capital of the province of Jaén in the autonomous community of Andalusia. ...


In olive oil-producing countries, the local production is generally considered the finest. In North America, Italian and Spanish olive oils are the best-known, and top-quality extra-virgin oils from Italy, Spain and Greece are sold at high prices, often in "prestige" packaging.


Greece devotes 60% of its cultivated land to olive growing. It is the world's top producer of black olives and boasts more varieties of olives than any other country. Greece holds third place in world olive production with more than 132 million trees, which produce approximately 350,000 tons of olive oil annually, of which 82% is extra-virgin[1] (see below for an explanation of terms). About half of the annual Greek olive oil production is exported, but only some 5% of this quantity reflects the origin of the bottled product. Greek exports primarily target European Union (EU) countries, the main recipient being Italy, which receives about three-quarters of total exports. Olives are grown for oil in mainland Greece, with Peloponnese being the source of 65% of Greek production, as well as in Crete, the Aegean Islands and Ionian Islands. The black olive is a green olive that has become fully ripe on the tree. ... Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos; see also List of Greek place names) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Aegean Sea Islands: map showing island groups. ... The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek: Ιόνια νησιά, Ionia nisia; Ancient Greek: , Ionioi Nēsoi) are a group of islands in Greece. ...


The EU regulates the use of different protected designation of origin labels for olive oils in accordance with EU law. Among the many different olive varieties or cultivars used in Italy are Frantoio, Leccino Pendolino, and Moraiolo. In Spain the most important varieties are the Picual, Alberquina, Hojiblanca, and Manzanillo de Jaén. In Greece : Koroneiki. In France : Picholine. In California : Mission. In Portugal : Galega. The oil from the varieties vary in flavour and stability (shelf life). It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Protected geographical indications in the European Union. ... Binomial name L. 19th century illustration The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Syria and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. ... Jaén may refer to: Jaén, Spain Jaén Province, Spain Jaén, Peru Jaén Province, Peru This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Demand for olive oil has soared in the United States. In 1994, exports to the US totaled 28.95 million gallons, a 215% increase from 1984. The US is Italy's biggest customer, absorbing 22% of total Italian production of 131.6 million gallons in 1994. Despite shrinkage in production, Italian exports of olive oil rose by 19.2% from 1994 to 1995. A large share of the imports went from the EU, especially Spain.


Regulation

The International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) is an intergovernmental organization based in Madrid, Spain, with 23 member states. It promotes olive oil around the world by tracking production, defining quality standards, and monitoring authenticity. More than 85% of the world's olives are grown in IOOC member nations.[3] The United States is not a member of the IOOC, and the US Department of Agriculture does not legally recognize its classifications (such as extra-virgin olive oil). The USDA uses a different system, which it defined in 1948 before the IOOC existed. The California Olive Oil Council, a private trade group, is petitioning the USDA to adopt IOOC rules.[4] For the political science journal, see: International Organization An international organization (also called intergovernmental organization) is an organization of international scope or character. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... USDA redirects here. ...


The IOOC officially governs 95% of international production and holds great influence over the rest. IOOC terminology is precise, but it can lead to confusion between the words that describe production and the words used on retail labels. Olive oil is classified by how it was produced, by its chemistry, and by its flavor. All production begins by transforming the olive fruit into olive paste. This paste is then malaxed to allow the microscopic oil droplets to concentrate. The oil is extracted by means of pressure (traditional method) or centrifugation (modern method). After extraction the remnant solid substance, called pomace, still contains a small quantity of oil. For other uses, see Chemistry (disambiguation). ... Malaxation is one of the unit process in the production of extra virgin olive oil. ... This article is about the scientific device. ... Pomace is a substance prepared by pressing or grinding various fruits, for example in the manufacture of olive oil (from olives), wine (from grapes), or cider (from apples). ...


According to an article by Tom Mueller in the August 13, 2007 Issue of the The New Yorker, regulation is extremely lax and corrupt. Mueller states that major Italian shippers routinely adulterate olive oil and that only about 40% of olive oil sold as "extra virgin" actually meets requirements.[5] In some cases, colza oil with added color and flavor has been labeled and sold as olive oil.[6] This extensive fraud prompted the Italian government, in 2007, to mandate a new labeling law for companies selling olive oil, under which every bottle of Italian olive oil would have to declare the farm and press on which it was produced, as well as display a precise breakdown of the oils used, for blended oils.[7] In February 2008, however, EU officials took issue with the new law, stating that under EU rules such labeling should be voluntary rather than compulsory.[8] Under EU rules, olive oil may be sold as Italian even if it only contains a small amount of Italian oil.[7] is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see New Yorker. ... Colza oil is a non-drying oil obtained from the seeds of Brassica campestris, var. ...


In March 2008, 400 Italian police officers conducted "Operation Golden Oil," arresting 23 and confiscating 85 farms after an investigation revealed a large-scale scheme to relabel oils from other Mediterranean nations as Italian.[9] In April 2008 another operation impounded seven olive oil plants and arrested 40 people in nine provinces of northern and southern Italy for adding chlorophyll to sunflower and soybean oil, and selling it as extra virgin olive oil, both in Italy and abroad. 25,000 liters of the fake oil was seized and prevented from being exported.[10] Chlorophyll is a green pigment found in most plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. ... Sunflower Oil is the non-volatile oil expressed from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds. ... Binomial name Glycine max Merr. ...


Industrial grades

The several oils extracted from the olive fruit can be classified as:

  • Virgin means the oil was produced by the use of physical means and no chemical treatment. The term virgin oil referring to production is different from Virgin Oil on a retail label (see next section).
  • Refined means that the oil has been chemically treated to neutralize strong tastes (characterized as defects) and neutralize the acid content (free fatty acids). Refined oil is commonly regarded as lower quality than virgin oil; the retail labels extra-virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil cannot contain any refined oil.
  • Pomace olive oil means oil extracted from the pomace using chemical solvents—mostly hexane—and by heat.

Quantitative analysis can determine the oil's acidity, defined as the percent, measured by weight, of free oleic acid it contains. This is a measure of the oil's chemical degradation; as the oil degrades, more fatty acids are freed from the glycerides, increasing the level of free acidity and thereby increasing rancidity. Another measure of the oil's chemical degradation is the organic peroxide level, which measures the degree to which the oil is oxidized, another cause of rancidity. In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ... the 3rd ingredient in big mac ... Quantitative analysis has different meanings in different contexts. ... Acidity is a controversial novelette written for the popular South Asian website Chowk. ... Not to be confused with fats. ... Oleic acid is a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid found in various animal and vegetable sources. ... Glycerides are esters of glycerol and fatty acids. ... Rancidification is the decomposition of fats and other lipids by hydrolysis and/or oxidation. ... The general structure of an organic peroxide. ... Rancidification is the decomposition of fats and other lipids by hydrolysis and/or oxidation. ...


In order to classify it by taste, olive oil is subjectively judged by a panel of professional tasters in a blind taste test. This is also called its organoleptic quality. Blind tasting of wine involves tasting and evaluating wines without any knowledge of their identities. ...


Retail grades in IOOC member nations

As IOOC standards are complex, the labels in stores (except in the U.S.)[citation needed] clearly show an oil's grade:

  • Extra-virgin olive oil comes from cold pressing of the olives, contains no more than 0.8% acidity, and is judged to have a superior taste. There can be no refined oil in extra-virgin olive oil.
  • Virgin olive oil has an acidity less than 2%, and judged to have a good taste. There can be no refined oil in virgin olive oil.
  • Pure olive oil. Oils labeled as Pure olive oil or Olive oil are usually a blend of refined olive oil and one of the above two categories of virgin olive oil.
  • Olive oil is a blend of virgin oil and refined oil, containing no more than 1.5% acidity. It commonly lacks a strong flavor.
  • Olive-pomace oil is a blend of refined pomace olive oil and possibly some virgin oil. It is fit for consumption, but it may not be called olive oil. Olive-pomace oil is rarely found in a grocery store; it is often used for certain kinds of cooking in restaurants.
  • Lampante oil is olive oil not used for consumption; lampante comes from olive oil's ancient use as fuel in oil-burning lamps. Lampante oil is mostly used in the industrial market.

Label wording

Olive oil vendors choose the wording on their labels very carefully.

  • "100% Pure Olive Oil" is often the lowest quality available in a retail store: better grades would have "virgin" on the label.
  • "Made from refined olive oils" suggests that the essence was captured, but in fact means that the taste and acidity were chemically produced.
  • "Light olive oil" actually means refined olive oil, not a lower fat content. All olive oil has 120 calories per tablespoon (34 J/ml).
  • "From hand-picked olives" may indicate that the oil is of better quality, since producers harvesting olives by mechanical methods are inclined to leave olives to over-ripen in order to increase yield.
  • "First cold press" means that the oil in bottles with this label is the first oil that came from the first press of the olives. The word cold is important because if heat is used, the olive oil's chemistry is changed. It should be noted that extra-virgin olive oil is cold pressed, but not necessarily the first oils.
  • "Bottled in Italy" or "Packed in Italy" does not necessarily mean that the olive oil originated in Italy. Back or side labels indicate the origin of the olive oil which is often a mixture of oils from several nations[11].

The calorie is a unit of energy, in particular heat. ... The joule (IPA: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ...

Retail grades in the United States

The United States is not a member of the IOOC and therefore the retail grades listed above have no legal meaning in the United States; terms such as "extra virgin" may be used liberally. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), which controls this aspect of labeling, currently lists four grades of olive oil: "Fancy", "Choice", "Standard", and "Substandard", also called Grade A through D, respectively.[12] These were established in 1948. The grades are based on acidity, absence of defects, odor and flavor. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ...


Global consumption

Greece has by far the heaviest per capita consumption of olive oil worldwide, over 26 boxes per year; Spain and Italy, around 14 L; Tunisia, Portugal and Syria, around 8 L. Northern Europe and North America consume far less, around 0.7 L, but the consumption of olive oil outside its home territory has been rising steadily. Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ...


Price is an important factor on olive oil consumption in the world commodity market. In 1997, global production rose by 47%, which replenished low stocks, lowered prices, and increased consumption by 27%. Overall, world consumption trends are up by 2.5%. Production trends are also up due to expanded plantings of olives in Europe, Latin America, the USA, and Australia. Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...

Olive tree in Portugal
Olive tree in Portugal

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2065x1472, 1415 KB) Summary Several centuries year old olive tree at the Esporão estate in Reguengos de Monsaraz - Alentejo - Portugal Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Olive oil Olive User:João Correia/gallery Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2065x1472, 1415 KB) Summary Several centuries year old olive tree at the Esporão estate in Reguengos de Monsaraz - Alentejo - Portugal Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Olive oil Olive User:João Correia/gallery Metadata This...

Global market

The main producing and consuming countries are:

Country Production (2005[13]) Consumption (2005[13]) Annual Per Capita Consumption (kg)[14]
Spain 36% 20% 13.62
Tunisia 32% 25% 11.1
Italy 25% 30% 12.35
Greece 18% 9% 23.7
Turkey 5% 2% 1.2
Syria 4% 3% 6
Morocco 3% 2% 1.8
Portugal 1% 2% 7.1
United States 0% 8% 0.56
France 0% 4% 1.34
Lebanon 0% 3% 1.18

Extraction

Main article: Olive oil extraction

The most traditional way of making olive oil is by grinding olives. Green olives produce bitter oil, and overly ripened olives produce rancid oil, so care is taken to make sure the olives are perfectly ripened. First the olives are ground into an olive paste using large millstones. The olive paste generally stays under the stones for 30–40 minutes. The oil collected during this part of the process is called virgin oil. After grinding, the olive paste is spread on fibre disks, which are stacked on top of each other, then placed into the press. Pressure is then applied onto the disk to further separate the oil from the paste. This second step produces a lower grade of oil. Olive oil extraction is the process of extracting the oil present in the olive drupes for food use. ...


Constituents

Olive oil is composed mainly of oleic acid and palmitic acid and other fatty acids, along with traces of squalene (up to 0.7%) and sterols (about 0.2% phytosterol and tocosterols). The composition varies by cultivar, region, altitude, time of harvest, and extraction process. Oleic acid is a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid found in various animal and vegetable sources. ... Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid in IUPAC nomenclature, is one of the most common saturated fatty acids found in animals and plants. ... Not to be confused with fats. ... Squalene is a natural organic compound originally obtained for commercial purposes primarily from shark liver oil, though there are botanic sources as well, including amaranth seed, rice bran, wheat germ, and olives. ... Sterols, or steroid alcohols are a subgroup of steroids with a hydroxyl group in the 3-position of the A-ring. ... β-sitosterol Ergosterol. ...


Olive oil contains a group of related natural products with potent antioxidant properties which give extra-virgin unprocessed olive oil its bitter and pungent taste and which are esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, including oleocanthal and oleuropein.[15] Secondary metabolites, also known as natural products, are those products (chemical compounds) of metabolism that are not essential for normal growth, development or reproduction of an organism. ... Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ... Human taste sensory organs, called taste buds or gustatory calyculi, and concentrated on the upper surface of the tongue, appear to be receptive to relatively few chemical species as tastes. ... Taste (or, more formally, gustation) is a form of direct chemoreception and is one of the traditional five senses. ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... Tyrosol is a phenolic antioxidant present in a variety of natural sources. ... Hydroxytyrosol is a phytochemical. ... Oleocanthal is natural organic compound isolated from extra virgin olive oil. ... Oleuropein is a chemical compound found in the leaves of the olive tree together with other closely related compounds such as 10-hydroxyoleuropein, ligstroside, and 10-hydroxyligstroside. ...


Human health

Olive oil
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 890 kcal   3700 kJ
Carbohydrates     0 g
Fat 100 g
- saturated  14 g
- monounsaturated  73 g  
- polyunsaturated  11 g  
  - omega-3 fat <1.5 g  
  - omega-6 fat 3.5-21g  
Protein 0 g
Vitamin E  14 mg 93%
Vitamin K  62 μg 59%
100 g olive oil is 109 ml
Percentages are relative to US
recommendations for adults.

Evidence from epidemiological studies suggests that a higher proportion of monounsaturated fats in the diet is linked with a reduction in the risk of coronary heart disease.[16] This is significant because olive oil is considerably rich in monounsaturated fats, most notably oleic acid. Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. ... For discussion how dietary fats affect cardiovascular health, see Diet and heart disease. ... // In nutrition, polyunsaturated fat is an abbreviation of polyunsaturated fatty acid. ... For an explanation of n and numerical nomenclature (such as n−3 or 18:3), see Nomenclature of fatty acids. ... Omega-6 fatty acids are fatty acids where the term omega-6 signifies that the first double bond in the carbon backbone of the fatty acid, counting from the end opposite the acid group, occurs in the sixth carbon-carbon bond. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... The α-tocopherol form of vitamin E. Main articles: tocopherol and tocotrienol Vitamin E is the collective name for a set of 8 related tocopherols and tocotrienols, which are fat-soluble vitamins with antioxidant properties. ... Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone). ... Reference Daily Intake (RDI) is the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group. ... For discussion how dietary fats affect cardiovascular health, see Diet and heart disease. ... Coronary heart disease (CHD), also called coronary artery disease (CAD), ischaemic heart disease, atherosclerotic heart disease, is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the arteries that supply the myocardium (the muscle of the heart) with oxygen and nutrients. ... Oleic acid is a monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid found in various animal and vegetable sources. ...


In the United States, producers of olive oil may place the following health claim on product labels:

Limited and not conclusive scientific evidence suggests that eating about two tablespoons (23 grams) of olive oil daily may reduce the risk of coronary heart disease due to the monounsaturated fat in olive oil. To achieve this possible benefit, olive oil is to replace a similar amount of saturated fat and not increase the total number of calories you eat in a day.[17]

This decision was announced November 1, 2004, by the Food and Drug Administration after application was made to the FDA by producers. Similar labels are permitted for foods rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as walnuts.[18] This tablespoon has a capacity of about 1 tbsp. ... Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. ... is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... FDA redirects here. ... For an explanation of n and numerical nomenclature (such as n−3 or 18:3), see Nomenclature of fatty acids. ... For other uses, see Walnut (disambiguation). ...


There is a large body of clinical data to show that consumption of olive oil can provide heart health benefits such as favourable effects on cholesterol regulation and LDL cholesterol oxidation, and that it exerts antiinflamatory, antithrombotic, antihypertensive as well as vasodilatory effects both in animals and in humans.[19] Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol). ... Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) refers to a class and range of lipoprotein particles, varying somewhat in their size and contents, which carry cholesterol in the blood and around the body, for use by various cells. ... The most fundamental reactions in chemistry are the redox processes. ...


But some clinical evidence suggests that it is olive oil's phenolic content, rather than its fatty acid profile, that is responsible for at least some of its cardioprotective benefits. For example, a clinical trial published[citation needed] in 2005 compared the effects of different types of olive oil on arterial elasticity. Test subjects were given a serving of 60 grams of white bread and 40 milliliters of olive oil each morning for two consecutive days. The study was conducted in two stages. During the first stage, the subjects received polyphenol-rich oil (extra virgin oil contains the highest amount of polyphenol antioxidants). During the second phase, they received oil with only one fifth the phenolic content. The elasticity of the arterial walls of each subject was measured using a pressure sleeve and a Doppler laser. It was discovered that after the subjects had consumed olive oil high in polyphenol antioxidants, they exhibited increased arterial elasticity, while after the consumption of olive oil containing fewer polyphenols, they displayed no significant change in arterial elasticity. It is theorized that, in the long term, increased elasticity of arterial walls reduces vascular stress and consequentially the risk of two common causes of death—heart attacks and stroke. This could, at least in part, explain the lower incidence of both diseases in regions where olive oil and olives are consumed on a daily basis. In organic chemistry, phenols, sometimes called phenolics, are a class of chemical compounds consisting of a hydroxyl group (-O H) attached to an aromatic hydrocarbon group. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... The liter (spelled liter in American English and litre in Commonwealth English) is a unit of volume. ... Polyphenols are a group of chemical substances found in plants, characterized by the presence of more than one phenol unit or building block per molecule. ... Molecular structure of apigenin, a polyphenol antioxidant A polyphenol antioxidant is a type of antioxidant containing a polyphenolic substructure. ... A source of waves moving to the left. ... For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ... Heart attack redirects here. ... For other uses, see Stroke (disambiguation). ...


In addition to the internal health benefits of olive oil, topical application is quite popular with fans of natural health remedies. Extra Virgin Olive Oil is the preferred grade for moisturizing the skin, especially when used in the Oil Cleansing Method (OCM). OCM is a method of cleansing and moisturizing the face with a mixture of extra virgin olive oil, castor oil (or another suitable carrier oil) and a select blend of essential oils.


Jeanne Calment, who holds the record for the longest confirmed lifespan, reportedly attributed her longevity and relatively youthful appearance to olive oil, which she said she poured on all her food and rubbed into her skin.[20] Jeanne Louise Calment (February 21, 1875 – August 4, 1997) reached the longest confirmed lifespan in history at 122 years and 164 days. ... The following tables list only the oldest verified people in ordinal rank, such as oldest person or oldest man. ...


However, some of these benefits are disputed. Several scientific studies doubt some of the previously stated positive effects and state several negative effects of olive oil such as impairment of the dilation of the arteries.[21]


Medicinal use

Olive oil is unlikely to cause allergic reactions, and as such is used in preparations for lipophilic drug ingredients. It does have demulcent properties, and mild laxative properties, acting as a stool softener. It is also used at room temperature as an ear wax softener. Olive oil is also a potent blocker of intestinal contractions, and can be used to treat excessive Borborygmus. Allergy is an abnormal reaction to a substance foreign to the body that is acquired, predictable and rapid. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Demulcent herbs often have a high content of mucilage, making them ideal to soothe and protect irritated or inflammed internal tissues of the body. ... Laxatives (or purgatives) are foods, compounds, or drugs taken to induce bowel movements or to loosen the stool, most often taken to treat constipation. ... Cerumen, commonly known as earwax, is a yellowish, waxy substance secreted in the ear canal of humans and many other mammals. ... Borborygmus (plural borborygmi) is the rumbling sound produced by the movement of gas through the intestines of animals. ...


Oleocanthal from olive oil is a non-selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase (COX) similar to classical NSAIDs like ibuprofen. It has been suggested that long-term consumption of small quantities of this compound from olive oil may be responsible in part for the low incidence of heart disease associated with a Mediterranean diet. Oleocanthal is natural organic compound isolated from extra virgin olive oil. ... Cyclooxygenase (COX) is an enzyme (EC 1. ... Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs, are drugs with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects - they reduce pain, fever and inflammation. ... Coated 200 mg ibuprofen tablets Ibuprofen (INN) (IPA: ) (from the earlier and no longer correct nomenclature iso-butyl-propanoic-phenolic acid) is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) originally marketed as Brufen, and since then under various other trademarks (see tradenames section), most notably Advil. ... Heart disease is an umbrella term for a number of different diseases which affect the heart and as of 2007 it is the leading cause of death in the United States,[1] and England and Wales. ... For cuisine, see Cuisine of the Mediterranean. ...


History

Ancient Greek olive oil production workshop in what is now Kilizman,Turkey
Ancient Greek olive oil production workshop in what is now Kilizman,Turkey
The Manufacture of Oil, drawn and engraved by J. Amman in the Sixteenth Century.
The Manufacture of Oil, drawn and engraved by J. Amman in the Sixteenth Century.

Homer called it "liquid gold." In ancient Greece, athletes ritually rubbed it all over their body. Olive oil has been more than mere food to the peoples of the Mediterranean: it has been medicinal, magical, an endless source of fascination and wonder and the fountain of great wealth and power. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 457 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (674 × 883 pixel, file size: 72 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Klazomenai, an ancient Greek city of Ionia I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 457 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (674 × 883 pixel, file size: 72 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Klazomenai, an ancient Greek city of Ionia I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Download high resolution version (1281x1062, 50 KB)The Manufacture of Oil, drawn and engraved by J. Amman in the Sixteenth Century. ... Download high resolution version (1281x1062, 50 KB)The Manufacture of Oil, drawn and engraved by J. Amman in the Sixteenth Century. ... This article is about the Greek poet Homer and the works attributed to him. ...


Besides food, olive oil has been used for religious rituals, medicines, as a fuel in oil lamps, soap-making, and skin care application. The importance and antiquity of olive oil can be seen in the fact that the English word oil derives from c. 1175, olive oil, from Anglo-Fr. and O.N.Fr. olie, from O.Fr. oile (12c., Mod.Fr. huile), from L. oleum "oil, olive oil" (cf. It. olio), from Gk. elaion "olive tree",[22] which may have been borrowed through trade networks from the Semitic Phoenician use of el'yon meaning "superior", probably in recognized comparison to other vegetable or animal fats available at the time. For other senses of this word, see ritual (disambiguation). ... For the chemical substances known as medicines, see medication. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... Antique bronze oil lamp with Christian symbol (replica) A terra-cotta oil lamp, Antique oil lamp (replica) An oil lamp is a simple vessel used to produce light continuously for a period of time from a fuel source. ... For other uses, see Soap (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ...


The olive tree is native to the Mediterranean basin; wild olives were collected by Neolithic peoples as early as the 8th millennium BC[23]. The wild olive tree has possibly originated in Asia Minor.[24]. An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ...


It is not clear when and where olive trees were first domesticated: in Asia Minor in the 6th millennium[25]; along the Levantine coast stretching from the Sinai Peninsula to modern Turkey in the 4th millennium [26]; or somewhere in the Mesopotamian Fertile Crescent in the 3rd millennium.[27] Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in Southwest Asia south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea in the west, and in the east, the north Arabian Desert and Mesopotamia. ... Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 For other uses, see Sinai (disambiguation). ... This is an article about the ancient middle eastern region. ... This map shows the extent of the Fertile Crescent. ...


A widespread view exists that the first cultivation took place on the island of Crete. The earliest surviving olive oil amphorae date to 3500 BC (Early Minoan times), though the production of olive is assumed to have started before 4000 BC. An alternative view retains that olives were turned into oil by 4500 BC by Canaanites in present-day Israel.[28] For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Amphoræ on display in Bodrum Castle, Turkey An amphora is a type of ceramic vase with two handles, used for the transportation and storage of perishable goods and more rarely as containers for the ashes of the dead or as prize awards. ... This article is about the land called Canaan. ...

Ancient oil press Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology, Bodrum, Turkey
Ancient oil press
Bodrum Museum of Underwater Archaeology, Bodrum, Turkey

Recent genetic studies suggest that species used by modern cultivators descend from multiple wild populations, but a detailed history of domestication is not yet understood.[29] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 509 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 509 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...


Many ancient presses still exist in the Eastern Mediterranean region, and some dating to the Roman period are still in use today.[citation needed]


Eastern Mediterranean

Over 5,000 years ago oil was being extracted from olives in the Eastern Mediterranean. In the centuries that followed, olive presses became common, from the Atlantic shore of North Africa to Persia and from the Po Valley to the settlements along the Nile.[citation needed] The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Press is a general term having a number of related meanings stemming from the original definition of pressing as the physical action of applying force: Things relating to Metalworking: Machine press, a machine that shapes material by the application of pressure; Flypress, a machine that cuts material by pressing with... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... The Po (Latin: Padus, Italian: Po) is a river that flows 652 kilometers (405 miles) eastward across northern Italy, from Monviso (in the Cottian Alps) to the Adriatic Sea near Venice. ... For other uses, see Nile (disambiguation). ...


Olive trees and oil production in the Eastern Mediterranean can be traced to archives of the ancient city-state Ebla (2600–2240 BC), which were located on the outskirts of the Syrian city Aleppo. Here some dozen documents dated 2400 BC describe lands of the king and the queen. These belonged to a library of clay tablets perfectly preserved by having been baked in the fire that destroyed the palace. A later source is the frequent mentions of oil in Tanakh.[citation needed] Ebla is not to be confused with Elba. ... Aleppo (Arabic: ‎ [ħalab], ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate; the Governate extends around the city for over 16,000 km² and has a population of 4,393,000, making it the largest Governate in Syria (followed by Damascus). ... For the musical collective, see Tanakh (band). ...


Dynastic Egyptians before 2000 BC imported olive oil from Crete, Syria and Canaan and oil was an important item of commerce and wealth. Remains of olive oil have been found in jugs over 4,000 years old in a tomb on the island of Naxos in the Aegean Sea. Sinuhe, the Egyptian exile who lived in northern Canaan about 1960 BC, wrote of abundant olive trees.[30] Map of Canaan For other uses, see Canaan (disambiguation). ... For the New York prison see The Tombs. ... Naxos (Greek: Νάξος; Italian: Nicsia; Turkish: Nakşa) is a Greek island, the largest island (428 km²) in the Cyclades island group in the Aegean. ... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Until 1500 BC, the eastern coastal areas of the Mediterranean were most heavily cultivated. Olive trees were certainly cultivated by the Late Minoan period (1500 BC) in Crete, and perhaps as early as the Early Minoan.[31] The cultivation of olive trees in Crete became particularly intense in the post-palatial period and played an important role in the island's economy. The Minoans used olive oil in religious ceremonies. The oil became a principal product of the Minoan civilization, where it is thought to have represented wealth. The Minoans put the pulp into settling tanks and, when the oil had risen to the top, drained the water from the bottom.[citation needed]. Olive tree growing reached Iberia and Etruscan cities well before the 8th century BC through trade with the Phoenicians and Carthage, then spread into Southern Gaul by the Celtic tribes during the 7th century BC. Fresco from the Palace of Minos, Knossos, Crete The Minoans were a pre-Hellenic Bronze Age civilization in Crete in the Aegean Sea, flourishing from approximately 2600 to 1450 BC when their culture was superseded by the Mycenaean culture, which drew upon the Minoans. ... The Minoans were a pre-Hellenic Bronze Age civilization in Crete in the Aegean Sea, flourishing from approximately 2700 to 1450 BC when their culture was superseded by the Mycenaean culture, which drew upon the Minoans. ... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on the island of Crete. ... For the business meaning, see Wealth (economics). ... Settling tanks are used for extracting oil from vegetables. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Extent of Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ... Phoenicia was an ancient civilization in the north of ancient Canaan, with its heartland along the coastal plain of what is now Lebanon and Syria. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... Gaul (Latin: ) was the name given, in ancient times, to the region of Western Europe comprising present-day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ... This article is about the European people. ...


The first recorded oil extraction is known from the Hebrew Bible and took place during the Exodus from Egypt, during the 13th century BC.[dubious ] During this time, the oil was derived through hand-squeezing the berries and stored in special containers under guard of the priests. A commercial mill for non-sacramental use of oil was in use in the tribal Confederation and later the Kingdom of Israel c. 1000 BC. Over 100 olive presses have been found in Tel Miqne (Ekron), where the Biblical Philistines also produced oil. These presses are estimated to have had output of between 1,000 and 3,000 tons of olive oil per season. The Exodus or Ytsiyat Mitsrayim (Hebrew: יציאת מצרים, Tiberian: , the going out of Egypt) refers to the Exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt. ... 10th century BCE: The Land of Israel, including the United Kingdom of Israel Commonwealth of Israel redirects here. ... Map showing the location of Philistine land and cities of Gaza, Ashdod, and Ashkelon Map of the southern Levant, c. ...


Olive trees were planted in the entire Mediterranean basin during evolution of the Roman republic and empire. According to the historian Pliny, Italy had "excellent olive oil at reasonable prices" by the first century AD, "the best in the Mediterranean", he maintained, a claim probably disputed by many ancient olive growers. Thus olive oil was very common in Hellene and Latin cuisine. According to legend, the city of Athens obtained its name because Athenians considered olive oil essential, preferring the offering of the goddess Athena (an olive tree) over the offering of Poseidon (a spring of salt water gushing out of a cliff). This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... There are two famous persons named Pliny: Pliny the Elder, a Roman nobleman, scientist and historian who died in the eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD The great-nephew of the former, Pliny the Younger, a statesman, orator, and writer who lived between 62 AD and 113 AD. This... Note: Hellen was not the same person as Helen of Troy or Helenus, son of King Priam of Troy. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... Neptune in Copenhagen, Denmark. ... This article is about common table salt. ...


The Spartans were the Hellenes who used oil to rub themselves while exercising in the gymnasia. The practice served to eroticise and highlight the beauty of the male body. From its beginnings early in the seventh century BC, the decorative use of olive oil quickly spread to all of Hellenic city states, together with naked appearance of athletes, and lasted close to a thousand years despite its great expense.[32][33] For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality). ... Pompeii gymnasium, seen from the top of the stadium wall. ... Zephyrus and Hyacinthus Hyacinthus, beloved of Apollo was a patron hero of pederasty in Sparta. ...


Religious use

In Jewish observance, olive oil is the only fuel allowed to be used in the seven-branched Menorah (not a candelabrum since the use of candles was not allowed) in the Mishkan service during the Exodus of the tribes of Israel from Egypt, and later in the permanent Temple in Jerusalem. It was obtained by using only the first drop from a squeezed olive and was consecrated for use only in the Temple by the priests, which is where the expression pure olive oil originates, stored in special containers. A copy of the Menorah is now used during the holiday of Hanukkah that celebrates the miracle of the last of such containers being found during the re-dedication of the Temple (163 BC), when its contents lasted for far longer then they were expected to, allowing more time for more oil to be made. Although candles can be used to light the Hanukkiah, oil containers are preferred, to imitate the original Menorah. Another use of oil in Jewish religion is for anointing the kings of the Kingdom of Israel, originating from King David. Tzidkiyahu was the last anointed King of Israel. One unusual use of olive oil in the Talmud is for bad breath, by creating a water-oil-salt mouthwash. The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... A candlestick or candelabrum is a decorative holder for one or more candles, often shaped as a column or pedestal. ... For other uses, see Candle (disambiguation). ... For the Feast of Tabernacles, see Sukkot. ... The Exodus or Ytsiyat Mitsrayim (Hebrew: יציאת מצרים, Tiberian: , the going out of Egypt) refers to the Exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew:  ; The Holy House), refers to a series of structures located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... A Jewish holiday or Jewish Festival is a day or series of days observed by Jews as holy or secular commemorations of important events in Jewish history. ... Grand Rabbi Israel Abraham Portugal of Skulen Hasidism lighting Hanukkah lights Hanukkah (‎, alt. ... This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... The Talmud (Hebrew: ) is a record of rabbinic discussions pertaining to Jewish law, ethics, customs, and history. ...


Olive oil also has religious symbolism for healing and strength and to consecration — God's setting a person or place apart for special work. This may be related to its ancient use as a medicinal agent and for cleansing athletes by slathering them in oil then scraping them. The Catholic and Orthodox Churches use olive oil for the Oil of Catechumens (used to bless and strengthen those preparing for Baptism) and Oil of the Sick (used to confer the Sacrament of Anointing of the Sick). Olive oil mixed with a perfuming agent like balsam is consecrated by bishops as Sacred Chrism, which is used to confer the sacrament of Confirmation (as a symbol of the strengthening of the Holy Spirit), in the rites of Baptism and the ordination of priests and bishops, in the consecration of altars and churches, and, traditionally, in the anointing of monarchs at their coronation. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and a number of other religions use olive oil when they need to consecrate an oil for anointings. Oil of Catechumen is the oil used in some baptisms to show the strength to turn away from evil, temptation and sin. ... Extreme Unction, part of The Seven Sacraments (1445) by Roger van der Weyden. ... Balsam of Mecca (or balsam of Gilead or balm of Gilead) is a resinous gum of the tree Commiphora gileadensis (syn. ... To consecrate an inaminate object is to dedicate it in a ritual to a special purpose, usually religious. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Chrism (Greek word literally meaning an anointing), also called Myrrh (Myron), Holy Oil, or Consecrated Oil, is a consecrated oil used in the Oriental Orthodox and Eastern Orthodox churches, in the Assyrian Church of the East, in the Old-Catholic churches, and in Roman Catholic, Anglican and Lutheran churches in... Confirmation is a rite used in many Christian Churches. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... Catholic deacon candidates prostrate before the altar of the Cathedral of Our Lady of the Angels in Los Angeles during a 2004 diaconate ordination liturgy In a general sense, the term Holy Orders refers to those in the Christian religion who have been ordained in Apostolic Succession. ... This article is about religious workers. ... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... A asses is a ceremony marking the investment of a monarch with regal power through, amongst other symbolic acts, the placement of a crown upon his or her head. ... For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ... The term Mormon is a colloquial name, most-often used to refer to members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). ...


Eastern Orthodox Christians still use oil lamps in their churches and home prayer corners. A vigil lamp consists of a votive glass containing a half-inch of water and filled the rest with olive oil. The glass has a metal holder that hangs from a bracket on the wall or sits on a table. A cork float with lit a wick floats on the oil. To douse the flame, the float is carefully pressed down into the oil. Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ...


In Islam, olive oil is mentioned in the Quranic verse: "God is the light of heavens and earth. An example of His light is like a lantern inside which there is a tourch, the tourch is in a glass bulb, the glass bulb is like a bright planet lit by a blessed olive tree, neither Eastern nor Western, its oil almost glows, even without fire touching it, light upon light." The Qur’an also mentions olives as a sacred plant: "By the fig and the olive, and the Mount of Sinai, and this secure city."[2] Olive oil is also reported to have been recommended by the Muslim Prophet Muhammad in the following terms: "Consume olive oil and anoint it upon your bodies since it is of the blessed tree." He also stated that it cures 70 diseases. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The Quran (Arabic al-qurʾān أَلْقُرآن; also transliterated as Quran, Koran, and less commonly Alcoran) is the holy book of Islam. ... For other uses, see Lantern (disambiguation). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...


See also

Wikibooks
Wikibooks Cookbook has an article on

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... For cuisine, see Cuisine of the Mediterranean. ... Mediterranean cuisine is the cuisine of the areas around the Mediterranean Sea. ... Italian cuisine as a national cuisine known today has evolved through centuries of social and political change. ... Lebanese Cuisine,(Arabic , المأكولات اللبنانية ) (or foods from Lebanon) consists of a variety of fresh vegetarian recipes, salads and stews all seasoned with a flavorsome combination of herbs and spices. ... Typical Greek salad Greek cuisine (Greek: Ελληνική Κουζίνα) is Greeces traditional cuisine. ... Palestinian cuisine or foods from or commonly eaten in the Palestinian territories and the Arab population of Israel. ... Portuguese cuisine is characterised by rich, filling and full-flavoured dishes and is a prime example of Mediterranean diet. ... Spanish cuisine consists of a small variety of dishes which stem from differences in geography, culture and climate. ... A pot of coq au vin, a well-known French dish French cuisine is a style of cooking derived from the nation of France. ... Turkish cuisine inherited its Ottoman heritage which could be described as a fusion and refinement of Turkic, Arabic, Greek, Armenian and Persian cuisines. ... Amurca is the byproduct of processing olives for olive oil. ... Olive oil extraction is the process of extracting the oil present in the olive drupes for food use. ...

References

  1. ^ USDA. Agricultural Statistics 2005 (PDF). Retrieved on 2007-05-25.
  2. ^ USDA. Agricultural Statistics 2005. Retrieved on 2007-05-25.
  3. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council
  4. ^ United States Department of Agriculture Site
  5. ^ Mueller, Tom. Slippery Business The New Yorker. 13 August 2007.
  6. ^ EUbusiness.com
  7. ^ a b Telegraph article
  8. ^ Eubusiness.com
  9. ^ Italian police crack down on olive oil fraud - Telegraph
  10. ^ Forty arrested in new 'fake' olive oil scam - Scotsman.com News
  11. ^ Cleverly deceptive olive oil labels
  12. ^ Standards for Grades of Olive Oil
  13. ^ a b United Nations Conference on Trade and Development Site
  14. ^ "California and World Olive Oil Statistics"" PDF at UC Davis.
  15. ^ The phenolic compounds of olive oil: structure, biological activity and beneficial effects on human health E. Tripoli, M. Giammanco, G. Tabacchi, D. Di Majo, S. Giammanco, and Maurizio La Guardia. Nutrition Research Reviews 18, 98–112 (2005) DOI: 10.1079/NRR200495
  16. ^ Keys A, Menotti A, Karvonen MJ, et al.: The diet and 15-year death rate in the Seven Countries Study. Am J Epidemiol 124: 903–915 (1986).
  17. ^ United States Food and Drug Administration Site
  18. ^ New York Times, November 2, 2004, "Olive Oil Makers Win Approval to Make Health Claim on Label"
  19. ^ Covas MI. Olive oil and the cardiovascular system. Pharmacol Res. 2007 Jan 30;
  20. ^ Quite Interesting - Telegraph
  21. ^ The Truth About Olive Oil | Pritkin Center
  22. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary, s.v. "olive" and "oil"
  23. ^ Davidson, s.v. Olives
  24. ^ International Olive Oil Council International Olive Council
  25. ^ Rosenblum, p. 10
  26. ^ Davidson, s.v. Olives
  27. ^ Pagnol, p. 19
  28. ^ Ehud Galili et al., "Evidence for Earliest Olive-Oil Production in Submerged Settlements off the Carmel Coast, Israel", Journal of Archaeological Science 24:1141–1150 (1997); Pagnol, p. 19, says the 6th millennium in Jericho, but cites no source.
  29. ^ Guillaume Besnarda, André Bervillé, "Multiple origins for Mediterranean olive (Olea europaea L. ssp. europaea) based upon mitochondrial DNA polymorphisms", Comptes Rendus de l’Académie des Sciences—Series III—Sciences de la Vie 323:2:173–181 (February 2000); Catherine Breton, Michel Tersac and André Bervillé, "Genetic diversity and gene flow between the wild olive (oleaster, Olea europaea L.) and the olive: several Plio-Pleistocene refuge zones in the Mediterranean basin suggested by simple sequence repeats analysis", Journal of Biogeography 33:11:1916 (November 2006)
  30. ^ Ancient Egyptian texts: The Tale of Sinuhe
  31. ^ F.R. Riley, "Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties, Processing methods, and Storage life of Minoan olive oil", Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21:1:63–75 (2002)
  32. ^ Thomas F. Scanlon, "The Dispersion of Pederasty and the Athletic Revolution in sixth-century BC Greece", in Same-Sex Desire and Love in Greco-Roman Antiquity and in the Classical Tradition of the West, ed. B. C. Verstraete and V. Provencal, Harrington Park Press, 2005
  33. ^ Nigel M. Kennell, "Most Necessary for the Bodies of Men: Olive Oil and its By-products in the Later Greek Gymnasium" in Mark Joyal (ed.), In Altum: Seventy-Five Years of Classical Studies in Newfoundland, 2001; pp119–33

The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The U.S. Department of Agriculture, also called the Agriculture Department, or USDA, is a Cabinet department of the United States Federal Government. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... USDA redirects here. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) was established in 1964 as a permanent intergovernmental body, UNCTAD is the principal organ of the United Nations General Assembly dealing with trade, investment and development issues. ... The University of California, Davis, commonly abbreviated to UC Davis or UCD is one of the ten University of California campuses. ... FDA redirects here. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the city in the West Bank. ...

Further reading

  • Alan Davidson, The Oxford Companion to Food, Oxford, 1999. ISBN 0-19-211579-0.
  • Jean Pagnol, L'Olivier, Aubanel, 1975. ISBN 2-7006-0064-9.
  • Mort Rosenblum, Olives: The Life and Lore of a Noble Fruit, North Point Press, 1996. ISBN 0-86547-503-2.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • A video showing the production of olive oil
... For other uses, see FAT. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bacon (disambiguation). ... Clarified butter is butter that has been rendered to separate the milk solids and water from the butter fat. ... Cocoa butter Cocoa butter, also called theobroma oil, is the pale-yellow, pure edible vegetable fat of the cacao bean. ... Dripping, beef dripping is an animal fat produced from the fatty or otherwise unusable parts of cow carcasses. ... // See also duck (disambiguation) Duck refers to the meat of several species of bird in the Anatidae family, found in both fresh and salt water. ... Ghee in a jar Ghee (Hindi घी, Urdu گھی, Punjabi ਘੋ, Kashmiri ग्याव/گیاو - from Sanskrit घृत sprinkled; also known in Arabic as سمن, samn, meaning ghee or fat) is a class of clarified butter that originates in the Indian subcontinent, and continues to be important in Indian cuisine as well as Egyptian cuisine. ... This article is about the fat. ... Margarine in a tub Margarine (pronunciation: ), as a generic term, can indicate any of a wide range of butter substitutes. ... Niter kibbeh or niter qibe (Geez ንጥር ቅቤ niṭer ḳibē) is a seasoned clarified butter used in Ethiopian cooking. ... A slab of słonina aged in paprika, popular in Central and East Europe Salo (Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Hungarian: Polish: , Macedonian: , Romanian slănínă or slánă, Serbo-Croatian, Czech and Slovak: slanina) is a traditional Central and Eastern European food: slabs of pork underskin fat, with or... Fat percentage can vary. ... Karite redirects here. ... Smen (also called sman or semneh) is a traditional cooking oil most commonly found in Moroccan cuisine. ... Suet is raw beef or mutton fat, especially that found around the loins and kidneys. ... Tallow is rendered beef or mutton fat, processed from suet. ... Shortening is a semisolid fat used in food preparation, especially baked goods, and is so called because it inhibits the formation of long gluten strands in wheat-based doughs, giving them a short texture (as in shortbread). ... Oil painting is done on surfaces with pigment ground into a medium of oil - especially in early modern Europe, linseed oil. ... For other uses, see Almond (disambiguation). ... Argan oil is an oil produced from the fruits of the Argan (Argania spinosa) a species of tree endemic to the calcareous semi-desert of southwestern Morocco. ... Avocado oil is an edible oil pressed from the fruit of the Persea americana (avocado). ... In agriculture, Canola is a trademarked cultivar of genetically engineered rapeseed variants from which rapeseed oil is obtained. ... Castor oil is a vegetable oil obtained from the castor bean (technically castor seed as the castor plant, Ricinus communis, is not a member of the bean family). ... Coconut oil, also known as coconut butter, is a tropical oil extracted from copra (the dried inner flesh of coconuts) with many applications. ... Colza oil is a non-drying oil obtained from the seeds of Brassica campestris, var. ... Corn oil is oil extracted from the germ of corn. ... Cottonseed oil is a vegetable oil extracted from the seeds of the cotton plant after the cotton lint has been removed. ... Grape oil (also grapeseed oil) is a vegetable oil pressed from the seeds of various varieties of Vitis vinifera grapes, an abundant by-product of wine making. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Flax oil (in bottles) and coconut oil (in jars in the middle) Linseed oil, also known as flax seed oil, is a yellowish drying oil derived from the dried ripe seeds of the flax plant (Linum usitatissimum, Linaceae). ... Macadamia oil (or Macadamia nut oil) is the non-volatile oil expressed from the nut meat of the macadamia (Macadamia integrifolia) tree. ... The term mustard oil is used for two different oils that are made from mustard seeds: a fatty vegetable oil resulting from pressing the seeds, an essential oil resulting from grinding the seeds, mixing them with water, and extracting the resulting volatile oil by distillation. ... Palm oil from Ghana with its natural dark color visible, 2 litres Palm oil block showing the lighter color that results from boiling. ... Palm oil from Ghana with its natural dark color visible, 2 litres Palm oil block showing the lighter color that results from boiling. ... A bottle of peanut oil Peanut oil is an organic oil derived from peanuts, noted to have the slight aroma and taste of its parent legume. ... Pecan oil is an edible pressed oil extracted from the pecan nut. ... Perilla oil is obtained from the seeds of perennial herbs of the genus Perilla, usually Perilla frutescens. ... Pistachio oil is a pressed oil, extracted from the fruit of Pistacia vera, the pistachio nut. ... Poppyseed oil (also poppy seed oil or poppy oil) is oil extracted from the seeds of the opium poppy ( The whole seeds of the poppy plant are edible and non-toxic, and have been used for various culinary purposes (particularly baking) since ancient times. ... Pumpkin seed oil (Kernöl or Kürbiskernöl in German, bučno olje in Slovenian, bučino ulje or bundevino ulje in Croatian) is a culinary specialty of south eastern Austria (Styria), eastern Slovenia (Styria and Prekmurje), north western Croatia (esp. ... Binomial name Brassica napus L. Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as Rape, Oilseed Rape, Rapa, Rapaseed and (one particular cultivar) Canola, is a bright yellow flowering member (related to mustard) of the family Brassicaceae. ... Bran is the hard outer layer of cereal grains, and consists of combined aleurone and pericarp. ... Safflower oil is an oil extracted from the safflower seed. ... Chinese Sesame Oil White sesame seeds Sesame oil (also known as gingelly oil or til oil) is an organic oil derived from sesame seedss, noted to have the distinctive aroma and taste of its parent seed. ... Soy redirects here. ... Sunflower Oil is the non-volatile oil expressed from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds. ... Walnut oil was one of the most important and vital oils of the Renaissance. ... Olive oil The following is intended to be a comprehensive list of oils that are extracted from plants. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with vegetable oil. ...

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Encyclopedia (524 words)
Pressing tree-ripened olives extracts a flavorful, monounsaturated oil that is prized throughout the world both for cooking (particularly in Mediterranean countries) and for salads.
Virgin olive oil is also a first-press oil, with a slightly higher level of acidity of between 1 and 3 percent.
Light olive oils can therefore be used for high-heat frying, whereas regular olive oil is better suited for low- to medium-heat cooking, as well as for many uncooked foods such as salad dressings and marinades.
Olive Oil, All about olive oil, Cooking with Olive Oil, Buying and Storing Olive Oil (4481 words)
Olive oil fresh from the press has a rich green color whether it be from the first or the last olives (although there is a slight varience and, keep in mind that different types of presses will also have slightly different colorations) which will tone done over time (and become, generally, more golden).
Olive oil known as "refined olice oil" is made by refining the virgin olive oil.
Oil which is obtained by treating olive pomace with solvents is refined using methods which do not lead to alterations in the initial glyceridic structure.
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