FACTOID # 11: Oklahoma has the highest rate of women in State or Federal correctional facilities.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Olive" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Olive
Olive
Olea europaea, Dead Sea, Jordan
Olea europaea, Dead Sea, Jordan
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Lamiales
Family: Oleaceae
Genus: Olea
Species: O. europaea
Binomial name
Olea europaea
L.
19th century illustration
19th century illustration

The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Syria and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea. Its fruit, the olive, is of major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of olive oil. Image File history File links Olivesfromjordan. ... The Dead Sea (Hebrew: ‎, , Sea of Salt; Arabic: , , Dead Sea) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class of flowering plants. ... Families See text The Order Lamiales is a taxon in the asterid group of dicotyledonous flowering plants. ... Genera Abeliophyllum- Chionanthus- Fringetree Comoranthus- Dimetra- Fontanesia- Forestieria- Swamp-privet Forsythia- Forsythia Fraxinus- Ash Haenianthus- Hesperelaea- Jasminum- Jasmine Ligustrum- Privet Menodora- Myxopyrum- Nestegis- Noronhia- Notelaea- Nyctanthes- Olea- Olive Osmanthus- Osmanthus Phillyrea- Mock-privet Picconia- Priogymnanthus- Schrebera- Syringa- Lilac Oleaceae, the olive family, is a plant family containing 24 extant genera... Species Olea is a genus of about 20 species in the family Oleaceae, native to warm temperate and tropical regions of southern Europe, Africa, southern Asia and Australasia. ... Latin name redirects here. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Image File history File links Koeh-229. ... Image File history File links Koeh-229. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification In biological classification, family (Latin: familia, plural familiae) is a rank, or a taxon in that rank. ... Genera Abeliophyllum- Chionanthus- Fringetree Comoranthus- Dimetra- Fontanesia- Forestieria- Swamp-privet Forsythia- Forsythia Fraxinus- Ash Haenianthus- Hesperelaea- Jasminum- Jasmine Ligustrum- Privet Menodora- Myxopyrum- Nestegis- Noronhia- Notelaea- Nyctanthes- Olea- Olive Osmanthus- Osmanthus Phillyrea- Mock-privet Picconia- Priogymnanthus- Schrebera- Syringa- Lilac Oleaceae, the olive family, is a plant family containing 24 extant genera... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ... This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer or more simplified. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... For the Popeye character, see Olive Oyl. ...

Contents

Description

The Olive is an evergreen tree or shrub native to the Mediterranean, Asia and parts of Africa. It is short and Oliver is a squat, and rarely exceeds 8–15 meters in height. The silvery green leaves are oblong in shape, measuring 4–10 cm long and 1–3 cm wide. The trunk is typically gnarled and twisted. This article is about plant types. ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The small white flowers, with four-cleft calyx and corolla, two stamens and bifid stigma, are borne generally on the last year's wood, in racemes springing from the axils of the leaves. For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Flower of the Primrose Willowherb (Ludwigia octovalvis) showing petals and sepals A sepal is one member or part of the calyx of a flower. ... It has been suggested that Corolla be merged into this article or section. ... Stamens of the Amaryllis with prominent anthers carrying pollen Insects, while collecting nectar, unintentionally transfer pollen from one flower to another, bringing about pollination The stamen (from Latin stamen meaning thread of the warp) is the male organ of a flower. ... Amaryllis style and stigmas A carpel is the outer, often visible part of the female reproductive organ of a flower; the basic unit of the gynoecium. ... This inflorescence of the terrestrial orchid Spathoglottis plicata is a typical raceme. ... The axil is the space or angle between a primary stalk or branch and a smaller branch or leaf coming off from the primary branch. ...


The fruit is a small drupe 1–2.5 cm long, thinner-fleshed and smaller in wild plants than in orchard cultivars. Olives are harvested at the green stage or left to ripen to a rich purple colour (black olive). Canned black olives may contain chemicals that turn them black artificially. For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... The peach is a typical drupe (stone fruit) In botany, a drupe is a type of fruit in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp or skin and mesocarp or flesh) surrounds a shell (the pit or stone) of hardened endocarp with a seed inside. ...


History

See also: Olive oil#History

The olive is one of the plants most cited in recorded literature. In Homer's Odyssey, Odysseus crawls beneath two shoots of olive that grow from a single stock.[1] The Roman poet, Horace mentions it in reference to his own diet, which he describes as very simple: "As for me, olives, endives, and smooth mallows provide sustenance."[2] Lord Monboddo comments on the olive in 1779 as one of the foods preferred by the ancients and as one of the most perfect foods.[3] For the Popeye character, see Olive Oyl. ... For other uses, see Odyssey (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Odysseus (disambiguation). ... For other people named Horace, see Horace (disambiguation). ... Belgian endive Endive (Chichorium intibus) is a leaf vegetable used especially in salads. ... For the confection, see marshmallow. ... James Burnett, Lord Monboddo (1714 - May 26, 1799) was a Scottish judge, scholar and eccentric. ...


The leafy branches of the olive tree, olive leaf as a symbol of abundance, glory and peace, were used to crown the victors of friendly games and bloody war. As emblems of benediction and purification, they were also ritually offered to deities and powerful figures: some were even found in Tutankhamen's tomb. Tutankhamun (alternate transcription Tutankhamen), named Tutankhaten early in his life, was Pharaoh of the Eighteenth dynasty of Egypt (1334 BC/1333 BC - 1323 BC), during the period known as the New Kingdom. ...


Old trees

Olive tree on Ithaca, Greece, that is claimed to be over 1500 years old.

Pliny the Elder told of a sacred Greek olive tree that was 1600 years old. Several trees in the Garden of Gethsemane (from the Hebrew words "gat shemanim" or olive press) in Jerusalem are claimed to date back to the time of Jesus.[4] Some Italian olive trees are believed to date back to Roman times, although identifying progenitor trees in ancient sources is difficult. For other places or objects named Ithaca, see Ithaca (disambiguation). ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... The Garden of Gethsemane. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


However, the age of an olive tree in Crete, claimed to be over 2,000 years old, has been determined on the basis of tree ring analysis.[5] Another, on the island of Brijuni (Brioni), Istria in Croatia, a well-known olive tree has been calculated to be about 1,600 years old. It still gives fruit (about 30 kg per year), which is made into top quality olive oil.[6] For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... The growth rings of an unknown tree species, at Bristol Zoo, England Pinus taeda Cross section showing annual rings, Cheraw, South Carolina Pine stump showing growth rings Dendrochronology or tree-ring dating is the method of scientific dating based on the analysis of tree-ring growth patterns. ... Brijuni, Brioni or Brioni Islands are a group of twelve small islands in the Northern Adriatic Sea, off the west coast of the Istrian peninsula in Croatia. ... Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ...


The olive tree is one of the symbols of Athena, the Greek goddess, and is frequently mentioned in the Bible, Book of Mormon, and the Qur'an. For other uses, see Athena (disambiguation). ... Greek mythology comprises the collected legends of Greek gods and goddesses and ancient heroes and heroines, originally created and spread within an oral-poetic tradition. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... // The Book of Mormon [1] is one of the sacred texts of the Latter Day Saint movement. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


A tree located in Santu Baltolu di Carana in Sardinia, Italy, named with respect as the Ozzastru by the inhabitants of the region, is claimed to be 3000 to 4000 years old according to different studies. In the same natural garden, a few other millenary trees can be admired. For the place in the United States, see Sardinia, Ohio. ...


Cultivation and uses

For more details on this topic, see olive (fruit).
An example of black olives.
An example of black olives.

The olive tree has been cultivated since ancient times as a source of olive oil, fine wood, olive leaf and olives for consumption. The naturally bitter fruit is typically subjected to fermentation or cured with lye or brine to make it more palatable. This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer or more simplified. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x681, 268 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Olive Olive (fruit) User:Gphoto/Gallery Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/Bowl of olives Wikipedia:Featured pictures candidates/November... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x681, 268 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Olive Olive (fruit) User:Gphoto/Gallery Wikipedia:Featured picture candidates/Bowl of olives Wikipedia:Featured pictures candidates/November... For the Popeye character, see Olive Oyl. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... Lye is a caustic solution used for glass and soap making. ... For the sports equipment manufacturer, see Brine, Corp. ...


Green olives and black olives are washed thoroughly in water to remove oleuropein, a bitter carbohydrate. Sometimes they are also soaked in a solution of food grade sodium hydroxide in order to accelerate the process. Oleuropein is a chemical compound found in the leaves of the olive tree together with other closely related compounds such as 10-hydroxyoleuropein, ligstroside, and 10-hydroxyligstroside. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature)[1] sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ...


Green olives are allowed to ferment before being packed in a brine solution. American black ("California") olives are not fermented, which is why they taste milder than green olives.


It is not known when olives were first cultivated for harvest. Among the earliest evidence for the domestication of olives comes from the Chalcolithic Period archaeological site of Teleilat Ghassul in what is today modern Jordan. The Chalcolithic (Greek khalkos + lithos copper stone) period or Copper Age period (also known as the Eneolithic (Aeneolithic)), is a phase in the development of human culture in which the use of early metal tools appeared alongside the use of stone tools. ...


The plant and its products are frequently referred to in the Bible, the Book of Mormon, the Qur'an, and by the earliest recorded poets. Farmers in ancient times believed olive trees would not grow well if planted more than a short distance from the sea; Theophrastus gives 300 stadia (55.6 km) as the limit. Modern experience does not always confirm this, and, though showing a preference for the coast, it has long been grown further inland in some areas with suitable climates, particularly in the southwestern Mediterranean (Iberia, northwest Africa) where winters are milder. For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... // The Book of Mormon [1] is one of the sacred texts of the Latter Day Saint movement. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... This article is about the art form. ... Theophrastus (Greek Θεόφραστος, 370 — about 285 BC), a native of Eressos in Lesbos, was the successor of Aristotle in the Peripatetic school. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...

Olive plantation in Andalucia, Spain.
Olive plantation in Andalucia, Spain.

Olives are now cultivated in many regions of the world with Mediterranean climate, such as South Africa, Chile, Australia, New Zealand, Mediterranean Basin, Israel, Palestinian Territories and California. Considerable research has been accumulated supporting the health benefits of consuming olives, olive leaf and olive oil (see external links below for research results). Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 465 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 581 pixel, file size: 171 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This version has been released by me to Wikimedia under the GNU Free Documentation License v1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 465 pixelsFull resolution (1000 × 581 pixel, file size: 171 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This version has been released by me to Wikimedia under the GNU Free Documentation License v1. ...  Areas with Mediterranean climate A Mediterranean climate is a climate that resembles the climate of the lands in the Mediterranean Basin. ... The Mediterranean Basin refers to the lands around and surrounded by the Mediterranean Sea. ... This article is about the Palestinian territories as a geopolitical phenomenon. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


The olive tree provides leaves, fruit and oil. Olive leaves are used in medicinal teas.


Subspecies

There are at least five natural subspecies distributed over a wide range:

  • Olea europaea subsp. europaea (Europes)
  • Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata (from Eritrea and Ethiopia south throughout East Africa, also in Iran to China)
  • Olea europaea subsp. guanchica (Canaries)
  • Olea europaea subsp. maroccana (Morocco)
  • Olea europaea subsp. laperrinei (Algeria, Sudan, Niger)

Cultivars

Small Olive Tree
Small Olive Tree
Large Olive Tree
Large Olive Tree
Olive Tree Leaves
Olive Tree Leaves
Olive Tree Trunk
Olive Tree Trunk
Olive Flowers
Olive Flowers
A young olive plant, germinated from a seed
A young olive plant, germinated from a seed
Monumental tree in Apulia Region - Southern Italy
Monumental tree in Apulia Region - Southern Italy

There are thousands of cultivars of the olive. In Italy alone at least three hundred cultivars have been enumerated, but only a few are grown to a large extent. The main Italian cultivars are 'Leccino', 'Frantoio' and 'Carolea'. None of these can be safely identified with ancient descriptions, though it is not unlikely that some of the narrow-leaved cultivars most esteemed may be descendants of the Licinian olive. The Iberian olives are usually cured and eaten, often after being pitted, stuffed (with pickled pimento, onion, or other garnishes) and jarred in fresh brine. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 722 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1083 × 899 pixel, file size: 226 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo taken by myself, Nate Lewis, in Madrid Aug 2004 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 722 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1083 × 899 pixel, file size: 226 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo taken by myself, Nate Lewis, in Madrid Aug 2004 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2065x1472, 1415 KB) Summary Several centuries year old olive tree at the Esporão estate in Reguengos de Monsaraz - Alentejo - Portugal Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Olive oil Olive User:João Correia/gallery Metadata This... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2065x1472, 1415 KB) Summary Several centuries year old olive tree at the Esporão estate in Reguengos de Monsaraz - Alentejo - Portugal Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Olive oil Olive User:João Correia/gallery Metadata This... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 239 KB)Olive tree leafs, front and back sides. ... Download high resolution version (1024x768, 239 KB)Olive tree leafs, front and back sides. ... Download high resolution version (768x1024, 400 KB)Olive tree trunk. ... Download high resolution version (768x1024, 400 KB)Olive tree trunk. ... Download high resolution version (1632x1232, 788 KB)Olive Blossoms outside Jerusalem File links The following pages link to this file: Olive ... Download high resolution version (1632x1232, 788 KB)Olive Blossoms outside Jerusalem File links The following pages link to this file: Olive ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (951x1290, 301 KB) Summary Young olive (Olea europaea) plant, that germinated from a seed. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (951x1290, 301 KB) Summary Young olive (Olea europaea) plant, that germinated from a seed. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 1685 KB)Source: Archive of www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 1685 KB)Source: Archive of www. ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... Pimento is sometimes a synonym for Allspice. ... For other uses, see Onion (disambiguation). ...


Since many cultivars are self sterile or nearly so, they are generally planted in pairs with a single primary cultivar and a secondary cultivar selected for its ability to fertilize the primary one, for example, 'Frantoio' and 'Leccino'. In recent times, efforts have been directed at producing hybrid cultivars with qualities such as resistance to disease, quick growth and larger or more consistent crops.


Some particularly important cultivars of olive include:

  • 'Manzanillo', a large, rounded-oval fruit, with purple-green skin. Rich taste and thick pulp. A prolific bearer, grown around the world.
  • 'Frantoio' and 'Leccino'. These cultivars are the principal participants in Italian olive oils from Tuscany. Leccino has a mild sweet flavour while Frantoio is fruity with a stronger aftertaste. Due to their highly valued flavour, these cultivars have been migrated and are now grown in other countries.
  • 'Arbequina' is a small, brown olive grown in Catalonia, Spain. As well as being used as a table olive, its oil is highly valued.
  • 'Empeltre' is a medium sized, black olive grown in Spain. They are used both as a table olive and to produce a high quality olive oil.
  • 'Kalamata' is a large, black olive, named after the city of Kalamata, Greece, used as a table olive. These olives are of a smooth and meatlike taste.
  • 'Koroneiki' originates from the southern Peloponese, around Kalamata and Mani in Greece. This small olive, though difficult to cultivate, has a high oil yield and produces olive oil of exceptional quality.
  • 'Pecholine' or 'picholine' originated in the south of France. It is green, medium size, and elongated. Their flavour is mild and nutty.
  • 'Lucques' originated in the south of France (Aude département). They are green, of a large size, and elongated. The stone has an arcuated shape. Their flavour is mild and nutty.
  • 'Souri' (Syrian) originated in Lebanon and is widespread in the Levant. It has a high oil yield and exceptionally aromatic flavour.
  • 'Nabali' is a Palestinian cultivar[7] also known locally as 'Baladi', which along with 'Souri' and 'Malissi' are considered to produce among the highest quality olive oil in the world.[8]
  • 'Barnea' is a modern cultivar bred in Israel to be disease resistant and to produce a generous crop. It is used both for oil and for table olives. The oil has a strong flavour with a hint of green leaf. Barnea is widely grown in Israel and in the southern hemisphere, particularly in Australia and New Zealand.
  • 'Maalot'(Hebrew for merits) is another modern Israeli, disease-resistant, Eastern Mediterranean cultivar derived from the North African 'Chemlali' cultivar. The olive is medium sized, round, has a fruity flavour and is used almost exclusively for oil production.
  • 'Mission' originated on the California Missions and is now grown throughout the state. They are black and generally used for table consumption.

Arbequina olives are a small, brown olive grown in Catalonia, Spain. ... This article is about the Spanish Autonomous Community. ... Kalamata (Greek, Modern: Καλαμάτα, Ancient/Katharevousa: -ai), older forms: Kalamai is a city in southern Greece, on the Peloponnesos, by the Mediterranean. ... Greece and the Peloponnese The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Greek: Πελοπόννησος Peloponnesos) is a large peninsula in southern Greece, forming the part of the country south of the Gulf of Corinth. ... Kalamata (Greek, Modern: Καλαμάτα, Ancient/Katharevousa: -ai), older forms: Kalamai is a city in southern Greece, on the Peloponnesos, by the Mediterranean. ... Map of Greece highlighting the Mani peninsula. ... For the Popeye character, see Olive Oyl. ... Aude (Occitan: Aude) is a department in south-central France named after the Aude River. ... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... For other uses of Palestinian, see Definitions of Palestine and Palestinian. ...

Growth and propagation

Olive trees show a marked preference for calcareous soils, flourishing best on limestone slopes and crags, and coastal climate conditions. They tolerate drought well, thanks to their sturdy and extensive root system. Olive trees can be exceptionally long-lived, up to several centuries, and can remain productive for as long, provided they are pruned correctly and regularly. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Loess field in Germany Surface-water-gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland For the American hard rock band, see SOiL. For the System of a Down song, see Soil (song). ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ...


The olive tree grows very slowly, but over many years the trunk can attain a considerable diameter. A. P. de Candolle recorded one exceeding 10 m in girth. The trees rarely exceed 15 m in height, and are generally confined to much more limited dimensions by frequent pruning. The yellow or light greenish-brown wood is often finely veined with a darker tint; being very hard and close-grained, it is valued by woodworkers. A. P. de Candolle A. P. de Candolle (February 4, 1778 - September 9, 1841) was one of the great botanists of all time. ...


The olive is propagated in various ways, but cuttings or layers are generally preferred; the tree roots easily in favourable soil and throws up suckers from the stump when cut down. However, yields from trees grown from suckers or seeds are poor; it must be budded or grafted onto other specimens to do well (Lewington and Parker, 114). Branches of various thickness are cut into lengths of about 1 m and, planted deeply in manured ground, soon vegetate; shorter pieces are sometimes laid horizontally in shallow trenches, when, covered with a few centimetres of soil, they rapidly throw up sucker-like shoots. In Greece, grafting the cultivated tree on the wild form is a common practice. In Italy, embryonic buds, which form small swellings on the stems, are carefully excised and planted beneath the surface, where they grow readily, their buds soon forming a vigorous shoot. High magnification view of a budding yeast Budding is the formation of a new organism by the protrusion of part of another organism. ... Grafted apple tree Malus sp. ... Animal manure is often a mixture of animals feces and bedding straw, as in this example from a stable. ...


Occasionally the larger boughs are marched, and young trees thus soon obtained. The olive is also sometimes raised from seed, the oily pericarp being first softened by slight rotting, or soaking in hot water or in an alkaline solution, to facilitate germination. The common (Arrhenius) definition of a base is a chemical compound that either donates hydroxide ions or absorbs hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. ... Not to be confused with Gemination in phonetics. ...


Where the olive is carefully cultivated, as in Languedoc and Provence, the trees are regularly pruned. The pruning preserves the flower-bearing shoots of the preceding year, while keeping the tree low enough to allow the easy gathering of the fruit. The spaces between the trees are regularly fertilized. The crop from old trees is sometimes enormous, but they seldom bear well two years in succession, and in many instances a large harvest can only be reckoned upon every sixth or seventh season. For the language called Langue doc, see Occitan language. ... Coat of arms of Provence Provence (Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) was a Roman province and now is a region of southeastern France on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Italy. ...


A calcareous soil, however dry or poor, seems best adapted to its healthy development, though the tree will grow in any light soil, and even on clay if well drained; but, as remarked by Pliny, the plant is more liable to disease on rich soils, and the oil is inferior to the produce of the poorer and more rocky ground. Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ...


In general, a temperature below 14 °F (-10 °C) may cause considerable injury to a mature tree, but (with the exception of juvenile trees) a temperature of 16 °F (-9 °C) will normally cause no harm.


Fruit harvest and processing

Most olives today are harvested by shaking the boughs or the whole tree. Another method involves standing on a ladder and "milking" the olives into a sack tied around the harvester's waist. Using olives found lying on the ground can result in poor quality oil. In southern Europe the olive harvest is in the winter months, continuing for several weeks, but the time varies in each country, and also with the season and the kinds cultivated. A device called the oli-net wraps around the trunk of the tree and opens to form an umbrella like catcher to catch fruit that is picked. Workers can then harvest the fruit without the weight of the load around their neck. Another device, the oliviera, is an electronic tool that connects to a battery. The oliviera has large tongs that are spun around quickly, removing fruit from the tree. This method is used for olive oil variety olives. Table olive varieties are more difficult to harvest, as workers must take caution not to damage the fruit in any way. Picking baskets that hang around the worker's neck are used.


The amount of oil contained in the fruit differs greatly in the various cultivars; the pericarp is usually 60–70% oil. Typical yields are 1.5-2.2 kg of oil per tree per year.[9] Species Elaeis guineensis Elaeis oleifera The oil palms (Elaeis) coomprise two species of the Arecaceae, or palm family. ...


Traditional fermentation

Olives freshly picked from the tree contain phenolic compounds and a unique glycoside, oleuropein, which makes the fruit unpalatable for immediate consumption. There are many ways of processing olives for table use. Traditional methods use the natural microflora on the fruit and procedures which select for those that bring about fermentation of the fruit. This fermentation leads to three important outcomes: the leaching out and breakdown of oleuropein and phenolic compounds; the creation of lactic acid, which is a natural preservative; and a complex of flavoursome fermentation products. The result is a product which will store with or without refrigeration. Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... For the production of milk by mammals, see Lactation. ...


One basic fermentation method is to get food grade containers, which may include plastic containers from companies which trade in olives and preserved vine leaves. Many bakeries also recycle food grade plastic containers which are well sized for olive fermentation; they are 10 to 20 litres in capacity. Freshly picked olives are often sold at markets in 10 kg trays. Olives should be selected for their firmness if green and general good condition. Olives can be used green, ripe green (which is a yellower shade of green, or green with hints of color), through to full purple black ripeness. The olives are soaked in water to wash them, and drained. 7 litres (which is 7 kg) of room temperature water is added to the fermentation container, and 800 g of sea salt, and one cup (300g) of white vinegar (white wine or cider vinegar). The salt is dissolved to create a 10% solution (the 800 g of salt is in an 8 kg mixture of salt and water and vinegar). Each olive is given a single deep slit with a small knife (if small), or up to three slits per fruit (if large, eg 60 fruit per kg). If 10 kg of olives are added to the 10% salt solution, the ultimate salinity after some weeks will be around 5 to 6% once the water in the olives moves into solution and the salt moves into the olives. The olives are weighed down with an inert object such as a plate so they are fully immersed and lightly sealed in their container. The light sealing is to allow the gases of fermentation to escape. It is also possible to make a plastic bag partially filled with water, and lay this over the top as a venting lid which also provides a good seal. The exclusion of oxygen is useful but not as critical as when grapes are fermented to produce wine. The olives can be tasted at any time as the bitter compounds are not poisonous, and oleuropein is a useful antioxidant in the human diet. Space-filling model of the antioxidant metabolite glutathione. ...


The olives are edible within 2 weeks to a month, but can be left to cure for up to three months. Green olives will usually be firmer in texture after curing than black olives. Olives can be flavored by soaking them in various marinades, or removing the pit and stuffing them. Herbs, spices, olive oil, feta, capsicum (pimento), chili, lemon zest, lemon juice, garlic cloves, wine, vinegar, juniper berries, and anchovies are popular flavorings. Sometimes the olives are lightly cracked with a hammer or a stone to trigger fermentation. This method of curing adds a slightly bitter taste.


Pests and diseases

A fungus Cycloconium oleaginum can infect the trees for several successive seasons, causing great damage to plantations. A species of bacterium, Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. oleae[10] induces tumour growth in the shoots, and certain lepidopterous caterpillars feed on the leaves and flowers, while the main damage is made by the olive-fly attacks to the fruit. In France and north-central Italy olives suffer occasionally from frost. Gales and long-continued rains during the gathering season also cause damage. Another pest which spreads through olive trees is the black scale bug. Black scale is a small black beetle that resembles a small black spot. They attach themselves firmly to olive trees and reduce the quality of the fruit. The main predator of black scale is wasps. For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Binomial name Pseudomonas savastanoi (Janse 1982) Gardan, 1992 Pseudomonas savastanoi (synonym Pseudomonas syringae ssp. ... For other uses, see Beetle (disambiguation). ... Families See text. ...


Economy

Olive output in 2005
Olive output in 2005

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of olive output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Spain - 3,919,800 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 58 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of olive output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (Spain - 3,919,800 tonnes). ...

Production

Olive is the most extensively cultivated fruit crop in the world.[11] Its cultivation areas has tripled in the past 44 years, passing from 2.6 to 8.5 million of hectares.


The first ten countries of production, as per FAO, all located in the Mediterranean region, represent together 95% of the world production of olives.

Main countries of production (Year 2003)
Rank Country/Region Production
(in tons)
Cultivated area
(in hectares)
Yield
(q/Ha)
World 17,317,089 8,597,064 20.1
1 Spain 6,160,100 2,400,000 25.7
2 Italy 3,149,830 1,140,685 27.6
3 Greece 2,400,000 765,000 31.4
4 Turkey 1,800,000 594,000 30.3
5 Syria 998,988 498,981 20.0
6 Tunisia 500,000 1,500,000 3.3
7 Morocco 470,000 550,000 8.5
8 Egypt 318,339 49,888 63.8
9 Algeria 300,000 178,000 16.9
10 Portugal 280,000 430,000 6.5
11 Lebanon 180,000 230,000 4.5

Look up ton in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A hectare (symbol ha) is a unit of area, equal to 10 000 square metres, commonly used for measuring land area. ...

Olive as an invasive weed

Since its first domestication, Olea europaea has been spreading back to the wild from planted groves. Its original wild populations in southern Europe have been largely swamped by feral plants.[12]


In some other parts of the world where it has been introduced, most notably South Australia, the Olive has become a major woody weed that displaces native vegetation. Its seeds are spread by the introduced Red Fox and by many bird species including the European Starling and the native Emu into woodlands where they germinate and eventually form a dense canopy that prevents regeneration of native trees.[13] For the song, see South Australia (song). ... Yellow starthistle, a thistle native to southern Europe and the Middle East that is an invasive weed in parts of North America. ... For other uses, see Red Fox (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Sturnus vulgaris Linnaeus, 1758 The European Starling or Common Starling, Sturnus vulgaris, is a passerine bird in the family Sturnidae. ... For other uses, see EMU. Binomial name (Latham, 1790) The Emu has been recorded in the areas shown in orange. ...


References

  1. ^ Homer, "Odyssey, book 5", ca 800BC
  2. ^ "Me pascunt olivae, me cichorea levesque malvae." Horace, Odes 1.31.15, ca 30 BC
  3. ^ Letter from Lord Monboddo to John Hope, 29 April, 1779; reprinted by William Knight 1900 ISBN 1-85506-207-0
  4. ^ Lewington, A., & Parker, E. (1999) Ancient Trees., pp 110–113, London: Collins & Brown Ltd. ISBN 1-85585-704-9
  5. ^ O. Rackham, J. Moody, The Making of the Cretan Landscape, 1996, cited in F. R. Riley (2002). Olive Oil Production on Bronze Age Crete: Nutritional properties, Processing methods, and Storage life of Minoan olive oil. Oxford Journal of Archaeology 21 (1): 63–75
  6. ^ Old Olive Tree. Brijuni National Park. Retrieved on 2007-03-10.
  7. ^ Belaj et al. (September 2002). "Genetic diversity and relationships in olive (Olea europaea L.) germplasm collections as determined by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA". 'TAG Theoretical and Applied Genetics' Volume 105, Number 4. Springer Berlin / Heidelberg. Retrieved on 2007-08-31. 
  8. ^ PFTA & Canaan Fair Trading. A Brief Study of Olives and Olive Oil in Palestine. Zatoun. Retrieved on 2007-08-31.
  9. ^ Riley, op.cit.
  10. ^ Janse, J. D. 1982. Pseudomonas syringae subsp. savastanoi (ex Smith) subsp. nov., nom. rev., the bacterium causing excrescences on Oleaceae and Nerium oleander L. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 32:166–169.
  11. ^ FAO, 2004
  12. ^ Lumaret, R. & Ouazzani, N. (2001) Ancient wild olives in Mediterranean forests. Nature 413: 700
  13. ^ Dirk HR Spennemann & Allen, L.R. (2000) Feral olives (Olea europaea) as future woody weeds in Australia: a review. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 40: 889–901.

James Burnett, Lord Monboddo (1714 - May 26, 1799) was a Scottish judge, scholar and eccentric. ... The Brijuni islands, also known as the Brioni, are a group of twelve small islands in the northern part of the Adriatic Sea, off the west coast of the peninsula of Istria, Croatia, from which they are separated by the narrow Fažana Strait (Canale di Fasana). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dirk HR Spennemann Dr. Dirk HR Spennemann is Associate Professor in Cultural Heritage Management at the School of Environmental Sciences, Charles Sturt University in Albury, Australia. ...

See also

This entry incorporates text from Eastons Bible Dictionary, 1897, with some modernisation. ... This article or section may be confusing for some readers, and should be edited to be clearer or more simplified. ... Phytochemicals are sometimes referred to as phytonutrients and these terms are often used interchangeably. ... Molecular structure of flavone, a common Polyphenol antioxidant Polyphenol antioxidant is a class of multi-phenolic compounds known for their role of down-regulating free radical formation in mammals . ...

External links

Look up olive in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Olive


Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
OLIVE Fruit Facts (1821 words)
Olives can also be grown in a large container, and has even appeared in shows as a bonsai.
Because the olive has fewer natural enemies than other crops, and because the oil in olives retains the odor of chemical treatments, the olive is one of the least sprayed crops.
A common method is the lye-cure process in which green or near-ripe olives are soaked in a series of lye solutions for a period of time to remove the bitter principle and then transferred to water and finally a mild saline solution.
Olive - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1590 words)
The Olive (Olea europaea) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Syria and the maritime parts of Asia Minor and northern Iran at the south end of the Caspian Sea.
The Olive has been used since ancient times for the making of olive oil and for eating of the fruit, which, being bitter in its natural state, are typically subjected to fermentation or cured with lye or brine to be made more palatable.
The olive is also sometimes raised from seed, the oily pericarp being first softened by slight rotting, or soaking in hot water or in an alkaline solution, to facilitate germination.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m