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Encyclopedia > Olivary body
Brain: Olivary body
The medulla, showing the olivary bodies lying adjacent to the pyramids.
Transverse section of medulla oblongata below the middle of the olive.
Latin oliva
Gray's subject #187 781
Part of
Components
Artery
Vein
Acronym(s) {{{Acronym}}}
NeuroNames -
MeSH A08.186.211.132.810.406.574
Dorlands/Elsevier {{{DorlandsPre}}}/{{{DorlandsSuf}}}

In anatomy, the olivary bodies or simply olives (Latin oliva and olivae, singular and plural, respectively) are a pair of prominent oval structures in the medulla oblongata, the lower portion of the brainstem. They contain the olivary nuclei. Image File history File links Gray679. ... Image File history File links Gray695. ... Position of medulla oblangata in the human brain The medulla oblongata is the lower portion of the brainstem. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... NeuroNames is a system of nomenclature for the brain and related structures. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo Elsevier, the worlds largest publisher of medical and scientific literature, forms part of the Reed Elsevier group. ... Anatomical drawing of the human muscles from the Encyclopédie. ... Position of medulla oblangata in the human brain The medulla oblongata is the lower portion of the brainstem. ... The brain stem is the stalk of the brain below the cerebral hemispheres. ...

Contents


External anatomy

The olivary body is located on the anterior surface of the medulla lateral to the pyramid, from which it is separated by the antero-lateral sulcus and the fibers of the hypoglossal nerve. The hypoglossal nerve is the twelfth cranial nerve. ...


Behind, it is separated from the postero-lateral sulcus by the ventral spinocerebellar fasciculus. In the depression between the upper end of the olive and the pons lies the vestibulocochlear nerve. Position of the pons in the human brain The pons (sometimes pons Varolii after Costanzo Varolio) is a knob on the brain stem. ... The vestibulocochlear nerve is the eighth of twelve cranial nerves and also known as the auditory nerve. ...


It measures about 1.25 cm. in length, and between its upper end and the pons there is a slight depression to which the roots of the facial nerve are attached. The facial nerve is seventh of twelve paired cranial nerves. ...


The external arcuate fibers wind across the lower part of the pyramid and olive and enter the inferior peduncle.


Olivary nuclei

The olivary nuclei consist of the inferior olivary nucleus, the dorsal and medial accessory olivary nuclei, and the superior olivary nucleus.


Inferior olivary nucleus

The inferior olivary nucleus is the largest, and is situated within the olive.


It consists of a gray folded lamina arranged in the form of an incomplete capsule, opening medially by an aperture called the hilum. Anatomic nomenclature for a depression or pit at the part of an organ where vessels and nerves enter. ...


Emerging from the hilum are numerous fibers which collectively constitute the peduncle of the olive. The axons, also known as olivocerebellar fibers, leave the olivary nucleus, exit through the hilum, and decussate with those from the opposite olive in the raphé.


Then, as internal arcuate fibers they pass partly through and partly around the opposite olive and enter the inferior peduncle to be distributed to the cerebellar hemisphere of the opposite side from which they arise. The term peduncle has several meanings: In botany, a Peduncle (botany) is a flower stalk, or stem. ...


The fibers are smaller than the internal arcuate fibers connected with the median lemniscus. Fibers passing in the opposite direction from the cerebellum to the olivary nucleus are often described but their existence is doubtful. Figure 1a: A human brain, with the cerebellum in purple. ...


Much uncertainty also exists in regard to the connections of the olive and the spinal cord. Cross-section through cervical spinal cord. ...


Important connections between the cerebrum and the olive of the same side exist but the exact pathway is unknown. The telencephalon (te-len-seff-a-lon) is the technical name for a large region within the brain which is attributed many functions, which some groups would class as unique features which make humans stand out from other species. ...


Many collaterals from the reticular formation and from the pyramids enter the inferior olivary nucleus.


Removal of one cerebellar hemisphere is followed by atrophy of the opposite olivary nucleus.


Accessory olivary nuclei

The medial accessory olivary nucleus lies between the inferior olivary nucleus and the pyramid, and forms a curved lamina, the concavity of which is directed laterally. The fibers of the hypoglossal nerve, as they traverse the medulla, pass between the medial accessory and the inferior olivary nuclei. This article is about the leaf, a plant organ. ...


The dorsal accessory olivary nucleus is the smallest, and appears on transverse section as a curved lamina behind the inferior olivary nucleus.


Superior olivary nucleus

The superior olivary nucleus is considered part of the pons, and is therefore discussed in a separate article. // Anatomy The superior olivary nucleus (or superior olive) is a small mass of gray substance situated on the dorsal surface of the lateral part of the trapezoid body. ... Position of the pons in the human brain The pons (sometimes pons Varolii after Costanzo Varolio) is a knob on the brain stem. ...


External links

This article was originally based on an entry from a public domain edition of Gray's Anatomy. As such, some of the information contained herein may be outdated. Please edit the article if this is the case, and feel free to remove this notice when it is no longer relevant. An illustration from the 1918 edition Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body, commonly known as Grays Anatomy, is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ... NeuroNames is a system of nomenclature for the brain and related structures. ... The University of California, Davis, commonly known as UC Davis, is one of the ten University of California campuses. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... An illustration from the 1918 edition Henry Grays Anatomy of the Human Body, commonly known as Grays Anatomy, is an anatomy textbook widely regarded as a classic work on human anatomy. ...

Rhombencephalon (hindbrain)

MYELENCEPHALON/MEDULLA: arcuate nucleus of medulla, solitary nucleus, hypoglossal nucleus, nucleus ambiguus, olivary body, cuneate nucleus, accessory cuneate nucleus, gracile nucleus, inferior salivatory nucleus, nucleus raphe obscurus, nucleus raphe magnus, nucleus raphe pallidus Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The myelencephalon is a developmental categorization of a portion of the central nervous system. ... Position of medulla oblangata in the human brain The medulla oblongata is the lower portion of the brainstem. ... Grays Fig. ... The solitary nucleus and tract are structures in the brainstem that carry and receive visceral sensation and taste from the facial (VII), glossopharyngeal (IX), vagus (X) cranial nerves, as well as the cranial part of the accessory nerve (XI). ... The hypoglossal nucleus extends the length of the medulla, and being a motor nucleus, is close to the midline. ... The nucleus ambiguus (literally ambiguous nucleus) is a region of histologically disperse cells located just dorsal (posterior) to the inferior olivary nucleus in the lateral portion of the upper (rostral) medulla. ... Cuneate nucleus is a wedge-shaped nucleus in the medulla. ... The accessory cuneate nucleus is located lateral to the cuneate nucleus in the medulla oblongata at the level of the sensory decussation (the crossing fibers of the posterior column/medial lemniscus tract). ... The swelling on the fasciculus gracilis is named the clava, and is produced by a subjacent nucleus of gray matter, the nucleus gracilis. ... The inferior salivatory nucleus is one of the components of the glossopharyngeal nerve, which stimulates secretion from the parotid gland. ... The nucleus raphe obscurus, despite the implications of its name, has some very specific functions and connections of afferent and efferent nature. ... The nucleus raphe magnus, located directly rostral to the raphe obscurus, is afferently stimulated from axons in the spinal cord and cerebellum. ... The nucleus raphe pallidus receives afferent connections from the periaqueductal gray, the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus, central nucleus of the amygdala, lateral hypothalamic area, and parvocellular reticular nucleus. ...


METENCEPHALON/CEREBELLUM: cerebellar vermis, flocculus, arbor vitae The metencephalon is a developmental categorization of portions of the central nervous system. ... Figure 1a: A human brain, with the cerebellum in purple. ... Part of the structure of animal brains, the cerebellar vermis is a narrow, wormlike structure between the hemispheres of the cerebellum. ... The flocculus is a small lobe of the cerebellum at the posterior border of the middle cerebellar peduncle anterior to the biventer lobule; it is associated with the nodulus of the vermis; together, these two structures compose the vestibular part of the cerebellum. ... The arbor vitae (Latin for Tree of Life) is the cerebellar white matter, so called for its branched, tree-like appearance. ...


METENCEPHALON/PONS: pontine tegmentum, superior salivary nucleus, trapezoid body, pontine nuclei (superior olivary nucleus, trigeminal nerve nuclei, abducens nucleus, facial nucleus, cochlear nuclei, vestibular nuclei), locus ceruleus, paramedian pontine reticular formation, nucleus centralis superior The metencephalon is a developmental categorization of portions of the central nervous system. ... Position of the pons in the human brain The pons (sometimes pons Varolii after Costanzo Varolio) is a knob on the brain stem. ... The pontine tegmentum is a part of the pons of the brain involved in the initiation of REM sleep. ... The Superior salivary nucleus (or superior salivatory nucleus) of the facial nerve is a visceromotor cranial nerve nucleus located in the pontine tegmentum. ... The trapezoid body is part of the acoustic pathway. ... The pontine nuclei are a part of the pons which store the memory of intention during motor activity. ... // Anatomy The superior olivary nucleus (or superior olive) is a small mass of gray substance situated on the dorsal surface of the lateral part of the trapezoid body. ... The sensory trigeminal nerve nucleus is the largest of the cranial nerve nuclei, and extends through the whole of the brainstem, midbrain to medulla. ... The abducens nucleus is the originating nucleus from which the abducens nerve emerges - a cranial nerve nucleus. ... The cranial nerve motor nucleus of the facial nerve is located in the lower pons. ... The cochlear nuclei consist of: (a) the lateral cochlear nucleus, corresponding to the tuberculum acusticum on the dorso-lateral surface of the inferior peduncle; and (b) the ventral or accessory cochlear nucleus, placed between the two divisions of the nerve, on the ventral aspect of the inferior peduncle. ... The nuclei of the vestibular nerve. ... The Locus ceruleus, also spelled locus caeruleus or locus coeruleus (Latin for the blue spot), is a nucleus in the brain stem responsible for physiological responses to stress and panic. ... The paramedian pontine reticular formation, or PPRF, is a brain region, without clearly defined borders, in the center of the pons. ... The nucleus centralis superior is composed of polygonal, fusiform and pyriform neurons and exists rostral to the nucleus raphe pontis. ...


FOURTH VENTRICLE: obex, median aperture The fourth ventricle is one of the four connected fluid-filled cavities within the human brain. ... IrOBEX (or just OBEX) is a communications protocol that facilitates the exchange of binary objects between devices. ... The Median Aperture of the brain (apertura medialis ventriculi quarte) or Foramen of Magendie is an opening in the hollow nerve tube, connecting the 4th ventricle of the brain with the subarachnoid space The median aperture along with the paired lateral apertures (foramina of Luschka) are the primary routes for...


  Results from FactBites:
 
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Olivary body (2099 words)
In anatomy, the olivary bodies or simply olives (Latin oliva and olivae, singular and plural, respectively) are a pair of prominent oval structures in the medulla oblongata, the lower portion of the brainstem.
The olivary body is located on the anterior surface of the medulla lateral to the pyramid, from which it is separated by the antero-lateral sulcus and the fibers of the hypoglossal nerve.
The olive (oliva; olivary body) is situated lateral to the pyramid, from which it is separated by the antero-lateral sulcus, and the fibers of the hypoglossal nerve.
Early American Manual Therapy (1880 words)
Brachium, Inferior—From the inferior colliculus to the medial geniculate body; from the acustic nuclei to the medial geniculate body.
Olfactory Tract (or fasciculus)—From the lentiform nucleus to the olivary body.
Restiform Body (inferior cerebellar peduncle)—From the nucleus cuneatus, nucleus gracilis, dorsal nucleus of the cord, and related nuclei, to the cerebellar cortex, chiefly of the superior vermis.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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