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Encyclopedia > Oligosaccharide

An oligosaccharide is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to six) of component sugars, also known as simple sugars. They are generally found either O- or N-linked to compatible amino acid side chains in proteins or to lipid moieties. an essential structural component of living cells and source of energy for animals; includes simple sugars with small molecules as well as macromolecular substances; are classified according to the number of monosaccharide groups they contain. ... This article needs cleanup. ... The general structure of an amino acid molecule, with the amine group on the left and the carboxyl group on the right. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Lipids are a class of hydrocarbon-containing organic compounds. ...


Fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) and inulin, which are found in many vegetables, consist of short chains of fructose molecules. Inulin has a much higher degree of polymerization than FOS. Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), which also occur naturally, consist of short chains of galactose molecules. These compounds can be only partially digested by humans. Fructooligosaccharide (FOS) also sometimes called oligofructose, is used as an artificial or alternative sweetener. ... Inulins are a group of naturally occurring oligosaccharides (several simple sugars linked together) produced by many types of plants. ... Fructose (or levulose) is a simple sugar (monosaccharide) found in many foods and is one of the three most important blood sugars along with glucose and galactose. ... The degree of polymerization, or DP, is the number of repeat units in an average polymer chain at time t in a polymerization reaction. ... Galactose (also called brain sugar) is a type of sugar found in dairy products, in sugar beets and other gums and mucilages. ...


Oligosaccharides are often found as a component of glycoproteins or glycolipids and as such are often used as chemical markers, often for cell recognition. An example is ABO blood type specificity. A and B blood types have two different oligosaccharide glycolipids embedded in the cell membranes of the red blood cells, AB-type blood has both, while O blood type has neither. A glycoprotein is a macromolecule composed of a protein and a carbohydrate (a sugar). ... Glycolipids are carbohydrate-attached lipids. ... Blood type is determined, in part, by the ABO blood group antigens present on red blood cells A total of 29 human blood group systems are recognized by the International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT). ... Drawing of a cell membrane A component of every biological cell, the cell membrane (or plasma membrane) is a thin and structured bilayer of phospholipid and protein molecules that encapsulate the cell. ...


Mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) are widely used in animal feed to encourage gastrointetinal health and performance. They are normally obtained from the yeast cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Some brand names are: Bio-Mos, SAF-Mannan, Y-MOS and Celmanax. In agriculture, fodder or animal feed is any foodstuff that is used specifically to feed livestock, such as cattle, sheep, chickens and pigs. ... Binomial name Saccharomyces cerevisiae Meyen ex E.C. Hansen Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ...


Therapeutic effects

When oligosaccharides are consumed, the undigested portion serves as food for “friendly” bacteria, such as Bifidobacteria and Lactobacillus species. A bacterial group (and probiotic) that is perceived to exert health-promoting properties within humans, specifically the colon. ... Species L. acidophilus L. bulgaricus L. casei L. plantarum L. reuterietc. ...


Clinical studies have shown that administering FOS, GOS, or inulin can increase the number of these friendly bacteria in the colon while simultaneously reducing the population of harmful bacteria.[citation needed] Subgroups Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are microscopic, unicellular organisms. ...


Other benefits noted with FOS, GOS, or inulin supplementation include increased production of beneficial short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate, increased absorption of calcium and magnesium, and improved elimination of toxic compounds.[citation needed] General Name, Symbol, Number calcium, Ca, 20 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 4, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 40. ... General Name, Symbol, Number magnesium, Mg, 12 Chemical series alkaline earth metals Group, Period, Block 2, 3, s Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 24. ...


Because FOS, GOS, and inulin improve colon function and increase the number of friendly bacteria, one might expect these compounds would help relieve the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome. However, a double-blind trial found no clear benefit with FOS supplementation (2 grams three times daily) in patients with this condition.[citation needed] Colon has several meanings: colon (anatomy) colon (punctuation) colon (rhetoric) See also Colón This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Double-blind describes an especially stringent way of conducting an experiment, usually on human subjects, in such as way as to attempt to eliminate subjective bias on the part of both experimental subjects and the experimenters. ...


Experimental studies with FOS in animals suggest a possible benefit in lowering blood sugar levels in people with diabetes and in reducing elevated blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels[1]. This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Cholesterol is a sterol (a combination steroid and alcohol) and a lipid found in the cell membranes of all body tissues, and transported in the blood plasma of all animals. ... It has been suggested that Medium Chain Triglycerides be merged into this article or section. ...


In a double-blind trial of middle-aged men and women with elevated cholesterol and triglyceride levels, supplementation with inulin (10 grams per day for eight weeks) significantly reduced insulin concentrations, suggesting an improvement in blood-glucose control, and significantly lowered triglyceride levels.[citation needed] Double-blind describes an especially stringent way of conducting an experiment, usually on human subjects, in such as way as to attempt to eliminate subjective bias on the part of both experimental subjects and the experimenters. ...


In a preliminary trial, administration of FOS (8 grams per day for two weeks) significantly lowered fasting blood-sugar levels and serum total-cholesterol levels in patients with type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes.[citation needed]


However, in another trial, people with type 2 diabetes supplementing with FOS (15 grams per day) for 20 days found no effect on blood-glucose or lipid levels[citation needed]. Because of these conflicting results, more research is needed to determine the effect of FOS and inulin on diabetes and lipid levels. This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Lipids are a class of hydrocarbon-containing organic compounds. ...


Several double-blind trials[citation needed] have looked at the ability of FOS or inulin to lower blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels. These trials have shown that in people with elevated total cholesterol or triglyceride levels, including people with type 2 (adult onset) diabetes, FOS or inulin (in amounts ranging from 8 to 20 grams daily) produced significant reductions in triglyceride levels. However, the effect on cholesterol levels was inconsistent. In people with normal or low cholesterol or triglyceride levels, FOS or inulin produced little effect. Inulins are a group of naturally occurring oligosaccharides (several simple sugars linked together) produced by many types of plants. ...


Sources

FOS and inulin are found naturally in Jerusalem artichoke, burdock, chicory, leeks, onions, and asparagus. FOS products derived from chicory root contain significant quantities of inulin, a fiber widely distributed in fruits, vegetables and plants. Inulin is a significant part of the daily diet of most of the world’s population. FOS can also be synthesized by enzymes of the fungus Apergillus niger acting on sucrose. GOS is naturally found in soybeans and can be synthesized from lactose (milk sugar). FOS, GOS, and inulin are available as nutritional supplements in capsules, tablets, and as a powder. Binomial name Helianthus tuberosus L. The Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.), also called the sunroot or sunchoke or topinambur, is a flowering plant native to North America grown throughout the temperate world for its tuber, which is used as a root vegetable. ... Species A. lappa Burdock refers to any of a group of biennial thistles in the genus Arctium, family Asteraceae. ... Species C. endivia - cultivated endive - wild endive - common chicory Chicory is the common name given to the flowering plants in genus Cichorium of the family Asteraceae. ... Binomial name Allium ampeloprasum (Linnaeus) J. Gay The Leek (Allium ampeloprasum var. ... Binomial name Allium cepa L. Onion in the general sense can be used for any plant in the genus Allium but used without qualifiers usually means Allium cepa, also called the garden onion. ... Binomial name Asparagus officinalis L. Asparagus is a type of vegetable obtained from one species within the genus Asparagus, specifically the young shoots of Asparagus officinalis. ... Binomial name Glycine max Soybeans (US) or soya beans (UK) (Glycine max) are a high-protein legume (Family Fabaceae) grown as food for both humans and livestock. ... Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. ...


Not all natural oligosaccharides occur as components of glycoproteins or glycolipids. Some, such as the raffinose series, occur as storage or transport carbohydrates in plants. Others, such as maltodextrins or cellodextrins, result from the microbial breakdown of larger polysaccharides such as starch or cellulose. Raffinose is a complex carbohydrate, a trisaccharide composed of galactose, fructose and glucose. ... Carbohydrates (literally hydrates of carbon) are chemical compounds that act as the primary biological means of storing or consuming energy, other forms being fat and protein. ... Cellodextrins are glucose polymers of varying length (2+ glucose monomers) resulting from the breakdown of cellulose. ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... Starch(CAS# 9005-25-8) is a complex carbohydrate which is insoluble in water; it is used by plants as a way to store excess glucose. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a long-chain polymeric polysaccharide carbohydrate, of beta-glucose [1][2]. It forms the primary structural component of green plants. ...

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The lipid-linked oligosaccharide precursors are synthesized at the ER membrane.
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Oligosaccharide (226 words)
Oligosaccharides are saccharide polymers containing only about three to six simple sugars as components.
A and B blood types are marked by two different oligosaccharide glycolipids that are embedded in the cellular membranes of red blood cells.
Though these oligosaccharides are similar enough to have the same functions, they are dissimilar enough that in a foreign system they will be attacked by the body’s immune system, which is why blood must be typed prior to transfusing.
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