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Encyclopedia > Olfactory receptor neuron

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Olfactory receptor neuron
Olfactory receptor neuron - Labels in German. "Zellen" = "cell","riech" = "smell", "Riechnerv" = olfactory nerve, "cillien" = cilia.
Labels in German. "Zellen" = "cell","riech" = "smell", "Riechnerv" = olfactory nerve, "cillien" = cilia.
Location olfactory epithelium in the nose
Function Detect traces of chemicals in inhaled air (sense of smell)
Neurotransmitter Glutamate
Morphology Bipolar sensory receptor
Presynaptic connections None
Postsynaptic connections Olfactory bulb
Gray's subject #223 996
Plan of olfactory neurons.
Plan of olfactory neurons.

An olfactory receptor neuron, also called an olfactory sensory neuron, is the primary transduction cell in the olfactory system. Image File history File links Riechschleimhaut. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... The olfactory nerve is the first of twelve cranial nerves. ... cross-section of two cilia, showing 9+2 structure A cilium (plural cilia) is a fine projection from a eukaryotic cell that constantly beats in one direction. ... The olfactory epithelium is a specialized epithelial tissue inside the nasal cavity that is involved in smell. ... For other uses, see Nose (disambiguation). ... Young boy smelling a flower Olfaction, which is also known as Olfactics is the sense of smell, and the detection of chemicals dissolved in air. ... Glutamate is the anion of glutamic acid. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... The olfactory bulb is a structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the perception of odors. ... Image File history File links Gray772. ... Image File history File links Gray772. ... In physiology, transduction is the conversion of a stimulus from one form to another. ... The olfactory system is the sensory system used for olfaction. ...

Contents

In vertebrates

Humans have about 40 million olfactory receptor neurons. In vertebrates, olfactory receptor neurons reside on the olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity. These cells are bipolar neurons with a dendrite facing the interior space of the nasal cavity and an axon that travels along the olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb. The olfactory epithelium is a specialized epithelial tissue inside the nasal cavity that is involved in smell. ... The nasal cavity (or nasal fossa) is a large air-filled space above and behind the nose in the middle of the face. ... Drawing by Santiago Ramón y Cajal of neurons in the pigeon cerebellum. ... Dendrites (from Greek dendron, “tree”) are the branched projections of a neuron that act to conduct the electrical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body, or soma, of the neuron from which the dendrites project. ... An axon or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses away from the neurons cell body or soma. ... The olfactory nerve is the first of twelve cranial nerves. ... The olfactory bulb is a structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the perception of odors. ...


Structure

Many tiny hair-like cilia protrude from the olfactory receptor cell's dendrite into the mucus covering the surface of the olfactory epithelium. The surface of these cilia is covered with olfactory receptors, a type of G protein-coupled receptor. Each olfactory receptor cell expresses only one type of olfactory receptor, but many separate olfactory receptor cells express olfactory receptors which bind the same set of odors. The axons of olfactory receptor cells which bind the same odors glomeruli in the olfactory bulb. cross-section of two cilia, showing 9+2 structure A cilium (plural cilia) is a fine projection from a eukaryotic cell that constantly beats in one direction. ... Mucus is a slippery secretion of the lining of various membranes in the body. ... Olfactory receptors are a type of G protein-coupled receptor in olfactory receptor neurons. ... A Mu-opioid G protein-coupled receptor with its agonist Figure 1. ... Gene expression, or simply expression, is the process by which the inheritable information which comprises a gene, such as the DNA sequence, is made manifest as a physical and biologically functional gene product, such as protein or RNA. Several steps in the gene expression process may be modulated, including the... The glomerulus (plural glomeruli) in olfaction is structure in the olfactory bulb. ... The olfactory bulb is a structure of the vertebrate forebrain involved in olfaction, the perception of odors. ...


Function

A given olfactory receptor can bind to a variety of odor molecules with varying affinities. The activated olfactory receptor in turn activates the intracellular G-protein GOLF (GNAL), and adenylate cyclase and production of Cyclic AMP opens ion channels in the cell membrane, resulting in an influx of sodium and calcium ions into the cell. This influx of positive ions causes the neuron to depolarize, generating an action potential. WHATS UP AMERICA! Epinephrine binds its receptor, that associates with an heterotrimeric G protein. ... Structure of cAMP Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP or 3-5-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a molecule that is important in many biological processes; it is derived from adenosine triphosphate (ATP). ... Ion channels are pore-forming proteins that help to establish and control the small voltage gradient that exists across the plasma membrane of all living cells (see cell potential) by allowing the flow of ions down their electrochemical gradient. ... Look up cell membrane in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For sodium in the diet, see Edible salt. ... For other uses, see Calcium (disambiguation). ... A. A schematic view of an idealized action potential illustrates its various phases as the action potential passes a point on a cell membrane. ...


Regeneration

Individual olfactory receptor neurons are replaced approximately every 40 days by neural stem cells residing in the olfactory epithelium. The regeneration of olfactory receptor cells, as one of the only few instances of adult neurogenesis in the central nervous system, has raised considerable interest in dissecting the pathways for neural development and differentiation in adult organisms. Neurogenesis (birth of neurons) is the process by which neurons are created. ... Neurogenesis (birth of neurons) is the process by which neurons are created. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ...


In insects

In insects, olfactory receptor neurons typically reside on the antenna. Much like in vertebrates, axons from the sensory neurons converge into glomeruli in the antennal lobe.YAY! Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Insects display a wide variety of antennal shapes. ... Antennal Lobe is the deutocerebral neuropil of the insect which receive the input from the sensory neurons on the antenna. ...


See also

A Chemosensor, also known as chemoreceptor, is a cell or group of cells that transduce a chemical signal into an action potential. ... In a sensory system, a sensory receptor is a structure that recognizes a stimulus in the internal or external environment of an organism. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Olfactory receptor neuron - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (324 words)
Olfactory receptor neurons reside on the olfactory epithelium in the nasal cavity.
The cells are bipolar neurons with a dendrite facing the interior space of the nasal cavity and an axon that travels along the olfactory nerve to the olfactory bulb.
These cillia contain olfactory receptors, a type of G protein-coupled receptor, which are activated by binding to structures on the odor molecule, according to prevaling theory.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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