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Encyclopedia > Olefin fiber

Olefin fiber is a synthetic fiber made from alkenes. It is used in the manufacture of various textiles.Other usages are clothing, upholstery, wall covering, ropes, interior of vehicles. Olefin is also referred to as polypropylene, polyethylene or polyolefin. Pros of olefin strong, colorfast, comfortable, resistant to stain, mildew, abrasion, sunlight, gives good bulk and cover [1] Image File history File links Information_icon. ... Synthetic fibers are the result of extensive research by scientists to increase and improve upon the supply of naturally occurring animal and plant fibers that have been used in making cloth and rope. ... An alkene is one of the three classes of unsaturated hydrocarbons that contain at least one carbon-carbon double bond and have the general molecular formula of CnH2n (the other two being alkynes and arenes). ... Sunday textile market on the sidewalks of Karachi, Pakistan. ...

Contents

History

Italy began production of olefin fibers in 1957. Giulio Natta successfully made the olefin suitable for more textile applications. The U.S. production of olefin fibers started in 1960. Olefin Fibers also account for 16% of all manufactured fibers.[citation needed] Giulio Natta (February 26, 1903 – May 2, 1979) was an Italian chemist. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from...

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Major fiber properties

The Federal Trade Commission's definition for olefin fiber is: “A manufactured fiber in which the fiberforming substance is any long-chain synthetic polymer composed of at least 85% by weight of ethylene, propylene, or other olefin units”[2] “Olefins are produced as a monofilament, multifilament, staple fiber, tow and slit or fibrillated film yarns with variable tenacities.” The fibers are “waxy” colorless, often round in cross section.[1] The fibers are also resistant to moisture and chemicals. Polypropylene is used more for textiles because of its high melting point. The fibers do not take dye very well so colored olefin fibers are produced by adding dye directly to the polymer prior to or during “melt spinning”.[3] FTC headquarters, Washington, D.C. The Federal Trade Commission (or FTC) is an independent agency of the United States government, established in 1914 by the Federal Trade Commission Act. ... A 3-D view of a beverage-can stove with a cross section in yellow. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... Look up dye in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Melt spinning is a technique used for rapid cooling of liquids. ...


“Some interior designers prefer olefin to most other fibers because of its attractive appearance and other positive performance aspects” along with the low cost aspect as compared to similar products made with different fibers.[1] Along with being moisture and chemical resistant, it is also abrasion resistant, low static, stain resistant, colorfast, strong, very comfortable and extremely lightweight “olefin is the lightest textile fiber”.[4] Fiber properties can be modified in a wide range with additives (e.g. UV-, thermal resistance, antibacterial, flame retardant).[5] An antiseptic is a substance that kills or prevents the growth of bacteria on the external surfaces of the body. ... Flame retardants are materials that inhibit or resist the spread of fire. ...


Production method

A low pressure system (lower temperature) is used to produce a polyethylene polymer that is used more for textiles. The extrusion process (forcing the "dope" or spinning solution through a spinneret to form long fibers) is similar to that of nylon and polyester. Olefin is “melt-spin” (melting the polymer chips) and solidified through cooling. Gel spinning is a newer spinning method for olefin which dissolves the polyethylene polymer and forms a gel in the solvent. The gel is extruded through the spinneret, the solvent is extracted, and the fiber is drawn. This process produces high-strength fibers. Spectra is Honeywell’s trade name for an olefin fiber produced by gel spinning.[1] A spinneret is a spiders silk spinning organ. ... Nylon is a generic designation for a family of synthetic polymers first produced on February 28, 1935 by Wallace Carothers at DuPont. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester is a category of polymers, or, more specifically condensation polymers, which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... In optical filters and theatrical lighting a color gel is a transparent or translucent colored panel used to change the color of transmitted light. ... A solvent is a liquid that dissolves a solid, liquid, or gaseous solute, resulting in a solution. ... Dyneema or Spectra is a synthetic fiber based on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene which is 15 times stronger than steel and up to 40% stronger than Kevlar. ... Honeywell Heating Specialties Company Stock Certificate dated 1924 signed by Mark C. Honeywell - courtesy of Scripophily. ...


Manufacturers

The first commercial producer of an olefin fiber in the United States was Hercules, Inc. (FiberVisions). In 1996, polyolefin was the world’s first and only Nobel Prize winning fiber.[6] Other U.S. olefin fiber producers include Asota; American Fibers and Yarns Co; American Synthetic Fiber, LLC; Color-Fi; FiberVisions; Foss Manufacturing Co., LLC; Drake Extrusion; Filament Fiber Technology, Inc.; TenCate Geosynthetics; Universal Fiber Systems LLC.[2] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Heracles. ...


Trademarks according to fabric use

  • Alpha, Condesa, Essera, Impressa, Marvess, Propex, Trace by American Fibers & Yarn Co.
  • Tyvek, ComforMax IB by DuPont
  • Thinsulate by 3M
  • Fibrilawn, Fibrilon by Dibron
  • Herculon by Hercules Inc.
  • Duaguard, Evolution, Evolution III by Kimberly-Clark
  • Polyloom by Polyloom
  • Typar, Biobarrier by Reemay
  • Spectra, Spectra 900, Spectra 1000 by Honeywell[1]
  • asota by Asota[5]

Tyvek house wrap Tyvek suit Tyvek USPS Express Mail Envelope Tyvek is a brand of spunbonded olefin, a synthetic material made of high-density polyethylene fibers; the name is a registered trademark of the DuPont Company. ... Dupont, DuPont, Du Pont, or du Pont may refer to: // E.I. du Pont de Nemours and Company, the worlds third largest chemical company Du Pont Motors Gilbert Dupont, a French stock brokerage part of retail banking network Crédit du Nord ST Dupont, a French manufacturer of fine... Thinsulate is a synthetic fibre used for thermal insulation in clothing. ... 3M Company (NYSE: MMM; formerly Minnesota Mining and Manufacturing Company until 2002) is an American corporation with a worldwide presence that produces over 55,000 products, including adhesives, abrasives, laminates, passive fire protection, dental products, electrical materials, electronic circuits, optical films and supply chain management software. ... Hercules Inc. ... Kimberly-Clark Corporation (NYSE: KMB, BMV: Kimber) is an American corporation that produces mostly paper-based consumer products. ... Dyneema or Spectra is a synthetic fiber based on ultra high molecular weight polyethylene which is 15 times stronger than steel and up to 40% stronger than Kevlar. ... Honeywell Heating Specialties Company Stock Certificate dated 1924 signed by Mark C. Honeywell - courtesy of Scripophily. ...

Uses

Apparel
Sports & active wear, socks, thermal underwear; lining fabrics. “Telar by Filament Fiber Technology, Inc. is a fine-denier olefin used in blends for pantyhose, saris, and swimwear.”[1]
Home Furnishing
Indoor and outdoor carpets and carpet tiles, carpet backing. “Olefin has almost completely replaced jute in carpet backing because of its low-cost, easy processing, excellent durability, and suitability”[1]. Upholstery, draperies, wall coverings, slipcovers, floor coverings
Automotive
Interior fabrics, sun visors, arm rests, door and side panels, trunks, parcel shelfs, resin replacement as binder fibers,
Industrial
Carpets; ropes, geo-textiles that are in contact with the soil, filter fabrics, bagging, concrete reinforcement, heat-sealable paper (e.g. tea- and coffee-bags)

Care procedures

It is not recommended to dry clean Olefin, because many dry-cleaning solvents can swell the fibers. As Olefin dries quickly, line drying and low tumble drying with little or no heat is the recommended method of drying. Since Olefin is not absorbent, waterborne stains do not present a problem; however, oily stains are difficult to remove. Most such stains can be removed with lukewarm water and detergent, but bleach can also be used. Olefin fiber has a low melting point (around 225 to 335 °F, depending on the polymer's grade) so items should be ironed at a very low temperature, if at all. Items such as outdoor carpets and other fabrics can be hosed off. Regarding disposal, Olefin is easy to recycle. Dry cleaning is any cleaning process for clothing and textiles using an organic solvent other than water -- generally known as dry cleaning fluid, and typically this is tetrachloroethylene. ...


See also

The chemical structure of ethylene, the simplest alkene. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Kadolph, Sara J., Langford, Anna L., (2002), Textile, Ninth Edition., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458: Prentice Hall pp 109-113
  2. ^ a b http://www.fibersource.com
  3. ^ http://www.filamentfiber.com
  4. ^ http://www.fabrics.net
  5. ^ a b http://www.asota.com
  6. ^ http://www.fabriclink.com/RF-ED-History.html

 
 

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