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Encyclopedia > Old Style and New Style dates

Old Style (or OS) and New Style (or NS) is used in English language historical studies either to indicate that the start of the Julian year has been adjusted to start on 1 January (NS) even though contemporary documents use a different start of year (OS); or to indicate that a date conforms to the Julian calendar (OS), formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian calendar (NS).[1][2][3][4] In Great Britain and the British colonies the change of start of the year and the change over from the Julian calendar occurred in 1752 and was enabled by the Calendar (New Style) Act 1750.[5] Old Style is a brand of beer traditionally brewed in La Crosse, Wisconsin by the G. Heileman Brewing Company. ... A Julian year is on average 365. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ... The Calendar (New Style) Act 1750 (also known as Chesterfields Act after Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield) is an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (statute chapter book number ), the long title of which is It reformed the calendar of England and British Dominions so that a...


Many other cultures have also changed their calendar system to adopt Common Era dating and thus have old and new styles of dating: these are discussed briefly later in the article. BCE redirects here. ...

Marriage certificate showing Old- and New-Style dates, Warsaw 1907.
Marriage certificate showing Old- and New-Style dates, Warsaw 1907.[6]

Contents

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1299x1063, 511 KB) Original document in Russian language[1], dated using both Old Style and New Style dates in Warsaw[2]. Certificate dated November/December 23/6 1907; the marriage dated October 3/16 1907. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1299x1063, 511 KB) Original document in Russian language[1], dated using both Old Style and New Style dates in Warsaw[2]. Certificate dated November/December 23/6 1907; the marriage dated October 3/16 1907. ... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ...

Differences between the start of the year

When recording British history it is usual to use the dates recorded at the time of the event with the year adjusted to the start on the 1 January. So for example the Battle of Hastings is universally known to have been fought on 14 October 1066. But the start of the Julian year was not always 1 January and was altered at different times in different countries. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Normans supported by: Bretons (one third of total), Flemings, French Anglo-Saxons, the Þingalið Commanders William of Normandy, Odo of Bayeux Harold Godwinson † Strength 7,000-8,000 7,000-8,000 Casualties Unknown, thought to be around 2,000 killed and wounded Unknown, thought to be around 4... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... A Julian year is on average 365. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


From the 12th century to 1752 the civil or legal year in England began on 25 March (Lady Day),[7] so for example the execution of Charles I was recorded at the time in Parliament as happening on 30 January 1648 (Old Style).[8] In modern English language texts this date is usually recorded as "30 January 1649" (New Style).[1] A full conversion of the date into the Gregorian calendar is 9 February 1649, the date by which his contemporaries in some parts of continental Europe would have recorded his execution. is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Christian calendar, Lady Day is the Feast of the Annunciation (25 March) and the first of the four traditional Irish Quarter days and English quarter days. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events January 30 - King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland is beheaded. ...


The OS/NS designation is particularly relevant for dates which fall between the start of the modern year (1 January) and the start of the contemporary year, which was 25 March in England up and until 1752 (see Julian year article). is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1752 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... A Julian year is on average 365. ...


During the transition years between the first introduction of the Gregorian calendar on continental Europe and its introduction in Britain, contemporary usage in England started to change.[4] In Britain 1 January was celebrated as the New Year festival,[9] but the "year starting 25th March was called the Civil or Legal Year, although the phrase Old Style was more commonly used."[4] To reduce misunderstandings on the date, it was not uncommon in parish registers for a new year heading after 24 March for example 1661 had another heading at the end of the following December indicating "1661/62". This was to explain to the reader that the year was 1661 Old Style and 1662 New Style.[10] is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Differences between Julian and Gregorian dates

Conversion of Julian to Gregorian dates[11]
Time period (from March 1 of first year to February 29 of last year) Сorrection, days
1100 -2
100200 -1
200300 0
300500 +1
500600 +2
600700 +3
700900 +4
9001000 +5
10001100 +6
11001300 +7
13001400 +8
14001500 +9
15001700 +10
17001800 +11
18001900 +12
19002100 +13
21002200 +14

The Julian calendar was formerly in use in many European countries and their colonies, rather than the Gregorian calendar, currently in use in most countries. Consequently and to avoid ambiguity, "Old Style" (OS) and "New Style" (NS) are sometimes added to historical dates to identify which system is being used (when giving a date in the period when both systems were in parallel use). This notation is used in Western European (and colonial) history: similar notations are in use for the equivalent conversions in Eastern Europe and Asia. is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1. ... Pliny the Younger advances to consulship. ... Pliny the Younger advances to consulship. ... For other uses, see number 200. ... For other uses, see number 200. ... Franks penetrate into northern Belgium (approximate date). ... Franks penetrate into northern Belgium (approximate date). ... This article is about the year. ... This article is about the year. ... The population of the Earth rises to about 208 million people. ... The population of the Earth rises to about 208 million people. ... // Events Saint Adamnan convinces 51 kings to adopt Cáin Adomnáin defining the relationship between women and priests. ... // Events Saint Adamnan convinces 51 kings to adopt Cáin Adomnáin defining the relationship between women and priests. ... Gyeonhwon formally establishes the kingdom of Hubaekje in southwestern Korea. ... Gyeonhwon formally establishes the kingdom of Hubaekje in southwestern Korea. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... August 5 - Henry I becomes King of England. ... August 5 - Henry I becomes King of England. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of... Events Henry IV quells baron rebellion and executes The Earls of Kent, Huntingdon and Salisbury for their attempt to have Richard II of England restored as King Jean Froissart writes the Chronicles Medici family becomes powerful in Florence, Italy Births December 25 - John Sutton, 1st Baron Dudley, Lord Lieutenant of... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... Ğ: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Ğ: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... 2100 can refer to either: The first year of the 2100s decade. ... 2100 can refer to either: The first year of the 2100s decade. ... 2200 can refer to either: The year at the end of the 22nd century. ... The Julian calendar was a reform of the Roman calendar which was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... For the calendar of religious holidays and periods, see liturgical year. ...


For a period of 170 years (1582 – 1752), both dating systems were in concurrent use in different parts of Western Europe and its colonies. The Julian calendar had drifted by 11 days from the solar calendar (due to its surfeit of leap years), so the day and month differ between the systems as well as does the year. System conversion occurred in Eastern Orthodox countries as late as the twentieth century. Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ...


Catholic countries such as Italy, Poland, Spain, and Portugal were first to change to the Gregorian calendar. Thursday, 4 October 1582 was followed by Friday, 15 October 1582, with ten days "missing". Countries that did not change until the 1700s observed an additional leap year, necessitating eleven "missing days". Some countries did not change until the 1800s or 1900s, necessitating one or two more "missing days". is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ... For the 1921 film starring Fatty Arbuckle, see Leap Year (film). ...


France changed from Julian to Gregorian Calendar on 9 December 1582 JU where the next day was 20 December 1582 GR. France used the French Republican Calendar from 22 September 1792 GR to 31 December 1805 GR. is the 343rd day of the year (344th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ... A French Revolutionary Calendar in the Historical Museum of Lausanne. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


In Russia, the terms "Old Style" and "New Style" have the same significance as elsewhere. The start of the year was moved to January 1 in 1700, but the Gregorian calendar was introduced there much later, in the Russian SFSR—on February 14, 1918 (Gregorian calendar). Hence the October Revolution of 1917 is so called, despite having started on November 7 under the Gregorian calendar (October 25 [Julian calendar]). Articles about the October Revolution which mention this date difference tend to do a full conversion to the dates from Julian to the Gregorian calendar. For example the article "The October (November) Revolution" the Encyclopædia Britannica uses the format of "25 October (7 November, New Style);" to describe the date of the start of the revolution.[12] is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 November 7, 1917 December 12, 1991 (dissolution) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ...


It is sometimes remarked that William Shakespeare and Miguel de Cervantes died on the same date, 23 April 1616, but not on the same day.[13] England was still using the Julian calendar in 1616, while Spain was using the Gregorian calendar. Cervantes actually died ten days before Shakespeare. Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Cervantes redirects here. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1616 (MDCXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Possible date conflicts

Occasionally using different calendars has caused confusion between contemporaries. For example one of the contributory factors for Napoleon's victory at the Battle of Austerlitz was the confusion between the Russians, who were using the Julian calendar, and the Austrians, who were using the Gregorian calendar, over the date that their forces should combine.[14] Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Combatants French Empire Russian Empire Austrian Empire Commanders Napoleon I Alexander I Francis II Strength 65,000[1] 73,000[2] Casualties 1,305 dead, 6,940 wounded, 573 captured, 1 standard lost[3] 15,000 dead or wounded, 12,000 captured, 180 guns lost, 50 standards lost[3] The...


Usually, the mapping of new dates onto old dates with a start of year adjustment works well with little confusion for events which happened before the introduction of the Gregorian Calendar. For example the Battle of Agincourt is universally known to have been fought on 25 October 1415, which is Saint Crispin's Day. But for the period between the first introduction of the Gregorian calendar on 15 October 1582 and its introduction in Britain on 14 September 1752, there can be considerable confusion between events in continental western Europe and in British domains. Events in continental western Europe are usually reported in English language histories as happening under the Gregorian calendar. For example the Battle of Blenheim is always given as 13 August 1704. However confusion occurs when an event affects both. For example William III of England arrived at Brixham in England on 5 November (Julian calendar), after setting sail from the Netherlands on 11 November (Gregorian calendar). Combatants Kingdom of England Kingdom of France Commanders Henry V of England Charles dAlbret Strength About 6,000 (but see Modern re-assessment). ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... Martyrdom of SS. Crispin and Crépinien - From a window in the Hôpital des Quinze-Vingts (Fifteenth Century). ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1752 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants England, Dutch Republic, Holy Roman Empire, Denmark Kingdom of France, Electorate of Bavaria Commanders Duke of Marlborough, Prince Eugène of Savoy Duc de Tallard, Maximilian II Emanuel, Ferdinand de Marsin Strength 52,000, 60 guns[3] 56,000, 90 guns Casualties 4,542 killed, 7,942 wounded 34... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Building of the Students Monument in Aiud, Romania. ... William III of England, II of Scotland and III of Orange (The Hague, 14 November 1650 – Kensington Palace, 8 March 1702) was a Dutch aristocrat, the Prince of Orange from his birth, Stadtholder of the main provinces of the Dutch Republic from 28 June 1672, King of England and King... Brixham (IPA: ) is a small town in the county of Devon, in the south-west of England. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Battle of Boyne took place only a few months later in Ireland on 1 July 1690 "Old Style". However, it is commemorated as taking place on 12 July "New Style" by the Orange parades on "The Twelfth", in spite of Protestant Orangemen's antipathy to Papal innovations. This is in part a conflation of commemorations of the Battle of Aughrim, 12 July (OS) 1691. William III (William of Orange) King of England, Scotland and Ireland, Stadtholder of the Netherlands The Battle of the Boyne was a turning point in the Williamite war in Ireland between the deposed King James II of England and VII of Scotland and his son-in-law and successor, William... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Orange parade in Glasgow (1 June 2003) The Orange Institution, more commonly known as the Orange Order, is a Protestant fraternal organisation based predominantly in Northern Ireland and Scotland with lodges throughout the Commonwealth and in Canada and the United States. ... The Twelfth is an annual Protestant celebration on 12 July, originating in Ireland. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Battle of Aughrim was the decisive battle of the Williamite war in Ireland. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events March 5 - French troops under Marshal Louis-Francois de Boufflers besiege the Spanish-held town of Mons March 20 - Leislers Rebellion - New governor arrives in New York - Jacob Leisler surrenders after standoff of several hours March 29 - Siege of Mons ends to the city’s surrender May 6...

Thomas Jefferson's tombstone. Written below the epitaph is "BORN APRIL 2 1743 O.S. DIED JULY 4 1826
Thomas Jefferson's tombstone. Written below the epitaph is "BORN APRIL 2 1743 O.S. DIED JULY 4 1826

Because of the differences, English people and their correspondents often employed two dates, more or less automatically, as Benjamin Woolley observed in his biography of Dr John Dee, The Queen's Conjurer. Dee fought unsuccessfully for England to embrace the 1583/4 date set for the change. Woolley wrote because of "the decision, England remained outside the Gregorian system for a further 170 years, communications during that period customarily carrying two dates, one 'OS' or Old Style, the other 'NS' or New Style."[15] Thomas Jefferson, for example, lived during the time Great Britain, Ireland and the British colonies eventually converted to the Gregorian calendar, so he instructed that his tombstone bear his dates of birth and death in the Old Style and New Style, respectively.[16] At Jefferson's birth the difference would have been eleven days between styles, had the New Style been converted to yet, as is evidenced by his "original" birthday of April 2 and his New Style birthday of April 13.[16] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1449 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Thomas Jefferson Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1449 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Thomas Jefferson Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create or digitize it. ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... An epitaph ( literally: on the gravestone in ancient Greek) is text honoring the deceased, most commonly inscribed on a tombstone or plaque. ... For the American college basketball coach, see John Dee (basketball coach). ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Countries that used lunisolar calendars

Japan, Korea, and China started using the Gregorian calendar on 1 January of 1873, 1896, and 1912, respectively.[17] They had used lunisolar calendars previously. None of them used the Julian calendar; the Old Style and New Style dates in these countries usually mean the older lunisolar dates and the newer Gregorian calendar dates respectively. In these countries, the old style calendars were similar but not all the same. The Arabic numerals may be used for both calendar dates in modern Japanese and Korean languages, but not Chinese. This does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... A lunisolar calendar is a calendar whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year. ... For other uses, see Arabic numerals (disambiguation). ...


Japan

Japan started using the Gregorian calendar on 1 January 1873,[18] locally known as "the first day of the first month of Meiji 6" (明治6年1月1日 Meiji rokunen ichigatsu tsuitachi?). The preceding day, 31 December 1872, was "the second day of the twelfth month of Meiji 5" (明治5年12月2日 Meiji gonen jūnigatsu futsuka?). is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Japan currently employs two calendar systems: Gregorian and modified traditional nengō. Specifically, the months and days now correspond to those of the Gregorian calendar, but the year is expressed as an offset of the era. For example, the Gregorian year 2007 is corresponds to Heisei 19. An era does not necessarily begin on January 1st. Japanese era name (年号, nengō, lit. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Heisei (Japanese: 平成) is the current era name in Japan. ...


Korea

Korea started using the Gregorian calendar on 1 January 1896, which was the 17th day of the 11th lunar month in not only Korea but also in China that still used the lunisolar calendar.[19] The lunisolar Korean calendar is now used in very limited unofficial purposes only. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... The traditional Korean calendar is directly derived from the Asian calendar. ...


China

The Republic of China started using the Gregorian calendar on 1 January 1912, but the lunisolar Chinese calendar is still used along with the Gregorian calendar, especially when determining certain traditional holidays. The reference has been a longitude of 120°E since 1929, which is also used for Chinese Standard Time (UTC+8). China, Hong Kong, Macao, Singapore and Taiwan all have legal holidays based on the lunisolar Chinese calendar, with the most important one being the Chinese New Year. For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Chinese calendar is a lunisolar calendar, incorporating elements of a lunar calendar with those of a solar calendar. ... Certain regions of eastern Asia, including all of China, observe a time zone eight hours ahead of UTC, known as Chinese Standard Time. ... -12 | -11 | -10 | -9:30 | -9 | -8 | -7 | -6 | -5 | -4 | -3:30 | -3 | -2:30 | -2 | -1 | -0:25 | UTC (0) | +0:20 | +0:30 | +1 | +2 | +3 | +3:30 | +4 | +4:30 | +4:51 | +5 | +5:30 | +5:40 | +5:45 | +6 | +6:30 | +7 | +7:20 | +7... Chinese New Year (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), or Spring Festival or the Lunar New Year (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is the most important of the traditional Chinese holidays. ...


To visually distinguish old and new style dates, GB/T 15835-1995, General rules for writing numerals in publications, which is a national standard of the People's Republic of China, requires writing new style dates with Arabic numerals but old style dates with Chinese characters, never Arabic numerals. Guóbiāo (国标) (GB) in the Peoples Republic of China is the abbreviation of Guójiā Biāozhǔn (国家标准), meaning the National Standards, or Guójiā Biāozhǔn Mǎ (国家标准&#30721... Japanese name Kanji: Hiragana: Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Vietnamese name Quốc ngữ: Hán tá»±: A Chinese character or Han character (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a logogram used in writing Chinese, Japanese, sometimes Korean, and formerly Vietnamese. ...


In Taiwan, even though new style dates are written in Chinese characters in very formal texts, it is now common to see Arabic numerals in new style dates in less formal texts. When writing old style dates, Chinese characters are usually used while Arabic numerals are considered very casual and strongly discouraged as in Mainland China.


See also

Further reading

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b Death warrant of Charles I web page of the UK National Archives.A demonstration of New Style meaning Julian calendar with a start of year adjustment.
  2. ^ The October (November) Revolution Britannica encyclopaedia, A demonstration of New Style meaning the Gregorian calendar.
  3. ^ Stockton, J.R. Date Miscellany I: The Old and New Styles "The terms 'Old Style' and 'New Style' are now commonly used for both the 'Start of Year' and 'Leap Year' [(Gregorian calendar)] changes (England & Wales: both in 1752; Scotland: 1600, 1752). I believe that, properly and historically, the 'Styles' really refer only to the 'Start of Year' change (from March 25th to January 1st); and that the 'Leap Year' change should be described as the change from Julian to Gregorian."
  4. ^ a b c Spathaky, Mike Old Style New Style dates and the change to the Gregorian calendar. "increasingly parish registers, in addition to a new year heading after 24th March showing, for example '1733', had another heading at the end of the following December indicating '1733/4'. This showed where the New Style 1734 started even though the Old Style 1733 continued until 24th March. ... We as historians have no excuse for creating ambiguity and must keep to the notation described above in one of its forms. It is no good writing simply 20th January 1745, for a reader is left wondering whether we have used the Old or the New Style reckoning. The date should either be written 20th January 1745 OS (if indeed it was Old Style) or as 20th January 1745/6. The hyphen (1745-6) is best avoided as it can be interpreted as indicating a period of time."
  5. ^ In Scotland the legal start of year had been moved to 1 January in 1600 (Mike Spathaky. Old Style New Style dates and the change to the Gregorian calendar); and as Ireland was not part of the union of Great Britain so separate legislation was needed for Ireland.
  6. ^ At the time, Poland was part of the Russian Empire
  7. ^ Nørby, Toke. The Perpetual Calendar: What about England Version 29 February 2000
  8. ^ House of Commons Journal Volume 8, 9 June 1660 (Regicides). British History Online. Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
  9. ^ Tuesday 31 December 1661, Pepys Diary "I sat down to end my journell for this year, ..."
  10. ^ Spathaky, Mike Old Style New Style dates and the change to the Gregorian calendar. "An oblique stroke is by far the most usual indicator, but sometimes the alternative final figures of the year are written above and below a horizontal line, as in a fraction (a form which cannot easily be reproduced here in ASCII text). Very occasionally a hyphen is used, as 1733-34."
  11. ^ A Julian leap year is every year divisible by 4. A Gregorian leep year a year exactly divisible by 4 but not by 100 or it is exactly divisible by 400. So 400, 800, 1200, 1600 and 2000 were leap years under both calenders, but the other centuries (eg 1700, 1800, 1900) were leap years under the Julian calendar but not the Gregorian calendar.
  12. ^ Russia: The October (November) Revolution. Encyclopædia Britannica Online (2007). Retrieved on 2007-03-18.
  13. ^ Today in Literature
  14. ^ Lord Robertson (2000). "Prospects for NATO–Russian relations" (.PDF). p. 1, para. 1. NATO. Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
  15. ^ John Baker. Why Bacon, Oxford and Other's Weren't Shakespeare use this quote by Benjamin Woolley and cites The Queen's Conjurer, The Science and Magic of Dr. John Dee, Adviser to Queen Elizabeth I, page 173.
  16. ^ a b Monticello Report: The Calendar and Old Style (O. S.). Thomas Jefferson Foundation (Monticello.org) (2007). Retrieved on 2007-08-07.
  17. ^ BAD LINK! Regnal Year Conversion Chart. Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
  18. ^ The Japanese Calendar History. National Diet Library, Japan (2002). Retrieved on 2007-03-19.
  19. ^ Andrei Lankov. "The Dawn of Modern Korea (266) Lunar Calendar", The Korea Times, 6 Feb 2005. Retrieved on 2007-03-19. 

  Results from FactBites:
 
Old Style and New Style dates - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1159 words)
In Britain and countries of the British Empire, Old Style or O.S. after a date means that the date is in the Julian calendar, in use in those countries until 1752; New Style or N.S. means that the date is in the Gregorian calendar, adopted on 14 September 1752 (New Style).
In Russia, the terms "Old Style" and "New Style" have the same significance as elsewhere; however, the Gregorian calendar was introduced there much later—on February 14, 1918 (New Style).
Usually in modern histories, to avoid confusion and to keep dates consistent, the OS dates are mapped onto NS dates with an adjustment for the start of the year to 1 January.
Gregorian calendar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5429 words)
The Council of Trent approved a plan in 1563 for correcting the calendrical errors, requiring that the date of the vernal equinox be restored to that which it held at the time of the First Council of Nicaea in 325 and that an alteration to the calendar be designed to prevent future drift.
Nevertheless, the dates "5 October 1582" to "14 October 1582" (inclusive) are still valid in virtually all countries because even most Roman Catholic countries did not adopt the new calendar on the date specified by the bull, but months or even years later (the last in 1587).
Dates of events in Britain prior to 1752 are usually now shown in their original Old Style form, whereas dates of events in (then British) America prior to 1752 are usually now shown in the New Style form.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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