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Encyclopedia > Old Prussians
Prussian tribes settlements. (The red area merely depicts Warmia, also part of the tribes' territory.)
Prussian tribes settlements. (The red area merely depicts Warmia, also part of the tribes' territory.)

The Old Prussians or Baltic Prussians (German: Pruzzen or Prußen; Latin: Pruteni; Lithuanian: Prūsai; Polish: Prusowie) were an ethnic group consisting of medieval Baltic tribes inhabiting the lands of the southeastern Baltic Sea, roughly around the Vistula and Curonian Lagoons. During the 13th century the Old Prussians were conquered by the proselytizing crusaders of the Teutonic Knights and gradually Germanized and Polonized over the following centuries. The former state of Prussia took its name from the Baltic Prussians, although that state was led by Germans, not by the extinct Old Prussians. Image File history File links Prussian_tribes_map. ... Image File history File links Prussian_tribes_map. ... Warmia in 1547 Warmia (Polish: , German: , Latin: Varmia, also historically known as Ermeland) is a region between Pomerania and Masuria in northeastern Poland. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The Baltic Sea The Balts or Baltic peoples (Latvian: balti, Lithuanian: baltai), defined as speakers of one of the Baltic languages, a branch of the Indo-European language family, are descended from a group of Indo-European tribes who settled the area between lower Vistula and upper Dvina and Dneper. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Landsat photo Vistula Lagoon Vistula Lagoon (or Bay, Gulf) is the sweet water lagoon on the Baltic Sea that is cut off from Gdansk Bay by the Vistula Spit. ... The Curonian Lagoon (or Bay, Gulf) is sundered from the Baltic Sea by the Curonian Spit and belongs to Lithuania and Russia. ... The English language word proselytism is derived ultimately from the Greek language prefix pros (towards) and the verb erchomai (to come). ... The Teutonic Knights or Teutonic Order (Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Ierosolimitanorum, Order of the Teutonic House of Mary in Jerusalem) is a German Roman Catholic religious order formed at the end of the 12th century in Acre in Palestine. ... Polonization (Polish: ) is the assumption (complete or partial), of the Polish language or another real or supposed Polish attribute. ... Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: PrÅ«sa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ...


The land of the Old Prussians approximately consisted of central and southern East Prussia, or the present-day Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship in Poland, the Kaliningrad Oblast in Russia, and the Klaipėda Region in Lithuania. East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Warmia-Masurian Voivodship. ... Location of the Kaliningrad Oblast Map of the Kaliningrad Oblast Kaliningrad Oblast Flag Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: ; German: or Nordostpreussen, Northeast Prussia), informally called Yantarny kray (, meaning Amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast, with no land connection to the rest of Russia; it... KlaipÄ—da Region (Memel Region, Memelland) is the name of the part of Lithuania Minor consisting of the coastland around KlaipÄ—da (formerly known as Memel) and along the Curonian Lagoon, on the right bank of Neman River. ...

Contents

Etymology

Most names of the Prussian tribes were formed on the common theme of landscape. Such names were based on water; an understandable convention in a land dotted with thousands of lakes, streams, and swamps (see Masurian Lakeland). Indeed, that landscape caused the very partial isolation that preserved the Baltic language group. To the south, the terrain runs into the Pripet Marshes at the headwaters of the Dnieper River. They have been an effective barrier over the millennia. Masurian Lakeland (Polish Pojezierze Mazurskie) - Lake district, northeastern Poland, containing more than 2,000 lakes. ... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... poop poop poopy poo poop poopy poo poop Categories: | | | ... This article is about the river. ...


The original pre-Baltic settlers generally named their settlements after the streams, lakes, seas, or forests by which they settled. The clan or tribal polities into which they were organized took the name of the settlement. For example, Barta, the home of the Barti, is related to some other Baltic water names, such as the Bartis River in Lithuania, and to such words as Albanian berrak and Bulgarian bara, "swamp". A *bor- root can be reconstructed, meaning "swamp", which ought to come from the o-grade of Indo-European *bher-; Indo-European has several *bher- roots, however, so the exact meaning and line of descent is unclear. Bartians (Barthi, Barti) is an extinct tribe of Prussians in the land of Barta from the middle and lower flow of Lyna river, by Swina river, Lake Mamry, up to the Galindian woods. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. ...


This root is perhaps the one used in Prusas (Prussia), for which an earlier Brus- is found in the map of the Bavarian Geographer. The name of the Dnieper in ancient Greek was the Borysthenes, which, though undoubtedly twisted, contains perhaps the *Bor-. In Tacitus' Germania, the Lugii Buri are mentioned living within the eastern range of the Germans. Lugi can descend from Pokorny's *leug- (2), "black, swamp" (Page 686), while Buri is perhaps the "Prussian" root. The Bavarian Geographer is anonymous medieval document prepared in ca. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Germania (Latin title: De Origine et situ Germanorum), written by Gaius Cornelius Tacitus around 98, is an ethnographic work on the diverse set of Germanic tribes outside the Roman Empire. ... The green area is the Przeworsk culture identified with the Lugians. ... Julius Pokorny (1887–1970) was born in Prague and studied at Vienna university. ...


Pameddi (Pomesania) is derived from the words for "by", "near", and "honey", and can be traced to the Proto-Indo-European root *medhu-. Nadruvia has been variously hypothesised to come from the words na ("by", "on") and dravis ("wood"); and na, by, on and the root *dhreu-, "flow", or "river". It is related to the Old Prussian Nadyn, forest; Nede, a pond; and the Nydar, Lithuanian Nedejan, Russian Nadva (reconstructed Baltic *Nadva), a tributary of the Dnieper. Pomesania is the former name of an area now in northern Poland, in the vicinity of the cities of Elblag (Elbing) and Malbork (Marienburg), to the east of the lower Vistula river. ... The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages. ... Upper Neman The Nadruvians took their name from their ancestral homeland, Nadruvia or Nadruva (Prussian: Nadrowite, Nadrovia, Nadrauen), also known in the sources as Nadravia, Nadrow and Nadra as well as other names. ...


The contexts for these elements remain unknown, or whether these Buri were the ancestors of our Prussians. The second-century AD geographer, Claudius Ptolemy, lists some Borusci living in European Sarmatia (Eighth Map of Europe), which was separated from Germania by the Vistula Flumen. His map is very confused in that region, but these Borusci seem further east than our Prussians, which would have been under the Gythones (Goths) at the mouth of the Vistula. The Aesti (Easterners) as they were recorded by Tacitus were recorded later by Jordanes as part of the Gothic empire. A medieval artists rendition of Claudius Ptolemaeus Claudius Ptolemaeus (Greek: ; c. ...


Early history

Main article: Origins of Prussia
Medieval depiction of Prussians killing Saint Adalbert the missionary bishop, part of the Gniezno Doors c. 1175.
Medieval depiction of Prussians killing Saint Adalbert the missionary bishop, part of the Gniezno Doors c. 1175.

At the beginning of Baltic history, the Old Prussians were bordered by the Vistula and the Neman Rivers with a southern depth to about Toruń, which was Prussian, and the line of the River Narew. The Kashubians were on the west, the Poles on the south, the Sudovians on the east, the Curonians on the north, and the Lithuanians on the northeast. The Sudovians began at about Suwałki. Prussias Ancient Roots The land extending from the south-eastern coast of the Baltic Sea to the Masurian Lakes district was called Prussia in the 8th century by a Bavarian geographer, whereas previous historians had documented the Prussian tribes as Easterners or Aesti, Aisti. ... Image File history File links Adalb. ... Silver coffin of St. ... Motto: none Voivodship Greater Poland Municipal government Mayor Jaromir Dziel Area 40,9 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 71 040 none 1737/km² Founded City rights 8th century 1239 Latitude Longitude 52°32 N 17°36 E Area code +48 61 Car plates PGN Twin towns Anagni, Esztergom, Falkenberg, Saint... Population density in the wider Baltic region. ... The Vistula (Polish: ) is the longest river in Poland. ... The Neman (Belarusian: ; Lithuanian: ; Russian: ; Polish: ; German: ) is a major Eastern European river rising in Belarus and flowing through Lithuania before draining into the Baltic Sea near KlaipÄ—da. ... ToruÅ„ (?· i; German: ; Kashubian: , see also other names) is a city in northern Poland, on the Vistula river. ... Narew (Belarusian: На́раў) is a river in western Belarus and north-eastern Poland, a tributary of the Vistula river. ... Kashubians, Kassubians, or Cassubians (Kashubian: Kaszëbi) are a Slavic ethnic group living in modern-day northwestern Poland. ... Sudovian kurhan Sudovians are a subgroup of Baltic people, living at the left coast of river Nemunas, in the region known as Sudovia. ... The Curonians (also called Kursi, Latvian KurÅ¡i) are one of the extinct Baltic tribes that later formed the Latvian nation. ... Motto: none Voivodship Podlaskie Municipal government Rada miejska w SuwaÅ‚kach Mayor Józef Gajewski Area 65. ...


The Prussians, like the other Balts of the times, were organized into a tribal structure. This structure is most fully attested in the Chronicon terrae Prussiae of Peter of Dusburg, a priest of the Teutonic Order. The work is dated to 1326. He lists eleven lands and ten tribes, which were named on a geographical basis. These were : Chronicon terrae Prussiae (The Chronicle of the Prussian Land) is a chronicle of the Teutonic Order by Peter of Dusburg dated to 1326. ... Chronicon terrae Prussiae (The Chronicle of the Prussian Land) is a chronicle of the Teutonic Order by Peter of Dusburg dated to 1326. ... Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ...

  1. Pomesania (German Pomesanien, modern Lithuanian Pamede, with the reconstructed Prussian name Pameddi)
  2. Varmia (German Ermland or Warmien, modern Lithuanian Varme, with the reconstructed Prussian name Wārmi)
  3. Pogesania (German Pogesanien, modern Lithuanian Pagude, with the reconstructed Prussian name Paguddi)
  4. Natangia (German Natangen, modern Lithuanian Notanga, see Notangians)
  5. Sambia (German Samland, modern Lithuanian Semba, see Sambians)
  6. Nadruvia (German Nadrauen, modern Lithuanian Nadruva, see Nadruvians)
  7. Bartia (German Barten, modern Lithuanian Barta, with the reconstructed Prussian name Barta, see Bartians)
  8. Skalovia (German Schalauen, modern Lithuanian Skalva, see Skalvians)
  9. Sudovia (German Sudauen, modern Lithuanian Suduva, with the reconstructed Prussian name Sūdawa, see Sudovians)
  10. Galindia (German Galindien, modern Lithuanian Galinda, with the reconstructed Prussian name Galinda, see Galindae)

Peter noted that the eleventh land, Kulm, to the southwest of Pomesania, was nearly uninhabited. After the German conquest of Prussia, the country was divided along almost these exact lines, although the Germans added a twelfth land which they called Sassen, centred at Tannenberg. Those names are not, perhaps, exhaustive. Many of the names appear in ancient and medieval sources, but the spelling and to some degree the morphology vary. Peter of Dusburg preferred Latin names, such as the Pomesani, Pogesani, Varmienses, etc. Pomesania is the former name of an area now in northern Poland, in the vicinity of the cities of Elblag (Elbing) and Malbork (Marienburg), to the east of the lower Vistula river. ... Warmia in 1547 Warmia (Polish: , German: , Latin: Varmia, also historically known as Ermeland) is a region between Pomerania and Masuria in northeastern Poland. ... Pogesania (German: ; Latin: Pogesania; Lithuanian: ) was a territory of the Baltic Prussians. ... Natangen (Lithuanian: ) is an area in former East Prussia, situated today on both sides of the border between Poland and the Russian Kaliningrad Oblast. ... Notangians (pruss. ... Sambia (German: ; Polish: ; Russian: ) is a peninsula in the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia, on the south-eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. ... The Sambians were an Old Prussian tribe inhabiting land of Sambia, north of the city of Königsberg (now Kaliningrad). ... Upper Neman The Nadruvians took their name from their ancestral homeland, Nadruvia or Nadruva (Prussian: Nadrowite, Nadrovia, Nadrauen), also known in the sources as Nadravia, Nadrow and Nadra as well as other names. ... Nadruvia or Nadruva was the homeland of a pagan Prussian tribe in the first few centuries of the 2nd millenium AD. It was the location of the sacred center of Baltic pagan religion, Romuva, according to Peter of Dusburg, writing in 1326. ... Bartians (Barthi, Barti) is an extinct tribe of Prussians in the land of Barta/Bartia from the middle and lower flow of Lyna river, by Swina river, Lake Mamry, up to the Galindian woods. ... Bartians (Barthi, Barti) is an extinct tribe of Prussians in the land of Barta from the middle and lower flow of Lyna river, by Swina river, Lake Mamry, up to the Galindian woods. ... Scalovia (German: ) was the area originally inhabited by the now extinct tribe of Scalovians (German: ) which according to the Chronicon terrae Prussiae of Peter of Dusburg lived to the south of Curonians, by the lower Memel (Nemunas) river, in the times around 1240. ... Skalvians, (Scalvians Scalowians) is an extinct tribe of Prussians which according the Chronicon terrae Prussiae of Peter of Dusburg, inhabited the land of Skalvi (Scalwia, Schalowia) to the south of Curonians, by the lower Nemunas river in the times around 1240. ... Sudovia (Lithuanian: SÅ«duva / Suvalkija, Polish: Suwalszczyzna), or Suvalkija (pronouncing soo-vul-kee-uh), is the name of one of ethnographic regions of Lithuania. ... Sudovian kurhan Sudovians are a subgroup of Baltic people, living at the left coast of river Nemunas, in the region known as Sudovia. ... Image:Prussia. ... Galindae, Galindai, or Galindians is an extinct Western Baltic tribe which formerly lived in Galindia (today Masuria, Poland (so-called Western Galindae) and in the basin of the Protva River, near the modern Russian towns of Mozhaysk, Vereya, and Borovsk (so-called Eastern Galindae). ... CheÅ‚mno Land or Culmland (Polish: Ziemia CheÅ‚miÅ„ska, German: Kulmerland) is a historical region in central Poland bounded by the Vistula and DrwÄ™ca rivers. ... Pomesania is the former name of an area now in northern Poland, in the vicinity of the cities of Elblag (Elbing) and Malbork (Marienburg), to the east of the lower Vistula river. ... Stębark (German:Tannenberg) is a village in Poland. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ...


Medieval history

The first definite mention of the Old Prussians in historical sources is in connection with Adalbert of Prague, who was slain in 997 during a missionary effort to Christianise the Prussians. Because the pagan Old Prussians came into conflict with Roman Catholic Poland, Duke Konrad I of Masovia sought external help in the 1220s. Although the Old Prussians repelled the Order of Dobrzyń, they succumbed to the Teutonic Knights after a bloody conquest spanning several decades in the 13th century during the Northern Crusades. Many of the native Prussians who survived were resettled in Sambia. Frequent revolts, including a major rebellion in 1286, were defeated by the crusaders. Silver coffin of St. ... A Christian is a follower of Jesus of Nazareth, referred to as the Christ. ... Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning a country dweller or civilian) is a term which, from a western perspective, has come to connote a broad set of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices of natural or polytheistic religions. ... The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic Church (see Terminology below) is the Christian Church in full communion with the Bishop of Rome, currently Pope Benedict XVI. It traces its origins and sees itself as the true Church founded by Jesus of Nazareth and maintained through Apostolic Succession from the Twelve... Konrad I of Masovia. ... Historical division of Masovia Masovia (Polish: Mazowsze) is a geographical and historical region situated in central Poland with its capital at Warsaw. ... Emblem of the Order The Order of DobrzyÅ„ (also known as Brothers of DobrzyÅ„, Polish Bracia DobrzyÅ„scy; German: Orden von Dobrin) was a military order created in Poland during the Northern Crusades of the 13th century to defend against Baltic Prussian raids. ... The Teutonic Knights or Teutonic Order (Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Ierosolimitanorum, Order of the Teutonic House of Mary in Jerusalem) is a German Roman Catholic religious order formed at the end of the 12th century in Acre in Palestine. ... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ... Sambia (German: ; Polish: ; Russian: ) is a peninsula in the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia, on the south-eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. ...


Baptised Prussians were educated at the Archbishopric of Magdeburg, while Germans and Dutch settlers colonized the lands of the aboriginal Old Prussians; Poles and Lithuanians also settled in southern and eastern Prussia, respectively. Significant pockets of Old Prussians were left in a matrix of Germans in what is now the Kaliningrad Oblast, and remained part of the monastic state of the Teutonic Knights until 1525. They were gradually Germanized or Polonized, depending on which part of Prussia they lived in, especially beginning in the 15th century. Baptism in early Christian art. ... The Archbishopric of Magdeburg was a state of the Holy Roman Empire lying around Magdeburg along the Elbe River. ... Location of the Kaliningrad Oblast Map of the Kaliningrad Oblast Kaliningrad Oblast Flag Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: ; German: or Nordostpreussen, Northeast Prussia), informally called Yantarny kray (, meaning Amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast, with no land connection to the rest of Russia; it... This article needs to be wikified. ... Polonization (Polish: ) is the assumption (complete or partial), of the Polish language or another real or supposed Polish attribute. ...


The monks and scholars of the Teutonic Order took a great interest in the language spoken by the Prussians, and tried to record it. In addition, the missionaries needed to communicate with the Prussians in order to convert them. Consequently, there are some records of the Old Prussian language; along with the slightly known Galindian and the better-known Sudovian, these records are all that remain of the West Baltic language group. As might be expected, it is a very archaic Baltic, showing affinities with Proto-Germanic. The Old Prussian language seems to support the theory that a common Germanic/Balto/Slavic language once existed[citation needed]. Old Prussian is an extinct Baltic language spoken by the inhabitants of the area that later became East Prussia (now in north-eastern Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia) prior to German colonization of the area beginning in the 13th century. ... Galindian is a poorly attested extinct language, considered to be a part of the Baltic languages group. ... Sudovian (otherwise known as Jatvingian or Yotvingian) is an extinct western Baltic language of north-eastern Europe. ... Map of the Pre-Roman Iron Age culture(s) associated with Proto-Germanic, c. ...


The Teutonic Order was gradually defeated by the Polish-Lithuanian Union during the 15th century. In 1525 Grand Master Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach secularized the Order's Prussian territories into the Protestant Duchy of Prussia, a vassal of Poland. The Old Prussians rose again in rebellion, but were defeated by the German authorities. During the Protestant Reformation, Lutheranism spread throughout the territories, officially in the Duchy of Prussia and unofficially in the Polish province of Royal Prussia, while Catholicism survived in Warmia. With Protestantism came the use of the vernacular in church services instead of Latin; Albert had the Catechisms translated into the Old Prussian language. The term Polish-Lithuanian Union refers to a series of acts and alliances between the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania that lead to the creation of the Republic of Both Nations in 1569 and eventually to creation of a unified state in 1791. ... Albert (May 16, 1490 - March 20, 1568), (Albertus in Latin, Margrave Albrecht of Brandenburg in German) Grand Master of the Teutonic Order and first duke of Ducal Prussia, was the third son of Frederick of Hohenzollern, prince of Ansbach and Bayreuth, and Sophia, daughter of Casimir IV Jagiello Grand Duke... The Prussian Tribute, oil on canvas by Jan Matejko, 1882, 388 x 875 cm, National Museum in Kraków. ... The Protestant Reformation, also referred to as the Protestant Revolution, Protestant Revolt,or theLutheran Reformation, was a movement in the 16th century to reform the Catholic Church in Western Europe. ... Lutheranism is a movement within Christianity that began with the theological insights of Martin Luther in the 16th century> Luthers writings launched the Protestant Reformation of the Western church. ... Map of Royal Prussia Royal Prussia (Polish: Prusy Królewskie, German: Königliches Preussen) was the western part of two parts of Prussia, which previously were governed as one Lands of the Teutonic Order. ... Warmia in 1547 Warmia (Polish: , German: , Latin: Varmia, also historically known as Ermeland) is a region between Pomerania and Masuria in northeastern Poland. ... Protestantism is one of three main groups currently within Christianity. ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Codex Manesse, fol. ...


Because of the assimilation of the Old Prussians by Germans, Poles, and Lithuanians, the Old Prussian language became extinct before the end of the 17th century, but Bibles and poetry were written in the language beforehand. Old Prussian is an extinct Baltic language spoken by the inhabitants of the area that later became East Prussia (now in north-eastern Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia) prior to German colonization of the area beginning in the 13th century. ... The word Bible refers to the canonical collections of sacred writings of Judaism and Christianity. ...


See also

Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian: kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-słowińskô mòwa) is one of the Lechitic languages, which are a group of Slavic languages. ... Slovincian is an extinct dialect of the Pomeranian language, spoken between the lakes Gardno and Lebsko in Pomerania. ... Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: Prūsa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in East Prussia, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ... Galindae, Galindai, or Galindians is an extinct Western Baltic tribe which formerly lived in Galindia (today Masuria, Poland (so-called Western Galindae) and in the basin of the Protva River, near the modern Russian towns of Mozhaysk, Vereya, and Borovsk (so-called Eastern Galindae). ... Sudovian kurhan Sudovians are a subgroup of Baltic people, living at the left coast of river Nemunas, in the region known as Sudovia. ... Categories: Baltic peoples | Stub ...

External links

  • 1584 Map showing Altes Preussenland Old Prussia
  • Northeast Prussia
  • Milestones of Baltic Prussian History
  • Map of Prussia before Teutonic Order invasion


  Results from FactBites:
 
Wikinfo | Old Prussian language (370 words)
Old Prussian denotes an extinct Baltic language spoken by the inhabitants of the area that later became East Prussia (now in north-eastern Poland and the Kaliningrad oblast of Russia) prior to Polish and German colonization of the area beginning in the 13th century.
Old Prussian is closely related to the other extinct western Baltic languages, Galindan (formerly spoken in the territory to the south) and Sudovian (to the east).
Old Prussian probably ceased to be spoken around the end of the 17th century with the great plague.
Old Prussian language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1047 words)
Old Prussian is an extinct Baltic language spoken by the inhabitants of the area that later became East Prussia (now in north-eastern Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia) prior to German colonization of the area beginning in the 13th century.
Old Prussian probably ceased to be spoken in the beginning of the 18th century.
Old Prussian began to be written down in the Latin alphabet in about the 13th century.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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