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Encyclopedia > Old Prussian language
Old Prussian
Prūsiska Bila
Spoken in: East Prussia
Language extinction: Beginning of 18th century
Language family: Indo-European
 Baltic
  Old Prussian
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: bat
ISO/FDIS 639-3: prg 

Old Prussian is an extinct Baltic language spoken by the inhabitants of the area that later became East Prussia (now in north-eastern Poland and the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia) prior to German colonization of the area beginning in the 13th century. In Old Prussian itself, the language was called "Prūsiskan" or "Prūsiskai Bilā" [1]. A few experimental communities involved in reviving a reconstructed form of the language now exist in Lithuania, Poland and other countries. East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... An extinct language (also called a dead language) is a language which no longer has any native speakers. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2:1998 Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code Twenty-two of the languages have two three-letter codes: a code for bibliographic use (ISO 639-2/B) a code for terminological use (ISO 639-2/T). ... ISO 639-3 is in process of development as an international standard for language codes. ... For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words see here. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone = sound/voice) is the study of sounds (voice). ... Because of technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... This is a concise version of the International Phonetic Alphabet for English sounds. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Baltic languages are a group of related languages belonging to the Indo-European language family and spoken mainly in areas extending east and southeast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. ... The Prussian people, or (old) Prussians, were Indo-European Balts inhabiting the area around the Curonian and Vistula Lagoons (i. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Location of the Kaliningrad Oblast Map of the Kaliningrad Oblast Kaliningrad Oblast Flag Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: ; German: or Nordostpreussen, Northeast Prussia), informally called Yantarny kray (, meaning Amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast, with no land connection to the rest of Russia; it... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Language revival is the revival, by governments, political authorities, or enthusiasts, to recover the spoken use of a language that is no longer spoken or is endangered. ...


Old Prussian is closely related to the other extinct western Baltic languages, the Curonian and Sudovian. It is more distantly related to the surviving eastern Baltic languages, Lithuanian and particularly Latvian. The term Curonian language may refer to two different, but genetically related Baltic languages. ... Sudovian (otherwise known as Jatvingian or Yotvingian) is an extinct western Baltic language of north-eastern Europe. ...


The Aesti, mentioned by Tacitus in his Germania, may have been a people who spoke Old Prussian. Tacitus describes them as being just like the Suebi (who were a group of Germanic peoples) but with a more Britannic-like (Celtic) language. The Roman historian Tacitus in his book Germania mentions a Aesti or Aestii people. ... Gaius Cornelius Tacitus Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. ... The Germania (Latin title: De Origine et situ Germanorum), written by Gaius Cornelius Tacitus around 98, is an ethnographic work on the diverse set of Germanic tribes outside the Roman Empire. ... Suebi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Celtic languages are the languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or Common Celtic, spoken by ancient and modern Celts alike. ...


Old Prussian, as a Baltic language, was similar to the other two Baltic languages, Latvian and Lithuanian. In addition, it also possessed similarities in a few basic words to the Slavic languages. (Compare the Prussian word Same - earth and German words Samen and Semen for seeds, to the Latvian Zeme, the Lithuanian Žemė, and the Polish Ziemia, all with the meaning "earth".)


During the Reformation and thereafter, other groups of people from Poland, Lithuania, France, and Austria found refuge in Prussia. These new immigrants caused a slow decline in the use of Old Prussian as Prussians began to adopt the languages of the newcomers. Old Prussian probably ceased to be spoken in the beginning of the 18th century. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... The Prussian people, or (old) Prussians, were Indo-European Balts inhabiting the area around the Curonian and Vistula Lagoons (i. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


It is called “Old Prussian” to avoid confusion with the adjective “Prussian”, which relates also to the later German state. The “Old Prussian” name for the nation, not being Latinized, was Prūsa. This too may be used to delineate the language from the later state.


Old Prussian began to be written down in the Latin alphabet in about the 13th century. A small amount of literature in the language survives. (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ...

Contents

Monuments

The monuments of Old Prussian are:


1 - Prussian-language geographical names within the territory of (Baltic) Prussia. The first basic study of these names was by Georg Gerullis, in Die altpreußischen Ortsnamen (The Old Prussian Place-names), written and published with the help of Walter de Gruyter, in 1922.


2 – Prussian personal names. Up to now, the main research is by Reinhold Trautmann, in Die altpreußischen Personennamen (The Old Prussian Personal-names) [2]. This was published by Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, in Göttingen, 1923. (In it, the work of Ernst Lewy in 1904 is also included.)


3 – Separate words found in various historical documents.


4 – Vernacularisms in the former German dialects of East and West Prussia, as well words of Old Curonian origin in Latvian, and West-Baltic vernacularisms in Lithuanian and Belorussian.


5 – The so-called Basel Epigram [3]. It reads : Kayle rekyse. thoneaw labonache thewelyse. Eg. koyte poyte. nykoyte. pe^nega doyte; which may be : Kaīls rikīse! Tu ni jāu laban asei tēwelise, ik kwaitēi pōiti, ni kwaitēi peningā dōiti. (In English: "Hello Sir! You are no longer a nice uncle, if you want to drink but do not want to give a penny!" [4].) This is an inscription of the 14th century, most probably by a Prussian student studying in Prague, found by St. McCluskey in one of folios of the Basel university in 1974.


6 – Various fragmentary texts : a) Recorded in several versions by Hieronymus Maletius in Sudovian Nook in the middle of the 16th century are :

  • Beigeite beygeyte peckolle - Run, devils, run!,
  • Kails naussen gnigethe - Hello our friend!,
  • Kails poskails ains par antres - (a drinking toast, reconstructed as Kaīls pas kaīls, aīns per āntran, or in English : A healthy one after a healthy one, one after another!),
  • Kellewesze perioth, Kellewesze perioth - A carter drives here, a carter drives here!,
  • O hoho Moi mile swente Pannike Oh my dear holy fire!.

(All of these were reconstructed, following their discovery, by V. Mažiulis.) b) an expression from the list of the Vocabulary of friar Simon Grunau, an historian of the German Order : sta nossen rickie, nossen rickie, This is our lord, our lord.


7 – A manuscript fragment of the first words of the Pater Noster in Prussian, from the beginning of the 15th century : Towe Nüsze kås esse andangonsün swyntins. Pater Noster may refer to: The Lords Prayer, a Christian prayer paternoster lift, a kind of elevator This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


8 – 100 words (in strongly varying versions) of the Vocabulary by Simon Grunau [5], written ca. 1517–1526; these have been reconstructed into a more unified single system of spelling by V. Mažiulis.


9 – The so-called Elbing Vocabulary [6], which consists of 802 thematically sorted words and their German equivalents. This manuscript, copied by Peter Holcwesscher from Marienburg on the boundary of the 14th and 15th centuries, was found in 1825 by Fr. Neumann among other manuscripts acquired by him from the heritage of the Elbing merchant A. Grübnau; it was thus dubbed the “Codex Neumannianus”. Again, the words have been reconstructed into a more unified single system of spelling by V. Mažiulis, a scholar and contributor to the revival of the Prussian language.


10 - The three Catechisms: I, II, and III (all here[7]) printed in the Prussian language in Königsberg in 1545, 1545, and 1561 respectively. The first two consist of only 6 pages text in Prussian -- the second one being a correction of the first into another sub-dialect. The third one, however, consists of 132 pages of Prussian text, and is a translation by Abel Will of Martin Luther’s Enchiridion. Enchiridion can refer to: Enchiridion of Augustine Enchiridion of Epictetus This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


11 - An adage of 1583, Dewes does dantes, Dewes does geitka. This is, in all probability, not Prussian -- the form does in the second instance corresponds to Lithuanian future tense duos ‘will give’ -- however it is included in this list because it is commonly thought of as Prussian. As for trencke, trencke! (Strike! Strike!), it too is in all probability Lithuanian, not Prussian.


Examples of Prussian

Here are some basic Prussian phrases :

Translation Phrase
Prussian [language] Prūsiskan
Hello Kaīls
Good morning Kaīls Anksteīnai
Good-bye Ērdiw
Thank you Dīnka
How much? Kelli?
Yes
No Ni
Where is the bathroom? Kwēi ast Spektāstuba?
(Generic toast) Kaīls pas kaīls aīns per āntran
Do you speak English? Bilāi tū Ēngliskan?

Prussian was a highly inflected language, as can be seen from the declination of the demonstrative pronoun stas, that. (Note that translators of the Teutonic Order frequently misused stas as an article for the word "the".)

Case Singular, m Singular, f Singular, n Plural, m Plural, f Plural, n
Nominative stas stāi stan stāi stās stai
Genitive stesse stesses stesse stēisan stēisan stēisan
Dative stesmu stessei stesmu or stesmā stēimans stēimans stēimans
Accusative stan stan stan or sta stans stans stans or stas

Prussian also possessed a vocative case, like Latin. Categories: Stub | Software engineering | Data management ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun. ... The genitive case is a grammatical case that indicates a relationship, primarily one of possession, between the noun in the genitive case and another noun. ... Dative has several meanings. ... The term accusative may be used in the following contexts: A form of morphosyntactic alignment, as found in nominative-accusative languages. ... The vocative case is the case used for a noun identifying the person (animal, object, etc. ...


See also

The Baltic languages are a group of genetically-related languages spoken in northeastern Europe and belonging to the Indo-European language family. ... Low Prussian (Niederpreußisch) is a dialect of East Low German, which was spoken in formerly German areas, that belong to Poland, Russia and Lithuania. ...

External links

Baltic languages
Curonian | Galindian | Latgalian | Latvian | Lithuanian |
Old Prussian | Samogitian | Selonian | Semigallian | Sudovian

  Results from FactBites:
 
Wikinfo | Old Prussian language (370 words)
Old Prussian denotes an extinct Baltic language spoken by the inhabitants of the area that later became East Prussia (now in north-eastern Poland and the Kaliningrad oblast of Russia) prior to Polish and German colonization of the area beginning in the 13th century.
Old Prussian is closely related to the other extinct western Baltic languages, Galindan (formerly spoken in the territory to the south) and Sudovian (to the east).
Old Prussian probably ceased to be spoken around the end of the 17th century with the great plague.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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