FACTOID # 9: The bookmobile capital of America is Kentucky.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Old Norse poetry
Jump to: navigation, search

Old Norse poetry encompasses a range of verse forms written in a number of Nordic languages, embraced by the term Old Norse, during the period from the 8th century to as late as the far end of the 13th century. Poetry played an important role in the social and religious world of the Vikings. In Norse mythology the story of Odin bringing the mead of poetry to Asgard is an indicator of the significance of poetry within the contemporary Nordic cultures. Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Jump to: navigation, search The name Viking is a borrowed word from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, the British Isles, and other parts of Europe from the late 8th century to the 11th century. ... Jump to: navigation, search Norse or Scandinavian mythology refers to the pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian people, including those who settled on Iceland, where the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ... Jump to: navigation, search Odin is considered to be the supreme god of late Germanic and Norse mythology. ... Asgard (Old Norse: Ásgarðr) is the realm of the gods, the Æsir, in Norse mythology, thought to be separate from the realm of the mortals, Midgard. ...


Old Norse poetry is characterised by alliteration, a poetic vocabulary expanded by heiti, and use of kennings. An important source of information about poetic forms in Old Norse is the Prose Edda of Snorri Sturluson. Alliteration is a stylistic device, or literary technique, in which successive words (more strictly, stressed syllables) begin with the same consonant sound or letter. ... Heiti is a word used to describe a form of kenning, particularly with reference to a by-name for one of the Norse or Anglo-Saxon deities. ... This article is about kenning as a poetic notion. ... The Younger Edda, known also as the Prose Edda or Snorris Edda is an Icelandic manual of poetics which also contains many mythological stories. ... Snorri Sturluson (1178 â€“ September 23, 1241) was an Icelandic historian, poet and politician. ...


Old Norse poetry is conventionally, and somewhat arbitrarily, split into two types; Eddaic poetry and skaldic poetry. Eddaic poetry includes the poems of the Codex Regius and a few other similar ones. Skaldic poetry is usually defined as everything else. The Poetic Edda is a collection of Old Norse poems from the Icelandic mediaeval manuscript Codex Regius. ... Skaldic poetry (Icelandic: dróttkvæði, court poetry) is Old Norse poetry composed by known skalds, as opposed to the anonymous Eddaic poetry. ... The Codex Regius is an Icelandic manuscript (See also Codex) which is thought to have been written in the 1270s, but many of the poems and stories contained in it pre-date the conversion of Scandinavia to Christianity in the late tenth century. ...

Contents


Metrical Forms

Old Norse poetry has many metrical forms. They range from the relatively simple fornyrðislag) to the deeply complex dróttkvætt, the "courtly metre". The Old English epic poem Beowulf is written in alliterative verse. ... The Old English epic poem Beowulf is written in alliterative verse. ...


In Eddic poetry, the metric structures are generally simple, and are almost invariably ljóðaháttr or fornyrðislag. Ljóðaháttr, (known also as the "metre of chants"), because of its structure, which comprises of broken stanzas, lends itself to dialogue and discourse. Fornyrðislag, "the metre of ancient words", is the more commonly used of the two, and is generally used where the poem is largely narrative. It is composed with four or more syllables per line. Other metrical forms include Jump to: navigation, search The Old English epic poem Beowulf is written in alliterative verse. ...

  • Málaháttr is similar to fornyrðislag, but with a fixed metrical length of five syllables.
  • Hrynhenda, a variant of dróttkvætt, which uses all the rules of dróttkvætt, with the exception that the line is comprised of four metrical feet rather than three.
  • Kviðuháttr, another variant of fornyrðislag with alternating lines of 3 and 4 syllables
  • Galdralag, the "magic spell metre", which contains a fourth line which echoes and varies the third line

Jump to: navigation, search Málaháttr is a poetic metre in Old Norse poetry, which is usually described as conversational style. It is similar to fornyrðislag except in that there are a regular number of syllables in a line, usually (but not always) five. ...

Eddaic poetry

Main article: Poetic Edda The Poetic Edda is a collection of Old Norse poems from the Icelandic mediaeval manuscript Codex Regius. ...


The Eddaic poems have the following characteristics.

  • The author is always anonymous.
  • The meter is simple, fornyrðislag, málaháttr or ljóðaháttr.
  • The word order is usually relatively straightforward.
  • Kennings are used sparingly and opaque ones are rare.

Skaldic poetry

Main article: Skaldic poetry Skaldic poetry (Icelandic: dróttkvæði, court poetry) is Old Norse poetry composed by known skalds, as opposed to the anonymous Eddaic poetry. ...


The Skaldic poems have the following characteristics.

  • The author is usually known.
  • The meter is ornate, usually dróttkvætt or a variation thereof.
  • The syntax is ornate, with sentences commonly interwoven.
  • Kennings are used frequently.

Skaldic poems

Most of the skaldic poetry we have are poems composed to individual kings by their court poets. They typically have historical content, relating battles and other deeds from the king's carrier.

  • Vellekla - The deeds of Hákon Hlaðajarl.
  • Bandadrápa - The deeds of Eiríkr Hlaðajarl.

A few surviving skaldic poems have mythological content.

  • Þórsdrápa - A drápa to the god Thor telling the tale of one of his giant-bashing expeditions.
  • Haustlöng - Relates two tales from the mythology as painted on a shield given to the poet.
  • Ragnarsdrápa - Relates four tales from the mythology as painted on a shield given to the poet.
  • Húsdrápa - Describes mythological scenes as carved on kitchen panels.

To this could be added two poems relating the death of a king and his reception in Valhalla. The Thorsdrapa or Þórsdrápa (Hymn to Thor) is a skaldic poem of Norse mythology usually attributed to Eilífr Goðrúnarson (11th century). ... Jump to: navigation, search Thor carries his hammer and wears his belt of strength in this illustration from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Loki strikes Þjazi with a rod in this picture from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ... Jump to: navigation, search Ragnarsdrápa is a skaldic poem composed to the Scandinavian hero Ragnar Lodbrok. ... Thor goes fishing for Jörmungandr in this picture from an 18th century Icelandic manuscript. ...

  • Hákonarmál - The death of king Hákon and his reception in Valhalla.
  • Eiríksmál - The death of king Eiríkr and his reception in Valhalla.

Hákonarmál is a skaldic poem which the skald Eyvindr Skáldaspillir composed about the fall of the Norwegian king Haakon the Good and his reception in Valhalla. ... Haakon I (c. ... Jump to: navigation, search In this illustration from a 17th century Icelandic manuscript Heimdallr is shown guarding the gate of Valhalla. ... Eiríksmál is a skaldic poem composed sometime in 954 or later on the behest of the Norwegian queen Gunnhild in honour of her slain consort Erik Bloodaxe. ... Jump to: navigation, search In this illustration from a 17th century Icelandic manuscript Heimdallr is shown guarding the gate of Valhalla. ...

See also

Jump to: navigation, search The skald was a member of a group of courtly poets, whose poetry is associated with the courts of Scandinavian and Icelandic leaders during the Viking age, who composed and performed renditions of aspects of what we now characterise as Old Norse poetry. ... This article is about kenning as a poetic notion. ... A list of kennings follows. ... The Old English epic poem Beowulf is written in alliterative verse. ...

Bibliography

Norse mythology Variant of Image:Mjollnir. ... Jump to: navigation, search Norse or Scandinavian mythology refers to the pre-Christian religion, beliefs and legends of the Scandinavian people, including those who settled on Iceland, where the written sources for Norse mythology were assembled. ...

List of Norse gods | Æsir | Vanir | Giants | Elves | Dwarves | Valkyries | Einherjar | Norns
Odin | Thor | Freyr | Freya | Loki | Balder | Tyr | Yggdrasil | Ginnungagap | Ragnarök
Sources:
Poetic Edda | Prose Edda | The Sagas | Volsung Cycle | Tyrfing Cycle
Rune stones | Old Norse language | Orthography | Later influence
Society:
Viking Age | Skald | Kenning | Blót | Seid | Numbers
The nine worlds of Norse mythology | People, places and things

  Results from FactBites:
 
Old Norse poetry - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (568 words)
Old Norse poetry encompasses a range of verse forms written in a number of Nordic languages, embraced by the term Old Norse, during the period from the 8th century to as late as the far end of the 13th century.
A significant amount of Old Norse literature that survives was preserved in Iceland.
Old Norse poetry is characterised by alliteration, a poetic vocabulary expanded by heiti, and use of kennings.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m