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Encyclopedia > Old Norse
Old Norse
dǫnsk tunga, norrœnt mál
Spoken in: Scandinavia, Iceland, Greenland, the Faroes, Scotland, Ireland, England and Wales, Isle of Man, Vinland, the Volga and places in between
Language extinction: developed into the various North Germanic languages by the 14th century
Language family: Indo-European
 Germanic
  North Germanic
   Old Norse 
Writing system: Runic, later Latin alphabet.
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: non
ISO 639-3: non

Old Norse was the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. It evolved from the older Proto-Norse, in the 8th century. Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe and includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... The Faroe Islands (Faroese: Føroyar, meaning Sheep Islands) are a group of islands in the north Atlantic Ocean between Scotland and Iceland. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... Vinland was the name given to a part of North America by the Icelandic norseman Leif Eiríksson, about the year (AD) 1000. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... An extinct language is a language which no longer has any native speakers, in contrast to a dead language, which is is a language which has stopped changing in grammar, vocabulary, and the complete meaning of a sentence. ... The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the East Germanic languages. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... Current distribution of Human Language Families A language family is a group of related languages said to have descended from a common proto-language. ... The Indo-European languages comprise a family of several hundred related languages and dialects [1], including most of the major languages of Europe, as well as many spoken in the Indian subcontinent (South Asia), the Iranian plateau (Southwest Asia), and Central Asia. ... The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the East Germanic languages. ... Writing systems of the world today. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone meaning sound, voice) is the study of the sounds of human speech. ... Unicode is an industry standard designed to allow text and symbols from all of the writing systems of the world to be consistently represented and manipulated by computers. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe and includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... The Viking Age is the name of the age in Northern Europe, following the Germanic Iron Age. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... Proto-Norse, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Nordic or Proto-North Germanic was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved from Proto-Germanic between the 1st century BC and the 2nd century, and was spoken until ca 800, when it evolved into the Old Norse language. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ...


Because most of the surviving texts are from Medieval Icelandic, the de facto standard version of the language is the Old West Norse dialect, that is Old Icelandic and Old Norwegian. Most speakers of Old Norse, however, spoke the very similar Old East Norse dialect in Denmark and Sweden and their settlements. There was no clear geographical separation between the two dialects. Old East Norse traits were found in eastern Norway and Old West Norse traits were found in western Sweden. In addition, there was also an Old Gutnish dialect, sometimes included in Old East Norse because it was the least known dialect. The Icelandic Gray Goose Laws stated that Swedes, Norwegians, Icelanders and Danes all spoke the same language, dǫnsk tunga. In the eastern dialect, which was spoken in Sweden and Denmark, this would have been dansk tunga and this translates as the "Danish tongue". It was also called norrœnt mál ("Nordic language"). West Norse is also called Old Icelandic or Old Norwegian. ... Old Gutnish was the dialect of Old Norse that was spoken on the island of Gotland. ... Gray Goose Laws A collection of laws from the Icelandic Commonwealth period consisting of Icelandic civil laws and the laws governing the Christian church in Iceland. ...


It has been said that old Norse was mutually intelligible with Old English, Old Saxon and Old Low Franconian, which however may be an overstatement.[citation needed] Although the languages were closer then, a Scandinavian of the time may not have understood an Anglo-Saxon better than a present day Englishman understands Dutch.[citation needed] Old English (also called Anglo-Saxon[1], Old English: ) is an early form of the English language that was spoken in parts of what is now England and southern Scotland between the mid-fifth century and the mid-twelfth century. ... Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, is a Germanic language. ... Old Low Franconian is the language ancestral to the Low Franconian languages, including Dutch. ...


Old Norse gradually evolved into the modern North Germanic languages: Icelandic, Faroese, Norwegian, Danish and Swedish. Modern Icelandic is the descendant that has diverged the least from Old Norse. In its normalised written form based off the Old Norse/modern Icelandic phoneme system, Old Norse is understandable to modern day Icelandic-speakers with only minute differences in spelling as well as semantics and word order. Had it been spoken during the Old Norse era, its modern pronunciation and extended vocabulary aside, it would have been considered nothing more than the most differentiated of all Norse dialects of the time. However, pronunciation, particularly of the vowel phonemes, has changed at least as much as other North Germanic languages. But regarding the phoneme system itself the language still retains more of the Old Norse system of phonemes than do the others as it is more or less identical to the 13th century western Old Norse system of phonemes while all in all being very similar to the more archaic versions found during the later Viking age. The differences are in fact so minute that someone reading a text might need to sift through several sentences before being able to spot a single ancient/modern difference. Faroese retains many similarities but is influenced by Danish, Norwegian, and Gaelic (Scots and/or Irish). Although Swedish, Danish and the Norwegian languages have diverged the most, they still retain mutual intelligibility. This could be because these languages have been mutually affected by each other, as well as having a similar development influenced by Middle Low German.[1] The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the East Germanic languages. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Middle Low German language is an ancestor of the modern Low German language, and was spoken from about 1100 to 1500. ...

Contents

Geographical distribution

The approximate extent of Old Norse and related languages in the early 10th century:       Old West Norse dialect       Old East Norse dialect       Old Gutnish dialect       Crimean Gothic       Other Germanic languages with which Old Norse still retained some mutual intelligibility
The approximate extent of Old Norse and related languages in the early 10th century:       Old West Norse dialect       Old East Norse dialect       Old Gutnish dialect       Crimean Gothic       Other Germanic languages with which Old Norse still retained some mutual intelligibility

Old Icelandic was essentially identical to Old Norwegian and together they formed the Old West Norse dialect of Old Norse. The Old East Norse dialect was spoken in Denmark and Sweden and settlements in Russia,[2] England and Normandy. The Old Gutnish dialect was spoken in Gotland and in various settlements in the East. In the 11th century, it was the most widely spoken European language ranging from Vinland in the West to the Volga in the East. In Russia it survived longest in Novgorod and probably lasted into the 13th century.[2] Download high resolution version (1235x909, 75 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Old Norse language User:Wiglaf User:Wiglaf/maps ... Download high resolution version (1235x909, 75 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Old Norse language User:Wiglaf User:Wiglaf/maps ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Old Gutnish was the dialect of Old Norse that was spoken on the island of Gotland. ... Crimean Gothic was a dialect of Gothic that was spoken by the Crimean Goths in some isolated locations in the Crimea (now Ukraine) perhaps until as late as the 18th century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... West Norse is also called Old Icelandic or Old Norwegian. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... Flag of Normandy Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region in northern France. ... Old Gutnish was the dialect of Old Norse that was spoken on the island of Gotland. ...   is a county and province of Sweden and the largest island in the Baltic Sea. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Vinland was the name given to a part of North America by the Icelandic norseman Leif Eiríksson, about the year (AD) 1000. ... The Volga, widely viewed as the national river of Russia, flows through the western part of the country. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ...


Modern descendants

Its modern descendants are the West Scandinavian languages of Icelandic, Faroese, Norwegian and the extinct Norn language of the Orkney and the Shetland Islands as well as the East Scandinavian languages of Danish and Swedish. Norwegian has descended from West Norse (West Scandinavian), but over the centuries it has been heavily influenced by East Norse (East Scandinavian). Norn is an extinct North Germanic language that was spoken on the Shetland Islands and Orkney Islands, off the coast of Scotland. ... Location Geography Area Ranked 16th  - Total 990 km²  - % Water  ? Admin HQ Kirkwall ISO 3166-2 GB-ORK ONS code 00RA Demographics Population Ranked 32nd  - Total (2005) 19,590  - Density 20 / km² Politics Orkney Islands Council http://www. ... The Shetland Islands, also called Shetland (archaically spelled Zetland) formerly called Hjaltland, comprise one of 32 council areas of Scotland. ...


Among these, Icelandic and the closely related Faroese have changed the least from Old Norse in the last thousand years, although with Danish rule of the Faroe Islands Faroese has also been influenced by Danish. Old Norse also had an influence on English dialects and particularly Lowland Scots which contains many Old Norse loanwords. It also influenced the development of the Norman language. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ... Norman is a Romance language and one of the Oïl languages. ...


Various other languages, which are not closely related, have been heavily influenced by Norse, particularly the Norman dialects and Scottish Gaelic. Russian and Finnish also have a number of Norse loanwords; The words "Rus" and "Russia", according to one theory, may be derivatives from "Rus", the name of a Norse tribe (see Etymology of Rus and derivatives). Also, the current Finnish words for Sweden and Swedish are Ruotsi and Ruotsalainen respectively. // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Rus’ (????, ) was a medieval East Slavic nation, which, according to the most popular (but by no means only) theory, may have taken its name from a ruling warrior class, possibly with Scandinavian roots. ... Originally Rus (Русь, Rus’) was a medieval country and state that comprised mostly Early East Slavs. ...


Phonology

Vowels

The vowel phonemes mostly come in pairs of long and short. The orthography marks the long vowels with an acute accent in West Old Norse while East Old Norse generally leaves it unmarked or less frequently geminated. All phonemes have, more or less, the expected phonetic realization.

Vowels of Old Norse
  Front vowels Back vowels
Unrounded Rounded Unrounded Rounded
Close i y     u
Mid ɛ œ øː     o
Open æ æː     a ɒ ɒː

Some y, , œ, øː, and all æ, æː were obtained by i-mutation from u, , o, , a, respectively. I-mutation is what umlaut is called when it applies to English. ...


Some y, , œ, øː, and all ɒ, ɒː were obtained by u-mutation from i, , e, , a, respectively. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


See [1]


Consonants

Old Norse has six stop phonemes. Of these /p/ is rare word-initially and /d/ and /b/ do not occur between vowels, because of the fricative allophones of the Proto-Germanic language (e.g. *b *[β] > v between vowels). The /g/ phoneme is realized as a voiced velar fricative [ɣ] inside words and wordfinally, except when it is geminated. In phonetics, an allophone is one of several similar phones that belong to the same phoneme. ... Map of the Pre-Roman Iron Age culture(s) associated with Proto-Germanic, c. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-07-20, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ...

  Labial Den­tal Al­veo­lar Pa­la­tal Ve­lar Glot­tal
Stop p b t d k ɡ
Nasal    m    n
Fricative f θ ð s (x) h
Approx­imant    w    j
Liquid r l

The velar fricative [x] is an allophone of /h/ pronounced in the combinations hv [xw], hj [xi], hl [xl], hr [xɾ] and hn [xn] in words like hvat "what", hjarta "heart", hlaupa "run", hringr "ring", hnakki "neck".


Orthography

The standardized Old Norse spelling was created in the 19th century, and is for the most part phonemic. The most notable deviation is that the non-phonemic difference between the voiced and the unvoiced dental fricatives is marked in West Old Norse as well as in later East Old Norse (the oldest texts as well as runic inscriptions in both regions use 'þ' exclusively). As mentioned above, long vowels are denoted with acutes in West Old Norse while left unmarked or geminated in East Old Norse. Most other letters are written with the same glyph as the IPA phoneme, except as shown in the table below. A modified version of the letter Wynn called Vend was used briefly for the sounds /u/, /v/, and /w/. Capital wynn (left), lowercase wynn (right) Wynn () (also spelled Wen or en) is a letter of the Old English alphabet. ... Capital Vend (left), lowercase Vend (right) Vend is a letter of Old Norse. ...

Orthography of characters not using IPA glyphs
IPA Standard Alternative
ɔ ǫ ö
æː æ
œ ø ö
øː œ ǿ/ø
θ þ
w v

Grammar

Old Norse was a highly inflected language. Most of the grammatical complexity is retained in modern Icelandic, whereas modern Norwegian has a much simplified grammatical system. Inflection of the Spanish lexeme for cat, with blue representing the masculine gender, pink representing the feminine gender, grey representing the form used for mixed-gender, and green representing the plural number. ...


Old Norse nouns could have three grammatical genders - masculine, feminine or neuter. Nouns, adjectives and pronouns were declined in four grammatical cases - nominative, genitive, dative and accusative, in singular and plural. Some pronouns (first and second person) could have dual number in addition to singular and plural. In English, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... talea harris and sophie king are sluts In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject, giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun phrase. ... In linguistics, declension is the inflection of nouns, pronouns and adjectives to indicate such features as number (typically singular vs. ... The nominative case is a grammatical case for a noun, which generally marks the subject of a verb, as opposed to its object or other verb arguments. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... The dative case is a grammatical case generally used to indicate the noun to whom something is given. ... The accusative case (abbreviated ACC) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. ... Look up Plural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Plural is a grammatical number, typically referring to more than one of the referent in the real world. ... Common Slavic had a complete singular-dual-plural number system, although the dual paradigms showed considerable syncretism. ...


There were several classes of nouns within each gender, the following is an example of some typical inflectional paradigms: An inflectional paradigm is a table illustrating the forms of an inflected word. ...

+ The masculine noun armr (English arm)
Case Singular Plural
Nominative armr armar
Genitive arms arma
Dative armi ǫrmum/armum
Accusative arm arma
+ The feminine noun hǫll (OWN), hall (OEN) (English hall)
Case Singular Plural
Nominative hǫll/hall hallir/hallar (OEN)
Genitive hallar halla
Dative hǫllu/hallu hǫllum/hallum
Accusative hǫll/hall hallir/hallar (OEN)
+ The neuter noun troll (English troll):
Case Singular Plural
Nominative troll troll
Genitive trolls trolla
Dative trolli trollum
Accusative troll troll

The definite article was expressed as a suffix, e.g. troll (a troll) - trollit (the troll), hǫll ( a hall) - hǫllin (the hall), armr (an arm) - armrinn (the arm).


Verb

Further information: Germanic verb

Verbs were conjugated in person and number, in present and past tense, in indicative, imperative and subjunctive mood. The Germanic language family is one of the language groups which resulted from the breakup of Proto-Indo-European (PIE). ... In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (regular alteration according to rules of grammar). ... In grammar, the subjunctive mood (sometimes referred to as the conjunctive mood) is a verb mood that exists in many languages. ... It has been suggested that prohibitive mood be merged into this article or section. ...

VERBS
  A. WEAK VERBS, i.e. Verbs in which the Preterite is formed by adding a Termination.
  1st Conjugation
characteristic vowel a.
2nd Conjugation
characteristic vowel i.
3rd Conjugation
characteristic vowel i.
4th Conjugation
characteristic vowel i.
INDIC. Pres. Sing. 1. boð-a kall-a dœm-i fylg-i gleð spyr vak-i dug-i
    2. boð-ar kall-ar dœm-ir fylg-ir gleð-r spyr-r vak-ir dug-ir
3. boð-ar kall-ar dœm-ir fylg-ir gleð-r spyr-r vak-ir dug-ir
Plur. 1. boð-um köll-um dœm-um fylg-jum gleð-jum spyr-jum vök-um dug-um
2. boð-ið, (-it) kall-ið dœm-ið fylg-ið gleð-ið spyr-ið vak-ið dug-ið
3. boð-a kall-a dœm-a fylg-ja gleð-ja spyr-ja vak-a dug-a
Pret. Sing. 1. boð-aða kall-aða dœm-da fylg-da glad-da spur-ða vak-ta dug-ða
  2. boð-aðir kall-aðir dœm-dir fylg-dir glad-dir spur-ðir vak-tir dug-ðir
3. boð-aði kall-aði dœm-di fylg-di glad-di spur-ði vak-ti dug-ði
Plur. 1. boð-uðum köll-uðum dœm-dum fylg-dum glöd-dum spur-ðum vök-tum dug-ðum
2. boð-uðuð köll-uðuð dœm-duð fylg-duð glöd-duð spur-ðuð vök-tuð dug-ðuð
3. boð-uðu köll-uðu dœm-du fylg-du glöd-du spur-ðu vök-tu dug-ðu
IMPERAT.       boð-a kall-a dœm fylg gleð spyr vak (vak-i) dug (dug-i)
SUBJ. Pres. Sing. 1. boð-a kall-a dœm-a fylg-ja gleð-ja spyr-ja vak-a dug-a
    2. boð-ir kall-ir dœm-ir fylg-ir gleð-ir spyr-ir vak-ir dug-ir
3. boð-i kall-i dœm-i fylg-i gleð-i spyr-i vak-i dug-i
Plur. 1. boð-im kall-im dœm-im fylg-im gleð-im spyr-im vak-im dug-im
2. boð-ið kall-ið dœm-ið fylg-ið gleð-ið spyr-ið vak-ið dug-ið
3. boð-i kall-i dœm-i fylg-i gleð-i spyr-i vak-i dug-i
Pret. Sing. 1. boð-aða kall-aða dœm-da fylg-da gled-da spyr-ða vek-ta dyg-ða
  2. boð-aðir kall-aðir dœm-dir fylg-dir gled-dir spyr-ðir vek-tir dyg-ðir
3. boð-aði kall-aði dœm-di fylg-di gled-di spyr-ði vek-ti dyg-ði
Plur. 1. boð-aðim kall-aðim dœm-dim fylg-dim gled-dim spyr-ðim vek-tim dyg-ðim
2. boð-aðið kall-aðið dœm-dið fylg-dið gled-dið spyr-ðið vek-tið dyg-ðið
3. boð-aði kall-aði dœm-di fylg-di gled-di spyr-ði vek-ti dyg-ði
INFIN.       boð-a kall-a dœm-a fylg-ja gleð-ja spyr-ja vak-a dug-a
PART. Act.     boð-andi kall-andi dœm-andi fylg-jandi gleð-jandi spyr-jandi vak-andi dug-andi
PART. Pass. Masc.   boð-aðr kall-aðr dœm-dr   glad-dr spur-ðr    
Fem.   boð-uð köll-uð dœm-d   glöd-d spur-ð    
Neut.   boð-at kall-at dœm-t fylg-t glat-t spur-t vak-at dug-at
 B. STRONG VERBS, i.e. Verbs in which the Preterite and Participle Passive are formed by changing the Root Vowel.
  Ist Class, 2nd Class, 3rd Class, 4th Class, 5th and 6th Class, 7th Class,
interchange of i (e), a, u. of í, ei, i. of , au, u. of a, ó. of e, a, á, and a, á, o. of á, é, and au, jó.
INDIC. Pres. Sing. 1. brenn rís býð fer gef ber græt hleyp
2. brenn-r rís-s býð-r fer-r gef-r ber-r græt-r hleyp-r
3. brenn-r rís-s býð-r fer-r gef-r ber-r græt-r hleyp-r
Plur. 1. brenn-um rís-um bjóð-um för-um gef-um ber-um grát-um hlaup-um
2. brenn-ið rís-ið bjóð-ið far-ið gef-ið ber-ið grát-ið hlaup-ið
3. brenn-a rís-a bjóð-a far-a gef-a ber-a grát-a hlaup-a
Pret. Sing. 1. brann reis bauð fór gaf bar grét hljóp
2. brann-t reis-t baut-t fór-t gaf-t bar-t grét-st hljóp-t
3. brann reis bauð fór gaf bar grét hljóp
Plur. 1. brunn-um ris-um buð-um fór-um gáf-um bár-um grét-um hljóp-um
2. brunn-uð ris-uð buð-uð fór-uð gáf-uð bár-uð grét-uð hljóp-uð
3. brunn-u ris-u buð-u fór-u gáf-u bár-u grét-u hljóp-u
IMPERAT. brenn rís bjóð far gef ber grát hlaup
SUBJ. Pres. Sing. 1 brenn-a rís-a bjóð-a far-a gef-a ber-a grát-a hlaup-a
2. brenn-ir rís-ir bjóð-ir far-ir gef-ir ber-ir grát-ir hlaup-ir
3. brenn-i rís-i bjóð-i far-i gef-i ber-i grát-i hlaup-i
Plur. 1. brenn-im rís-im bjóð-im far-im gef-im ber-im grát-im hlaup-im
2. brenn-ið rís-ið bjóð-ið far-ið gef-ið ber-ið grát-ið hlaup-ið
3. brenn-i rís-i bjóð-i far-i gef-i ber-i grát-i hlaup-i
Pret. Sing. 1. brynn-a ris-a byð-a fœr-a gæf-a bær-a grét-a hlyp-a
2.  brynn-ir ris-ir byð-ir fœr-ir gæf-ir bær-ir grét-ir hlyp-ir
3. brynn-i ris-i byð-i fœr-i gæf-i bær-i grét-i hlyp-i
Plur. 1. brynn-im ris-im byð-im fœr-im gæf-im bær-im grét-im hlyp-im
2.  brynn-ið ris-ið byð-ið fœr-ið gæf-ið bær-ið grét-ið hlyp-ið
3.  brynn-i ris-i byð-i fœr-i gæf-i bær-i grét-i hlyp-i
INFIN. brenn-a rís-a bjóð-a far-a gef-a ber-a grát-a hlaup-a
PART. Act. brenn-andi rís-andi bjóð-andi far-andi gef-andi ber-andi grát-andi hlaup-andi
PART. Pass. Masc. brunn-inn ris-inn boð-inn far-inn gef-inn bor-inn grát-inn hlaup-inn
Fem. brunn-in ris-in boð-in far-in gef-in bor-in grát-in hlaup-in
Neut. brunn-it ris-it boð-it far-it gef-it bor-it grát-it hlaup-it
THE VERB SUBSTANTIVE
INDIC. Pres. Sing. 1. em Pret. var (vas) IMPERAT.   SUBJ. Pres. sjá, Pret. vær-a INFIN. ver-a PAST PART. ver-it
2. er-t var-t ver (ver-tu)   sé-r vær-ir    
3. er (es) var (vas)     vær-i    
Plur. 1. er-um vár-um     sé-m vær-im    
2. er-uð vár-uð verið   sé-ð vær-ið    
3 er-u vár-u     vær-i    
TEN VERBS WITH PRESENT IN PRETERITE FORM.
INDIC. Pres. Sing. 1. á kná skal kann mun (mon) man þarf ann veit
2. á-tt kná-tt má-tt skal-t kann-t mun-t man-t þarf-t ann-t veiz-t
3. á kná skal kann mun man þarf ann veit
Plur. 1. eig-um kneg-um meg-um skul-um kunn-um mun-um mun-um þurf-um unn-um vit-um
2. eig-uð kneg-uð meg-uð skul-uð kunn-uð mun-uð mun-ið þurf-ið unn-ið vit-uð
3. eig-u kneg-u meg-u skul-u kunn-u mun-u mun-a þurf-a unn-a vit-u
Pret. Sing. 1. á-tta kná-tta má-tta   kunn-a mun-da mun-da þurf-a unn-a vis-sa
  as regular weak verbs  
IMPERAT. eig       kunn   mun   unn vit
SUBJ. Pres. Sing. 1. eig-a knega meg-a skyl-a kunn-a myn-a mun-a þurf-a unn-a vit-a
  as regular weak verbs  
  Pret. Sing. 1. ætt-a knætt-a mætt-a skyl-da kynn-a myn-da myn-da þyrf-ta ynn-a vis-sa
  as regular weak verbs  
INFIN. Pres.     eig-a   meg-a skyl-u kunn-a mun-u mun-a þurf-a unn-a vit-a
Pret.       knúttu   skyl-du   mun-du        
PART. Act.     eig-andi   meg-andi   kunn-andi   mun-andi þurf-andi unn-andi vit-andi
PART. Pass. Neut.   ú-tt   má-tt   kunn-at   mun-at þurf-t unn-(a)t vit-at
EIGHT VERBS WITH THE PRETERITE IN -ra.
INDIC. Pres. Sing. 3. rœ-r grœ-r sæ-r gný-r sný-r frý-r kýs-s slæ-r veld-r
Plur. 3. ró-a gró-a gnú-a snú-a frjós-a kjós-a slá vald-a
Pret. Sing. 3. rö-ri grö-ri sö-ri gnö-ri snö-ri frö-ri kö-ri slö-ri ol-li
(or re-ri gre-ri se-ri gne-ri sne-ri fre-ri ke-ri sle-ri)  
IMPERAT. gró gnú snú frjó-s kjós slá vald
SUBJ. Pret. Sing. 3. rö-ri grö-ri sö-ri gnö-ri snö-ri frö-ri kö-ri slö-ri yll-i
INFIN. ró-a gró-a gnú-a snú-a frjós-a kjós-a slá vald-a
PART. Pass. ró-inn gró-inn sá-inn gnú-inn snú-inn fros-inn kos-inn sleg-inn vald-it
frör-inn kör-inn
D. VERBS WITH THE REFLEXIVE OR RECIPROCAL SUFFIX -sk, -z, -st (-mk).
    Present. Preterite. Present. Preterite.
Indic. Subj. Indic. Subj. Indic. Subj. Indic. Subj.
Sing. 1. kalla-st kalli-st kallaði-st kallaði-st læzt láti-st lézt léti-st
2. kalla-st kalli-st kallaði-st kallaði-st læzt láti-st lézt léti-st
3. kalla-st kalli-st kallaði-st kallaði-st læzt láti-st lézt léti-st
Plur. 1. köllu-mk kalli-mk kölluðu-mk kallaði-mk látu-mk láti-mk létu-mk léti-mk
2. kalli-zt kalli-zt kölluðu-zt kallaði-zt láti-zt láti-zt létu-zt léti-zt
3. kalla-st kalli-st kölluðu-st kallaði-st láta-st láti-st létu-st léti-st
PART. Pass. Neut. kalla-zt, láti-zt, (glað-zt, gefi-zt, bori-zt,) &c.  
E. VERBS WITH THE NEGATIVE SUFFIX.
Pres. Pret. Pres. Pret. Pres. Pret. Pres. Pret.
INDIC. Sing. 1. em-k-at var-k-at(vas-k-at) skal-k-at skyldi-g-a mon-k-a mundi-g-a hyk-k-at átti-g-a
2. ert-at-tu vart-at-tu skalt-at-tu skyldir-a mont-at-tu mundir-a hyggr-at áttir-a
3. er-at (es-at) var-at (vas-at) skal-at skyldi-t mon-at mundi-t hyggr-at átti-t
Plur. 3. eru-t váru-t skulu-t skyldu-t monu-t mundi-t hyggja-t áttu-t
IMPERAT. ver-at-tu (be not thou!), lát-at-tu (let not thou!), grát-at-tu (weep not thou!), &c.

Texts

The earliest inscriptions in Old Norse are runic, from the 8th century. Runes continued to be commonly used until the 15th century and has been recorded to be in use in some form as late as the 19th century in some parts of Sweden. With the conversion to Christianity in the 11th century came the Latin alphabet. The oldest preserved texts in Old Norse in the Latin alphabet date from the middle of the 12th century. Subsequently, Old Norse became the vehicle of a large and varied body of vernacular literature, unique in medieval Europe. Most of the surviving literature was written in Iceland. Best known are the Norse sagas, the Icelanders' sagas and the mythological literature, but there also survives a large body of religious literature, translations into Old Norse of courtly romances, classical mythology, the Old Testament, as well as instructional material, grammatical treatises and a large body of letters and official documents.[3] For other uses, see Rune (disambiguation). ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Excerpt NjÃ¥ls saga in the Möðruvallabók (AM 132 folio 13r) circia 1350. ... The Icelanders sagas (Icelandic: Íslendingasögur) or family sagas are prose histories describing mostly events that took place in Iceland during the Age of Settlement (870-930) and the following century. ... The courtly romance or roman courteois was a genre of aristocratic entertainment in narrative verse popular in the Middle ages. ...


Relationship to English

Old English and Old Norse were closely related languages, and it is therefore not surprising that many words in old Norse look familiar to English speakers, e.g. armr (arm), fótr (foot), land (land), fullr (full), hanga (to hang), standa (to stand), etc. This is because both English and Old Norse date back to Proto-Germanic. In addition, a large number of common every day Old Norse words mainly of East Norse origin were borrowed into the Old English language during the Viking age, becoming loanwords. A few examples of Old Norse loanwords in modern English are (english/viking age Old East Norse): This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A loanword (or loan word) is a word directly taken into one language from another with little or no translation. ...


(Nouns) anger (angr), bag (baggi), bait (bæit, bæita, bæiti), band (band), bark (bǫrkR, stem bark-), birth (byrðr), bull (buli), dirt (drit), dregs (dræggiaR), egg (ægg, related to OE. cognate æg), fellow (félagi), gap (gap), husband (húsbóndi), cake (kaka), keel (kiǫlR, stem also kial-, kil-), kid (kið), knife (knífR), law (lǫg, stem lag-), leg (læggR), link (hlænkR), loan (lán), race (rǫs, stem rás-), root (rót), sale (sala), scrap (skrap), seat (sæti), sister (systir, related to OE. cognate sweostor), skill (skial/skil), skin (skinn), skirt (skyrta vs. the native English shirt of the same root), sky (ský), slaughter (slátr), snare (snara), steak (stæik), thrift (þrift), Thursday (ÞórsdagR), tidings (tíðindi), trust (traust), window (vindauga), wing (væ(i)ngR).


(Verbs) blend (blanda), call (kalla), cast (kasta), clip (klippa), crawl (krafla), cut (kuta), die (døyia), gasp (gæispa), get (geta), give (gifa/gefa), glitter (glitra), hit (hitta), lift (lyfta), raise (ræisa), ransack (rannsaka), rid (ryðia), run (rinna, stem rinn-/rann-/runn-, related to OE. cognate rinnan), scare (skirra), scrape (skrapa), seem (søma), sprint (sprinta), take (taka), thrive (þrífa(s)), thrust (þrysta), want (vanta).


(Adjectives) flat (flatr), happy (hæppinn), ill (illr), likely (líklíkR), loose (lauss), low (lágR), meek (miúkR), odd (odda), rotten (rotinn/rutinn), scant (skamt), sly (sløgR), weak (væikR), wrong (vrangR).


(Adverbs) thwart/athwart (þvert).


(Auxiliary verb) are (eRu).


(Prepositions) till (til), fro (frá).


(Conjunction) though/tho (þó).


(Interjections) hail (hæill), wassail (ves hæill).


(Personal pronoun) they (þæiR), their (þæiRa), them (þæim) (for which the Anglo-Saxons said híe [4], hiera, him).


(Pronominal adjectives) both (báðiR), same (sami).


In a simple sentence like "They are both weak" the extent of the Old Norse loanwords becomes quite clear (Old East Norse with archaic pronunciation: "ÞæiR eRu báðiR wæikiR" while Old English "híe syndon bégen (þá) wáce"). While the number of loanwords adopted from the Scandinavians wasn't as numerous as that of Norman French or Latin, their depth and every day nature make them a substantial and very important part of every day English speech as they are part of the very core of the modern English vocabulary. Unless replaced the language couldn't function properly from a most basic point of view were the Norse words to be removed.


Dialects

As Proto-Norse evolved into Old Norse, in the 8th century, the effects of the umlauts seem to have been very much the same over the whole Old Norse area. But in later dialects of the language a split occurred mainly between west and east as the use of umlauts began to vary. The typical umlauts (for example fylla from *fullian) were better preserved in the West due to later generalizations in the east where many instances of umlaut were removed (many archaic Eastern texts as well as eastern runic inscriptions however portray the same extent of umlauts as in later Western Old Norse). All the while the changes resulting in diaeresis (for example hiarta from herto) were more influential in the East probably once again due to generalizations within the inflectional system. This difference was one of the greatest reasons behind the dialectalization that took place in the 9th and 10th centuries shaping an Old West Norse dialect in Norway and the Atlantic settlements and an Old East Norse dialect in Denmark and Sweden. (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... In linguistics, the process of umlaut (from German um- around + Laut sound) is a process whereby a vowel is pronounced more like a vowel or semivowel in a following syllable. ... In linguistics, a, diaeresis, or dieresis (AE) (from Greek (diaerein), to divide) is the modification of a syllable by distinctly pronouncing one of its vowels. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ...


A second difference was that Old West Norse lost certain combinations of consonants. The combinations -mp-, -nt-, and -nk- were assimilated into -pp-, -tt- and -kk- in Old West Norse, but this phenomenon was limited in Old East Norse.

English Old West Norse Old East Norse
mushroom
steep
widow
s(v)ǫppr
brattr
ekkia
svamper
branter
ænkia

However, these differences were an exception. The dialects were very similar and considered to be the same language, a language that they sometimes called the Danish tongue (dǫnsk tunga), sometimes Norse language (norrœnt mál), as evidenced in the following two quotes from Heimskringla by Snorri Sturluson: Heimskringla is the Old Norse name of a collection of sagas recorded in Iceland around 1225 by the poet and historian Snorri Sturluson (1179-1242). ... Snorri Sturluson (1178 – September 23, 1241) was an Icelandic historian, poet and politician. ...


Móðir Dyggva var Drótt, dóttir Danps konungs, sonar Rígs er fyrstr var konungr kallaðr á danska tungu.[2] Dyggve's mother was Drott, the daughter of king Danp, Ríg's son, who was the first to be called king in the Danish tongue. Dygvi, Dyggve or Digne was a Swedish king of the House of Ynglings. ... Drott, Drótt or Dróttin was a Scandinavian kingly and priestly title corresponding to prince in a wide sense. ... Ríg is the name applied to a Norse god described as old and wise, mighty and strong in the Eddic poem Rígthula (Old Norse Rígþula - Song of Ríg). ...


...stirt var honum norrœnt mál, ok kylfdi mJǫk til orðanna, ok hǫfðu margir menn þat mJǫk at spotti.[3] ...the Norse language was hard for him, and he often fumbled for words, which amused people greatly.


Here is a comparison between the two dialects as well as Old Gutnish. It is a transcription from one of the Funbo Runestones (U990) meaning : Veðr and Thane and Gunnar raised this stone after Haursi, their father. God help his spirit: The U937 runestone in the park of Uppsala university featuring a triquetra The Funbo runestones constitute a group of four remaining runestones, from Funbo in the Swedish province of Uppland, and which were raised by members of the same family, in the 11th century. ...

Veðr ok Þegn ok Gunnarr reistu stein þenna at Haursa, fǫður sinn. Guð hjalpi ǫnd hans. (OWN)
Veðr ok Þegn ok Gunnarr ræistu stæin þenna at Haursa, faður sinn. Guð hialpi and hans (OEN)
Veðr ok Þegn ok Gunnarr raistu stain þenna at Haursa, faður sinn. Guð hialpi and hans (OG)

The OEN original text above is transliterated according to traditional scholar methods meaning u-umlaut is not regarded in runic Old East Norse even though more recent studies have shown that the positions where it applies are the same as for runic Old West Norse. An alternative and probably more accurate transliteration would therefore render the text in OEN as such:

Veðr ok Þegn ok Gunnarr ræistu stæin þenna at Haursa, fǫður sinn. Guð hialpi ǫnd hans (OEN)

Old West Norse

Most of the innovations that appeared in Old Norse spread evenly through the Old Norse area, but some were geographically limited and created a dialectal difference between Old West Norse and Old East Norse. One difference was that Old West Norse and Old Gutnish did not take part in the monophthongization which changed æi/ei into e, øy/ey into ø and au into ø. An early difference was that Old West Norse had the forms (dwelling), (accusative for cow) and trú (faith) whereas Old East Norse had bo, ko and tro. Old West Norse was also characterized by the preservation of u-umlaut, which meant that for example Proto-Norse *tanþu (tooth) was pronounced tǫnn and not tann as in post runic Old East Norse (compare runic OEN (Swedish) gǫs (goose), OWN gǫs while post runic OEN gas). Moreoever, there were nasal assimilations as in bekkr (bench) from Proto-Norse *bankiR (OEN bænker). Proto-Norse, Primitive Norse, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Nordic or Proto-North Germanic was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved from Proto-Germanic between the 1st century BC and the 2nd century, and was spoken until ca 800, when it evolved into the Old...


The earliest body of text appears in runic inscriptions and in poems composed ca 900 by Tjodolf of Hvin. The earliest manuscripts are from the period 1150-1200 and concern both legal, religious and historical matters. During the 12th and 13th centuries, Trøndelag and Vestlandet were the most important areas of the Norwegian kingdom and they shaped Old West Norse as an archaic language with a rich set of declensions. In the body of text that has come down to us from until ca 1300, Old West Norse had little dialect variation, and Old Icelandic does not diverge much more than the Old Norwegian dialects do from each other. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ... Persian sfuckentist, Rhazes, distinguished smallpox from measles in the course of his writings. ... Tjodolf of Hvin is considered to have been the original author of Ynglingatal, a poem glorifying the Norwegian petty king Ragnvald, by describing how he was descended from the Swedish kings and the Norse gods. ... Events Åhus, Sweden gains city privileges City of Airdrie, Scotland founded King Sverker I of Sweden is deposed and succeeded by Eric IX of Sweden. ... Events University of Paris receives charter from Philip II of France The Kanem-Bornu Empire was established in northern Africa around the year 1200 Mongol victory over Northern China — 30,000,000 killed Births Al-Abhari, Persian philosopher and mathematician (died 1265) Ulrich von Liechtenstein, German nobleman and poet (died... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Trøndelag is the name of a geographical region in the middle of Norway, consisting of the two counties Nord-Trøndelag and Sør-Trøndelag. ... Vestlandet is the region along the Atlantic coast of southern Norway. ... Events February 22 - Jubilee of Pope Boniface VIII. March 10 - Wardrobe accounts of King Edward I of Englanddo (aka Edward Longshanks) include a reference to a game called creag being played at the town of Newenden in Kent. ... The Old Icelandic language was the most prominent of the Old Norse languages. ... West Norse is also called Old Icelandic or Old Norwegian. ...


Old Norwegian differentiated early from Old Icelandic by the loss of the consonant h in initial position before l, n and r, thus whereas Old Icelandic manuscripts might use the form hnefi (fist), Old Norwegian manuscripts might use nefi.


From the late 13th century, old Icelandic and old Norwegian started to diverge more. After c. 1350, the Black Death and following social upheavals seem to have accelerated language changes in Norway. From the late 14th century, the language used in Norway is generally referred to as Middle Norwegian. It has been suggested that Plague doctor be merged into this article or section. ...


Text example

The following text is from Egils saga. The manuscript is the oldest known for that saga, the so called θ-fragment from the 13th century. The text clearly shows how little Icelandic has changed structurally. The last version is legitimate Modern Icelandic, although nothing has been altered but the spelling. The text also demonstrates, however, that a modern reader might have difficulties with the unaltered manuscript text, to say nothing of the lettering. Egill Skallagrímsson in a 17th century manuscript of Egils Saga Egils saga is an epic Icelandic saga possibly by Snorri Sturluson (1179-1241 A.D.), who may have written the account between the years 1220 and 1240 A.D. It is an important representative of the sagas and has...

The manuscript text, letter for letter The same text in normalized, Old Norse spelling The same text in Modern Icelandic

ÞgeiR blundr systor s egils v þar aþingino & hafði gengit hart at liþueizlo við þst. h bað egil & þa þstein coma ser t staðfesto ut þangat a myrar h bio aðr fyr suNan huit a fyr neþan blundz vatn Egill toc uel aþui. oc fysti þst at þr leti h þangat fa ra. Egill setti þorgeir blund niðr at ana brecko En stein fǫrði bustað siN ut yf lang á. & settiz niðr at leiro lǫk. En egill reið hei suðr anes ept þingit m flocc siN. & skilðoz þr feðgar m kęrleic

Þorgeirr blundr, systursonr Egils, var þar á þinginu ok hafði gengit hart at liðveizlu við Þorstein. Hann bað Egil ok þá Þorstein koma sér til staðfestu út þangat á Mýrar; hann bjó áðr fyrir sunnan Hvítá, fyrir neðan Blundsvatn. Egill tók vel á því ok fýsti Þorstein, at þeir léti hann þangat fara. Egill setti Þorgeir blund niðr at Ánabrekku, en Steinarr fœrði bústað sinn út yfir Langá ok settisk niðr at Leirulæk. En Egill reið heim suðr á Nes eptir þingit með flokk sinn, ok skildusk þeir feðgar með kærleik.

Þorgeir blundur, systursonur Egils, var þar á þinginu og hafði gengið hart að liðveislu við Þorstein. Hann bað Egil og þá Þorstein að koma sér til staðfestu út þangað á Mýrar; hann bjó áður fyrir sunnan Hvítá, fyrir neðan Blundsvatn. Egill tók vel á því og fýsti Þorstein, að þeir létu hann þangað fara. Egill setti Þorgeir blund niður að Ánabrekku, en Steinar færði bústað sinn út yfir Langá og settist niður að Leirulæk. En Egill reið heim suður á Nes eftir þingið með flokk sinn, og skildust þeir feðgar með kærleik.

Old East Norse

The Rök Runestone in Östergötland, Sweden, is the longest surviving source of early Old East Norse. It is inscribed on both sides.
The Rök Runestone in Östergötland, Sweden, is the longest surviving source of early Old East Norse. It is inscribed on both sides.

Old East Norse, between 800 and 1100, is in Sweden called Runic Swedish and in Denmark Runic Danish, but the use of Swedish and Danish is not for linguistic reasons as the differences between them are minute at best during the more ancient stages of this dialect group (though changes had a tendency to occur earlier in the Danish region and until this day many Old Danish changes have still not taken place in modern Swedish rendering Swedish as the more archaic out of the two concerning both the ancient as well as modern languages, sometimes by a profound margin but in all differences are still minute). They are called runic because the body of text appears in the runic alphabet. Unlike Proto-Norse, which was written with the Elder Futhark, Old Norse was written with the Younger Futhark, which only had 16 letters. Because of the limited number of runes, the rune for the vowel u was also used for the vowels o, ø and y, and the rune for i was used for e. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (515x920, 90 KB)my own pic for wikipedia. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (515x920, 90 KB)my own pic for wikipedia. ... A black-and-white rendition of the text on one side of the Rök Stone. ... (help· info) is a historical Province (landskap) in the south of Sweden. ... Events December 25, Rome, coronation of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) as emperor by Pope Leo III. Celtic monks begin work on the Book of Kells on the Island of Iona. ... August 5 - Henry I becomes King of England. ... For other uses, see Rune (disambiguation). ... Proto-Norse, Primitive Norse, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Nordic or Proto-North Germanic was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved from Proto-Germanic between the 1st century BC and the 2nd century, and was spoken until ca 800, when it evolved into the Old... The 24 runes of the Elder Futhark The Elder Futhark (or Elder Fuþark, Older Futhark, Old Futhark) is the oldest form of the runic alphabet, used by Germanic tribes for Proto-Norse and other Migration period Germanic dialects of the 2nd to 8th centuries for inscriptions on artifacts (jewelery... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ...


Runic Old East Norse is characteristic of being archaic in form, especially Swedish (which is still true for modern Swedish compared to Danish). In essence it corresponds to or surpasses the archaic structure of post runic Old West Norse which in its turn is generally more archaic than post runic Old East Norse. While typically "Eastern" in structure many later post runic changes and trademarks of EON had yet to happen. At the end of the 10th and early 11th century initial -h before -l, -n and -r was still preserved in the middle and northern parts of Sweden, and is sporadically still preserved in some northern dialects as g-, e.g. gly (lukewarm), from hlýR. The phoneme -R (evolved during the Proto-Norse period from -z) was still clearly separated from -r in most positions, even when being geminated (while in OWN it had already merged with -r) and the monophthongization of æi and øy/au into e and ø respectively had yet to take place: (runic OEN) fæigR (PN *faigiaz; bound to die; dead), gæiRR (PN *gaizaz; spear), haugR (PN *haugaz; mound, pile), møydómR (PN *mawi- + domaz; virginity), diúR (PN *diuza; (wild) animal) while OWN feigr, geirr, haugr, meydómr, dýr (post runic OEN fegher, ger, høgher, mødomber, diur). The combinations -mp-, -nt-, and -nk- were often preserved while merging into -pp-, -tt- and -kk- in Old West Norse: (runic OEN) *krimpa, (Proto-Norse *krimpan) *sprinta, (PN *sprintan) *sænkva (PN *sankwian) while OWN kreppa, spretta and søkkva (modern Swedish krympa, sprinta (dialect), sänka, modern Danish krympe, sprinte, sænke; to shrink, to sprint, to sink (transitive; compare intransitive "*sionkva" while OWN "søkkva" for both variations)). Feminine o-stems often preserve the plural ending -aR while in OWN they more often merge with the feminine i-stems: (runic OEN) *sólaR, *hafnaR/*hamnaR, *vágaR while OWN sólir, hafnir and vágir (modern Swedish solar, hamnar, vågar; suns, havens, scales; danish has mainly lost the distinction between the two stems with both endings now being rendered as -er or -e alternatively for the o-stems). OEN often preserves the original value of the vowel directly preceding runic R while OWN receives R-umlaut (resulting in the same change as with i-umlaut): (runic OEN) *glaR, *haRi and hrauR while OWN gler, heri (later héri) and hrøyrr/hreyrr (modern Swedish glar (older form), hare, rör; glass, hare, pile of rocks). u-umlaut is still preserved in both phonemic and allophonic positions like in post runic Old West Norse (while sparsely preserved in post runic OEN): fǫður (accusative), vǫrðr and ǫrn (post runic Swedish faþur, varþer, örn (u-umlaut preserved); father, guardian/care taking, eagle). The plural ending of ja-stems were mostly preserved while those of OWN often acquired that of the i-stems: *bæðiaR, *bækkiaR, *væfiaR while OWN beðir, bekkir, vefir (modern Swedish bäddar, bäckar, vävar; beds, rivers, webs). Vice versa masculine i-stems with the root ending in either g or k tended to shift the plural ending to that of the ja-stems while OWN kept the original: drængiaR, *ælgiaR and *bænkiaR while OWN drengir, elgir and bekkir (modern Swedish drängar (new meaning), älgar, bänkar; lads, elks, benches). Proto-Norse, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Nordic or Proto-North Germanic was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved from Proto-Germanic between the 1st century BC and the 2nd century, and was spoken until ca 800, when it evolved into the Old Norse language. ... Proto-Norse, Primitive Norse, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Nordic or Proto-North Germanic was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved from Proto-Germanic between the 1st century BC and the 2nd century, and was spoken until ca 800, when it evolved into the Old...


Until the early 12th century, Old East Norse was very much a uniform dialect. It was in Denmark that the first innovations appeared that would differentiate Old Danish from Old Swedish as these innovations spread north unevenly (unlike the earlier changes that spread more evenly over the East Norse area) creating a series of isoglosses going from Zealand to Svealand. (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Danish (dansk) is one of the North Germanic languages (also called Scandinavian languages), a sub-group of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages. ... Old Swedish (Swedish: fornsvenska), general linguistic term for medieval Swedish. ... Isoglosses on the Faroe Islands An isogloss is the geographical boundary of a certain linguistic feature, e. ... Map showing location of Zealand within Denmark. ... Svealand Swedens historical four lands. ...


The word final vowels -a, -o and -e (Old Norse -a, -u and -i) started to merge into -e. At the same time, the voiceless stop consonants p, t and k became voiced stops and even fricatives. These innovations resulted in that Danish has kage (cake), tunger (tongues) and gæster (guests) whereas (Standard) Swedish has retained older forms, kaka, tungor and gäster (OEN kaka, tungur, gæstir). A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ...


Moreover, Danish lost the tonal word accent present in modern Swedish and Norwegian, replacing the grave accent with a glottal stop. The glottal stop or voiceless glottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. ...


Text example

This is an extract from the Westrogothic law (Västgötalagen). It is the oldest text written as a manuscript found in Sweden and from the 13th century. It is contemporaneous with most of the Icelandic literature. The text marks the beginning of Old Swedish. A copy of the Early Westrogothic law from the late 13th century Västgötalagen or the Westrogothic law is the oldest Swedish text written in the Latin script and the oldest law code of the Lands of Sweden. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Old Swedish (Swedish: fornsvenska), general linguistic term for medieval Swedish. ...

Dræpær maþar svænskan man eller smalenskæn, innan konongsrikis man, eigh væstgøskan, bøte firi atta ørtogher ok þrettan markær ok ænga ætar bot. [...] Dræpar maþær danskan man allæ noræn man, bøte niv markum. Dræpær maþær vtlænskan man, eigh ma frid flyia or landi sinu oc j æth hans. Dræpær maþær vtlænskæn prest, bøte sva mykit firi sum hærlænskan man. Præstær skal i bondalaghum væræ. Varþær suþærman dræpin ællær ænskær maþær, ta skal bøta firi marchum fiurum þem sakinæ søkir, ok tvar marchar konongi.

Translation:

If someone slays a Swede or a Smålander, a man from the kingdom, but not a West Geat, he will pay eight örtugar and thirteen marks, but no wergild. The king owns nine marks from manslaughter and the killing of any man. If someone slays a Dane or a Norwegian, he will pay nine marks. If someone slays a foreigner, he shall not be banished and have to flee to his clan. If someone slays a foreign priest, he will pay as much as for a foreigner. A priest counts as a freeman. If a Southerner is slain or an Englishman, he shall pay four marks to the plaintif and two marks to the king.

is a historical province (landskap) in southern Sweden. ... Sweden in the 12th century before the incorporation of Finland during the 13th century. ... Weregild (Alternative spellings: wergild, wergeld, weregeld, etc. ... The Scandinavian clan or Ätt was a social group based on common descent or on the formal acceptance into the group at a Ting. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Official language None; English is de facto Capital London Capitals coordinates 51° 30 N, 0° 10 W Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831...

Old Gutnish

The Gutasaga is the longest text surviving from Old Gutnish. It was written in the 13th century and dealt with the early history of the Gotlanders. This part relates of the agreement that the Gotlanders had with the Swedish king sometime before the 9th century: The Gutasaga was recorded in the 13th century and survives in only a single manuscript, the Codex Holm. ... Old Gutnish was the dialect of Old Norse that was spoken on the island of Gotland. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ...

So gingu gutar sielfs wiliandi vndir suia kunung þy at þair mattin frir Oc frelsir sykia suiariki j huerium staþ. vtan tull oc allar utgiftir. So aigu oc suiar sykia gutland firir vtan cornband ellar annur forbuþ. hegnan oc hielp sculdi kunungur gutum at waita. En þair wiþr þorftin. oc kallaþin. sendimen al oc kunungr oc ierl samulaiþ a gutnal þing senda. Oc latta þar taka scatt sinn. þair sendibuþar aighu friþ lysa gutum alla steþi til sykia yfir haf sum upsala kunungi til hoyrir. Oc so þair sum þan wegin aigu hinget sykia.[5]

Translation:

So, by their own volition, the Gotlanders became the subjects of the Swedish king, so that they could travel freely and without risk to any location in the Swedish kingdom without toll and other fees. Likewise, the Swedes had the right to go to Gotland without corn restrictions or other prohibitions. The king was to provide protection and aid, when they needed it and asked for it. The king and the jarl shall send emissaries to the Gutnish thing to receive the taxes. These emissaries shall declare free passage for the Gotlanders to all locations in the sea of the king at Uppsala (that is the Baltic Sea was under Swedish control) and likewise for everyone who wanted to travel to Gotland.

Note here that the diphthong ai in aigu, þair and waita is not regressively umlauted to ei as in e.g. Old Icelandic eigu, þeir and veita. The Gotlanders are the population of the island of Gotland. ... Jarl may refer to: Alternative word for the peerage dignity Earl Japan Amateur Radio League, the Amateur Radio association of Japan Jarl, a Norse title Jarl Wahlström, the 12th General of The Salvation Army Category: ... A thing or ting (Old Norse and Icelandic: þing; other modern Scandinavian: ting) was the governing assembly in Germanic societies, made up of the free men of the community and presided by lawspeakers. ... Gamla Uppsala is an area rich in archaeological remains seen from the grave field whose larger mounds (left part) are close to the royal mounds. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ...


Notes

  1. ^ See, e.g., Harbert 7-10.
  2. ^ a b Article Nordiska språk, section Historia, subsection Omkring 800-1100, in Nationalencyklopedin (1994).
  3. ^ See, e.g., O'Donoghue 22-102.
  4. ^ O'Donoghue 190-201; Lass 187-188.
  5. ^ Gutasaga §§4-5.

The Nationalencyklopedin is the most comprehensive contemporary Swedish language encyclopedia, initiated by a government grant. ...

See also

A page from the Landnámabók The history of the Icelandic language is rooted in the settlement of Iceland and was influenced by Norwegian and Old Norse. ... Proto-Norse, Proto-Nordic, Ancient Nordic or Proto-North Germanic was an Indo-European language spoken in Scandinavia that is thought to have evolved from Proto-Germanic between the 1st century BC and the 2nd century, and was spoken until ca 800, when it evolved into the Old Norse language. ... The orthography of the Old Norse language since the introduction of the Latin alphabet in Iceland is a thorny subject. ... Old Norse poetry encompasses a range of verse forms written in a number of Nordic languages, embraced by the term Old Norse, during the period from the 8th century to as late as the far end of the 13th century. ... An Introduction to Old Norse was written by E.V. Gordon and first published in 1927 in Oxford at the Clarendon Press, and has been reprinted several times since. ...

References

  • Gutasagan. Lars Aronsson, ed. Project Runeberg, 1997.
  • Harbert, Wayne. The Germanic Languages. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2007.
  • Lass, Roger. Old English: A Historical Linguistic Companion. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1993.

Literature

Introductions
Dictionaries
  • Richard Cleasby and Gudbrand Vigfusson, An Icelandic-English Dictionary (1874)[5]
  • G. T. Zoega, A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic (1910)[6][7]
  • Jan de Vries, Altnordisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch (1977)

// Brief Biography E.V. Gordon (Eric Valentine Gordon) lived between the short years of 1896-1938. ... An Introduction to Old Norse was written by E.V. Gordon and first published in 1927 in Oxford at the Clarendon Press, and has been reprinted several times since. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ...

External links

Modern Germanic languages
Afrikaans | Alemannic | Danish | Dutch | English | Faroese | Frisian | German | Icelandic |
Limburgish | Low German | Luxembourgish | Norwegian | Scots | Swedish | Yiddish

Image File history File links Incubator-notext. ... Wikipedia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Incubator logo The Wikimedia Incubator is a wiki run by Wikimedia Foundation. ... A modern language is any human language that is used by societies in the world today. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Alemannic German (Alemannisch) is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Frisian is a Germanic group of closely related languages, spoken by about half a million members of Frisian ethnic groups living on the southern fringes of the North Sea in the Netherlands and Germany. ... Limburgish, or Limburgian or Limburgic (Dutch: Limburgs, German: Limburgisch, French: Limbourgeois) is a group of Franconian varieties, spoken in the Limburg and Rhineland regions, near the common Dutch / Belgian / German border. ... Low German (in Low German, Platt(düütsch) or Nedderdüütsch) is any of a variety of West Germanic languages spoken in northern Germany, the Netherlands and Belgium. ... Luxembourgish (Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuergesch, French: , German: , Walloon: ), also spelled Luxemburgish, is a West Germanic language spoken in Luxembourg. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... Yiddish (Yid. ...


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