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Encyclopedia > Old Kingdom
Dynasties of Pharaohs
in Ancient Egypt
Predynastic Egypt
Protodynastic Period
Early Dynastic Period
Old Kingdom
3rd 4th 5th 6th
First Intermediate Period
Middle Kingdom
Second Intermediate Period
New Kingdom
Third Intermediate Period
First Persian Period
Late Period
Second Persian Period
Graeco-Roman Period
Alexander the Great
Ptolemaic Dynasty
Roman Egypt
Arab Conquest

The Old Kingdom is the name commonly given to that period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement – this was the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile Valley (the others being Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom). The Old Kingdom is most commonly regarded as spanning the period of time when Egypt was ruled by the Third Dynasty through to the Sixth Dynasty (2686 BC2134 BC). Many Egyptologists also include the Memphite Seventh and Eighth Dynasties in the Old Kingdom as a continuation of the administration centralized at Memphis. The Old Kingdom was followed by a period of disunity and relative cultural decline referred to by Egyptologists as the First Intermediate Period. Pharaoh was the ancient Egyptian name for the office of kingship. ... Khafres Pyramid (4th dynasty) and Great Sphinx of Giza (c. ... The Predynastic Period of Egypt (prior to 3100 BC) is traditionally the period between the Early Neolithic and the beginning of the Pharaonic monarchy beginning with King Narmer. ... The Protodynastic Period of Egypt refers to the period of time at the very end of the Predynastic Period. ... The Early Dynastic Period of Egypt is taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from 2920 BC, following the Protodynastic Period of Egypt, until 2575 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Third Dynasty. ... The Fourth dynasty of Egypt was the second of the four dynasties considered forming the Old Kingdom. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Fifth Dynasty. ... The Sixth Dynasty of Egypt is considered by many authorities as the last dynasty of the Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, although The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt (ed. ... The First Intermediate Period is the name conventionally given by Egyptologists to that period in Ancient Egyptian history between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom. ... The Middle Kingdom is a period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 BC and 1640 BC. The period comprises two phases, the 11th Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes and the 12th Dynasty... The Second Intermediate Period marks a period when Ancient Egypt once again fell into disarray between the end of the Middle Kingdom, and the start of the New Kingdom. ... The New Kingdom is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ... The Third Intermediate Period refers to the time in Ancient Egypt from the death of Pharaoh Rameses XI in 1070 BC to the foundation of the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty by Psamtik I, following the expulsion of the Nubian rulers of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty. ... The period of history in which Achaemenid Persia ruled over Egypt is divided into three parts: the first Persian domination, an interval of independence, and the second Persian domination. ... ôľĎÚ The Late Period of Egypt refers to the last flowering of native Egyptian rulers after the Third Intermediate Period, and before the Persian conquests. ... The period of history in which Achaemenid Persia ruled over Egypt is divided into three parts: the first Persian domination, an interval of independence, and the second Persian domination. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... cleopatra ruled seneca for 10 years before she ruled Egypt. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Muslim Arabs (Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates) At the commencement of the Muslim conquest of Egypt, Egypt was part of the Byzantine Empire with its capital in Constantinople. ... The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age. ... ... The Middle Kingdom is a period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 BC and 1640 BC. The period comprises two phases, the 11th Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes and the 12th Dynasty... The New Kingdom is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ... Known rulers, in the History of Egypt, for the Third Dynasty. ... The Sixth Dynasty of Egypt is considered by many authorities as the last dynasty of the Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, although The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt (ed. ... (Redirected from 2686 BC) (28th century BC - 27th century BC - 26th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2775 - 2650 BC -- Second Dynasty wars in Egypt Germination of the Bristlecone pine tree Methuselah... // The Deluge tablet of the Gilgamesh epic in Akkadian. ... An Egyptologist is any archaeologist, historian, linguist, or art historian who specializes in Egyptology, the scientific study of Ancient Egypt and its antiquities. ... This article has recently been written with incorrect information that actually corresponds with the Twenty-fifth Dynasty of Egypt ... The last shadowy pharaohs of the Old Kingdom period, probably having a very limited nominal authority in and around the capital of Memphis, Egypt, the real power now in the hands of the nobility (nomarchs). ... For other uses, see Memphis. ... The First Intermediate Period is the name conventionally given by Egyptologists to that period in Ancient Egyptian history between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom. ...


The royal capital of Egypt during the Old Kingdom was located at Memphis, where Djoser established his court. The Old Kingdom is perhaps best known, however, for the large number of pyramids, which were constructed at this time as pharaonic burial places. For this reason, the Old Kingdom is frequently referred to as "the Age of the Pyramids." For other uses, see Memphis. ... Netjerikhet Consort(s) Inetkawes, Hetephernebti Unknown Father Khasekhemwy? Mother Nimaethap? Major Monuments Pyramid of Djoser Netjerikhet Djoser (Turin King List Dsr-it; Manetho Tosarthros) is the best-known pharaoh of the Third dynasty of Egypt, for commissioning the official Imhotep to build his Step Pyramid at Saqqara. ... For other meanings, see pyramid (disambiguation). ...

Contents

The Beginning: Third Dynasty

The first notable pharaoh of the Old Kingdom was Djoser (26302611 BC) of the Third Dynasty, who ordered the construction of a pyramid (the Step Pyramid) in Memphis' necropolis, Saqqara. An important person during the reign of Djoser was his vizier, Imhotep. Netjerikhet Consort(s) Inetkawes, Hetephernebti Unknown Father Khasekhemwy? Mother Nimaethap? Major Monuments Pyramid of Djoser Netjerikhet Djoser (Turin King List Dsr-it; Manetho Tosarthros) is the best-known pharaoh of the Third dynasty of Egypt, for commissioning the official Imhotep to build his Step Pyramid at Saqqara. ... (Redirected from 2630 BC) (28th century BC - 27th century BC - 26th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2775 - 2650 BC -- Second Dynasty wars in Egypt Germination of the Bristlecone pine tree Methuselah... (Redirected from 2611 BC) (28th century BC - 27th century BC - 26th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2775 - 2650 BC -- Second Dynasty wars in Egypt Germination of the Bristlecone pine tree Methuselah... The Pyramid of Djoser, or kbhw-ntrw (libation of the deities)[], was built for the Pharaoh Djoser by his architect Imhotep. ... Saqqara Saqqara or Sakkara, Saqqarah (Arabic: سقارة) is a vast, ancient burial ground in Egypt, featuring the worlds oldest standing step pyramid (). It is located some 30 km south of modern-day Cairo and covers an area of around 7 km by 1. ... The Ancient Egyptian adminstrator (tjaty) is often translated as Vizier. ... This article is about the ancient Egyptian official. ...


It was in this era that formerly independent ancient Egyptian states became known as nomes, ruled solely by the pharaoh. Subsequently the former rulers were forced to assume the role of governors or otherwise work in tax collection. Egyptians in this era worshiped their pharaoh as a god, believing that he ensured the annual flooding of the Nile that was necessary for their crops. Egyptian views on the nature of time during this period held that the universe worked in cycles, and the Pharaoh on earth worked to ensure the stability of those cycles. They also perceived themselves as a specially selected people, "as the only true human beings on earth".[1] The nomes of Ancient Egypt A nome (Greek: district) is a subnational administrative division of Ancient Egypt. ...


Golden Age: Fourth Dynasty

The Old Kingdom and its royal power reached their zenith under the Fourth Dynasty, which began with Sneferu (25752551 BC). Using a greater mass of stones than any other pharaoh, he built three pyramids: a now collapsed pyramid in Meidum, the famous Bent Pyramid in Dahshur (another failure), and the small Red Pyramid, also in Dahshur. The Fourth dynasty of Egypt was the second of the four dynasties considered forming the Old Kingdom. ... Sneferu He of Beauty[1] Horus name Neb-maat[2] Nebty name Neb-maat-nebty[2] Golden Horus Bik-nub[2] Consort(s) Hetepheres I Issues Khufu Father Huni Mother Meresankh I Died 2589 BC Major Monuments Bent Pyramid, Red Pyramid Sneferu, also spelt as Snefru or Snofru (in Greek... (Redirected from 2575 BC) (27th century BC - 26th century BC - 25th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC – Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period. ... (Redirected from 2551 BC) (27th century BC - 26th century BC - 25th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC – Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period. ... Located about 100km south of modern Cairo, Meidum is the location of a large pyramid, and several large mud-brick mastabas. ... The Bent Pyramid, located at the royal necropolis of Dahshur, approximately 40 kilometres south of Cairo, of Old Kingdom Pharaoh Sneferu, is a unique example of early pyramid development in Egypt. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Sneferu was succeeded by his son, Khufu (2589 - 2566 BC) who built the Great Pyramid of Giza. Later Egyptian literature describes him as a cruel tyrant, who imposed forced labor on his subjects to complete his pyramid. After Khufu's death his sons Djedefra (25282520 BC) and Khafra (25202494 BC) may have quarreled. The latter built the second pyramid and (in traditional thinking) the Sphinx in Giza. Recent reexamination of evidence has suggested that the Sphinx may have been built by Djedefra as a monument to Khufu.[citation needed] Khufus Cartouche Khufu (in Greek known as Cheops) was a Pharaoh of Ancient Egypts Old Kingdom. ... The Great Pyramid of Giza is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now Cairo, Egypt in Africa, and is the only remaining member of the Seven Wonders of the World. ... Djedef-re[1] Enduring like Re Nomen Consort(s) Hetepheres II, Khentet-en-ka Issues Setka, Neferhetepes, Baka, Hernet Father Khufu Died 2558 BC Burial Pyramid complex at Abu Roash Major Monuments Pyramid complex at Abu Roash The Egyptian pharaoh Djedefra (or Radjedef) was the successor and son of Khufu. ... (Redirected from 2528 BC) (27th century BC - 26th century BC - 25th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC – Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period. ... (Redirected from 2520 BC) (27th century BC - 26th century BC - 25th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC – Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period. ... The Pyramid of Khafra and the Great Sphinx of Giza Portrait of Khafra, originally found at Mit Rahina, now residing in the Egyptian Museum, in Cairo. ... (Redirected from 2520 BC) (27th century BC - 26th century BC - 25th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC – Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period. ... (Redirected from 2494 BC) (26th century BC - 25th century BC - 24th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2494 BC -- End of Fourth Dynasty, start of Fifth Dynasty in Egypt. ... , The Great Sphinx at Giza, Egypt The Great Sphinx of Giza is a large half-human, half-lion Sphinx statue in Egypt, on the Giza Plateau at the west bank of the Nile River, near modern-day Cairo. ... Gizeh is also a popular brand in Germany of cigarette rolling papers; see Mascotte (rolling papers). ... Djedef-re[1] Enduring like Re Nomen Consort(s) Hetepheres II, Khentet-en-ka Issues Setka, Neferhetepes, Baka, Hernet Father Khufu Died 2558 BC Burial Pyramid complex at Abu Roash Major Monuments Pyramid complex at Abu Roash The Egyptian pharaoh Djedefra (or Radjedef) was the successor and son of Khufu. ...


The later kings of the Fourth Dynasty were king Menkaura (24942472 BC), who built the smallest pyramid in Giza, and Shepseskaf (24722467 BC). Men-kau-re[1] Eternal like the Souls of Re Nomen Consort(s) Khamerernebty II Issues Khuenre, Shepseskaf, Khentkawes Father Khafre Mother Khamaerernebty I Died 2504 BC Burial Pyramid at Giza Major Monuments Pyramid at Giza Menkaura (or Men-Kau-Re; Mycerinus in Latin; Mykerinos in Greek) was a pharaoh... (Redirected from 2494 BC) (26th century BC - 25th century BC - 24th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2494 BC -- End of Fourth Dynasty, start of Fifth Dynasty in Egypt. ... (Redirected from 2472 BC) (26th century BC - 25th century BC - 24th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2494 BC -- End of Fourth Dynasty, start of Fifth Dynasty in Egypt. ... Shepseskaf was a son of Menkaure who succeded his father on the throne. ... (Redirected from 2472 BC) (26th century BC - 25th century BC - 24th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2494 BC -- End of Fourth Dynasty, start of Fifth Dynasty in Egypt. ... (Redirected from 2467 BC) (26th century BC - 25th century BC - 24th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2494 BC -- End of Fourth Dynasty, start of Fifth Dynasty in Egypt. ...


Decline and collapse: Fifth – Eighth Dynasties

The Fifth Dynasty began with Userkhaf (24652458 BC), who initiated reforms that weakened the Pharaoh and central government. After his reign civil wars arose as the powerful nomarchs (regional governors) no longer belonged to the royal family. The worsening civil conflict undermined unity and energetic government and also caused famines. But regional autonomy and civil wars were not the only causes of this decline. The massive building projects of the Fourth Dynasty had exceeded the capacity of the treasury and populace and, therefore, weakened the Kingdom at its roots. (Redirected from 2465 BC) (26th century BC - 25th century BC - 24th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2494 BC -- End of Fourth Dynasty, start of Fifth Dynasty in Egypt. ... (Redirected from 2458 BC) (26th century BC - 25th century BC - 24th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2494 BC -- End of Fourth Dynasty, start of Fifth Dynasty in Egypt. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight against each other for the control of political power. ... A nomarch in ancient Egypt was a provincial governor, the regional authority over one of the 40 or so nomes (Egyptian: sepat) into which the country was divided. ...


The final blow was a severe drought in the region that resulted in a drastic drop in precipitation between 2200 and 2150 BC, which in turn prevented the normal flooding of the Nile.[2] The result was the collapse of the Old Kingdom followed by decades of famine and strife. An important inscription on the tomb of Ankhtifi, a monarch during the early First Intermediate Period, describes the pitiful state of the country when famine stalked the land. The 22nd century BC drought was one of the most severe climatic events of the Holocene period. ... The Nile (Arabic: , transliteration: , Ancient Egyptian iteru, Coptic piaro or phiaro) is a major north-flowing river in Africa, generally regarded as the longest river in the world. ... Ankhtifi was the nomarch of Hierakonpolis and a supporter of the Herakleopolitan based 10th dynasty which was locked in conflict with the Theban based 11th Dynasty kingdom for control of Egypt. ... The First Intermediate Period is the name conventionally given by Egyptologists to that period in Ancient Egyptian history between the end of the Old Kingdom and the advent of the Middle Kingdom. ...


References

  1. ^ Ancient African Civilizations to ca. 1500: Pharaonic Egypt to Ca. 800 BC, by Dr. Susan J. Herlin, 2003, p 27.
  2. ^ The Fall of the Old Kingdom by Fekri Hassan

Further reading

  • Jaromir Malek, In the Shadow of the Pyramids: Egypt During the Old Kingdom, University of Oklahoma Press, 1986. ISBN 0-8061-2027-4
  • Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids, New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1999. ISBN 0-87099-906-0 (catalogue for travelling exhibition of the same name)
  • The Fall of the Egyptian Old Kingdom

External links

  • Middle East on the Matrix: Egypt, The Old Kingdom — Photographs of many of the historic sites dating from the Old Kingdom
  • Old Kingdom of Egypt- Aldokkan

  Results from FactBites:
 
Old Kingdom - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (750 words)
The Old Kingdom is most commonly regarded as spanning the period of time when Egypt was ruled by the Third Dynasty through to the Sixth Dynasty (2575 BC–2134 BC).
The Old Kingdom was followed by a period of disunity and relative cultural decline referred to by Egyptologists as the First Intermediate Period.
For this reason, the Old Kingdom is frequently referred to as "the Age of the Pyramids".
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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