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Encyclopedia > Old Gutnish
The approximate extent of Old Norse and related languages in the early 10th century:       Old West Norse dialect       Old East Norse dialect       Old Gutnish dialect       Crimean Gothic       Other Germanic languages with which Old Norse still retained some mutual intelligibility
The approximate extent of Old Norse and related languages in the early 10th century:       Old West Norse dialect       Old East Norse dialect       Old Gutnish dialect       Crimean Gothic       Other Germanic languages with which Old Norse still retained some mutual intelligibility

Old Gutnish was the dialect of Old Norse that was spoken on the island of Gotland. It shows sufficient differences from the Old East Norse dialects Old Swedish and Old Danish that it is considered to be a separate branch. Today a modern version, Gutnish is still spoken on the south-east parts of Gotland and on the island of Fårö. Download high resolution version (1235x909, 75 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Old Norse language User:Wiglaf User:Wiglaf/maps ... Download high resolution version (1235x909, 75 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Old Norse language User:Wiglaf User:Wiglaf/maps ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Crimean Gothic was a dialect of Gothic that was spoken by the Crimean Goths in some isolated locations in the Crimea (now Ukraine) perhaps until as late as the 18th century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Old Norse or Danish tongue is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of the Nordic countries (for instance during the Viking Age). ... Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ...   is a county and province of Sweden and the largest island in the Baltic Sea. ... Old Norse is the Germanic language once spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until the 13th century. ... Old Swedish (Swedish: fornsvenska), general linguistic term for medieval Swedish. ... Danish (dansk) is one of the North Germanic languages (also called Scandinavian languages), a sub-group of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages. ... Gutnish is the old language of the island of Gotland (in present day Sweden). ... Map of Sweden highlighting Gotlands location. ...


The root Gut is identical to Goth, and it is often remarked that the language has similarities with the Gothic language, the most well-known example being that Gothic and Gutnish called both adult and young sheep lamb. These similarities have led scholars such as Elias Wessén and Dietrich Hofmann to suggest that it is most closely related to Gothic. Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. ... Elias Wessén (1889-1981) was a prominent Swedish linguist and a professor of North Germanic languages at Stockholm University (1928-1956). ...


The Old Norse diphthong au (e.g. auga "eye") remained in Old Gutnish and Old West Norse, while in Old Swedish - except for non-central dialects - it evolved into the monophthong , i.e. a long version of ô = ǫ, (ốga). Likewise the diphthong ai in bain (bone) remained in Old Gutnish while it in Old West Norse became ei as in bein and in Old Swedish it became é (bén). Whereas Old West Norse had the ey diphthong and Old East Norse evolved the monophthong ǿ) Old Gutnish had oy.

Proto-Germanic Old Gutnish Old West Norse Old Swedish Old Danish

*augon (eye)
*baino (bone)
*hauzjan (hear)

auga
bain
hoyra

auga
bein
heyra

ốga
bén
hǿra

ǿga
bén
hǿra

Most of the corpus of Old Gutnish is found in the Gutasaga from the 13th century. The Gutasaga was recorded in the 13th century and survives in only a single manuscript, the Codex Holm. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ...


Language sample

Citation:

Þissi þieluar hafþi ann sun sum hit hafþi. En hafþa cuna hit huita stierna þaun tu bygþu fyrsti agutlandi fyrstu nat sum þaun saman suafu þa droymdi hennj draumbr. So sum þrir ormar warin slungnir saman j barmj hennar Oc þytti hennj sum þair scriþin yr barmi hennar. þinna draum segþi han firi hasþa bonda sinum hann riaþ dravm þinna so. Alt ir baugum bundit bo land al þitta warþa oc faum þria syni aiga. þaim gaf hann namn allum o fydum. guti al gutland aigha graipr al annar haita Oc gunfiaun þriþi. þair sciptu siþan gutlandi i þria þriþiunga. So at graipr þann elzti laut norþasta þriþiung oc guti miþal þriþiung En gunfiaun þann yngsti laut sunnarsta. siþan af þissum þrim aucaþis fulc j gutlandi som mikit um langan tima at land elptj þaim ai alla fyþa þa lutaþu þair bort af landi huert þriþia þiauþ so at alt sculdu þair aiga oc miþ sir bort hafa sum þair vfan iorþar attu.

Employing normalised Old Norse orthography:

Þissi Þjelvar hafði ann sun sum hít Hafði. En Hafða kuna hít Hvítastjerna. Þaun tú byggðu fyrsti á Gutlandi. Fyrstu nátt sum þaun saman sváfu þá droymdi henni draumr; só sum þrír ormar varin slungnir saman í barmi hennar, ok þýtti henni sum þair skriðin ýr barmi hennar. Þinna draum segði han firi Hafða bónda sínum. Hann raið draum þinna só: "Alt ir baugum bundit, bóland al þitta varða uk fáum þría syni aiga." Þaim gaf hann namn, allum ófýddum; Guti, al Gutland aiga; Graipr, al annar haita; ok Gunnfjaun þriði. Þair skiptu síðan Gutlandi í þría þriðjunga, só at Graipr þann eldsti laut norðasta þriðjung, ok Guti miðal þriðjung, en Gunnfjaun þann yngsti laut sunnarsta. Síðan, af þissum þrim aukaðis fulk í Gutlandi sum mikit um langan tíma at land elpti þaim ai alla fýða. Þá lutaðu þair bort af landi hvert þriðja þjauð só at alt skuldu þair aiga ok mið sír bort hafa sum þair ufan jorðar áttu.

Translation:

This Thielvar had a son called Hafthi. And Hafthi's wife was called Whitestar. Those two were the first to settle on Gotland. When they slept on the island for the first night, she dreamed that three snakes lay in her lap. She told this to Hafthi. He interpreted her dream and said: "Everything is bound with bangles, this island will be inhabited, and you will bear three sons." Although, they were not yet born, he named them Guti, who would own the island, Graip and Gunfiaun. The sons divided the island into three regions, and Graip who was the eldest took the north, Guti the middle and Gunfjaun, who was the youngest took the southern third. After a long time, their descendants became so numerous that the island could not support all of them. They drew lots and every third islander had to leave. They could keep everything they owned but the land.

References


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Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300.
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