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Encyclopedia > Old Great Bulgaria

Old Great Bulgaria or Great Bulgaria (Η παλαιά μεγάλη Βουλγαρία in Byzantine chronicles; alternative name: Onoguria/Onoghuria) was a Bulgar state, founded by Kubrat, which briefly existed in the 7th century north of the Caucasus mountains in the steppe between the rivers Dnieper and Lower Volga[1]. Byzantium, present day Istanbul, was an ancient Greek city-state, which according to legend was founded by Greek colonists from Megara in 667 BC and named after their king Byzas or Byzantas (Βύζας or Βύζαντας in Greek). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Kubrat (Bulgarian: Кубрат, Greek: χουβρτου) became the first bulgar BaltAvar in 632 by uniting under single rule all the Bulgar tribes and defeating the Avars. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The Caucasus Mountains are a mountain system between the Black and Caspian seas in the Caucasus region, usually considered the southeastern limit of Europe. ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - step, Ukrainian: - step, Kazakh: - dala), pronounced in English as step, is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being... The Dnieper River (also: Dnepr, Dniapro, or Dnipro) is a river (2,290 km length) which flows from Russia, through Belarus and Ukraine, ending its flow in the Black Sea. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ...

Contents

Kubrat

Main article: Kubrat

Kubrat (also Kurt or Houvrat) was of the kingly Dulo clan[2] and the rightful heir of the Bulgar throne. He spent his adolescence in the Byzantine Empire, where he was educated and baptised[3], while his maternal uncle Organa was a regent over his tribe. Kubrat (Bulgarian: Кубрат, Greek: χουβρτου) became the first bulgar BaltAvar in 632 by uniting under single rule all the Bulgar tribes and defeating the Avars. ... The Dulo Clan or the House of Dulo was the name of the ruling dynasty of the early Bulgars. ... The Byzantine Empire (Greek name: - Basileia tōn Romaiōn) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire of the Middle Ages, centered around its capital of Constantinople. ... Very little is know about Organa. ...


Around 628 Kubrat returned to his fatherland, took the leadership over his people most probably with the approval of the Avar khagan. He soon managed to overthrow Avar domination and also to secede from the entangled in dynastic wars Western Turkic Khaganate. Events Khusro II of Persia overthrown Pippin of Landen becomes Mayor of the Palace Brahmagupta writes the Brahmasphutasiddhanta Births Deaths Empress Suiko of Japan Theodelinda, queen of the Lombards Categories: 628 ... The Western Turkic Khaganate, was formed after the internecine wars in the beginning of the 7th century (600-603 AD) when the Göktürk Khaganate (founded in the 6th century in Northern Mongolia by the Ashina clan) broke into two pieces – Eastern and Western. ...


Establishment

Between 630 and 635 Khan Kubrat managed to unite the two main Bulgar tribes of Kutrigur and Onogondur under a single rule, creating a powerful confederation which is referred to by the medieval authors as The Old Great Bulgaria[4] and also known as Onoghuria. Some scholars assume that it also included among its subjects the defeated Avars and stretched as far west as the Pannonian plain. It is presumed that his capital was the ancient city of Phanagoria on the Taman peninsula. Kubrat's grave was discovered in 1912 at Pereshchepina, Ukraine[5]. Events Muhammad captures Mecca (January). ... Events Saint Aidan founds Lindisfarne in Northumbria, England Nestorian China Births Pippin of Herstal, Mayor of the Palace of Austrasia (approximate date) 23 May - Chan Bahlum II, king of Palenque Deaths Categories: 635 ... Khan (sometimes spelled as Xan, Han) is a title with many meanings, originally commander, leader or ruler, in Mongolian and Turkish. ... Kubrat (Bulgarian: Кубрат, Greek: χουβρτου) became the first bulgar BaltAvar in 632 by uniting under single rule all the Bulgar tribes and defeating the Avars. ... Kutrigurs (Kotrags/Kotzagerek/Kazarig) were an Horde of equestrian nomads that wandered the Eurasian plains during the dark ages. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... The Eurasian Avars were a nomadic people of Eurasia who established a state in the Danube River area of Europe in the early 6th century. ... The Pannonian Plain is a large plain in Central Europe that remained when the Pliocene Pannonian Sea (see below) dried out. ... Phanagoria was an ancient Greek colony on the Taman peninsula between the Black Sea and the Azov, roughly on the site of modern Tmutarakan. ... 1. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The hilt of Kuvrats sword bears a Greek inscription and is decorated with crosses, indicating that its owner was a Christian. ...


Disintegration and successor states

The events that unfolded following Kubrat's death are described by the Byzantine Partiarch Nicephorus I [6]. In the times of Emperor Constantine IV, he narrates, Kubrat died and Batbayan, the eldest of his five sons, was left in charge of the state. Under strong Khazar presure, Kubrat's other sons disregarded their father's advice to stay together in order to resist the enemies and soon departed, taking their own tribes. Nicephorus I and his son and successor, Stauracius. ... Constantine IV on a contemporary coin Constantine IV (649-685); sometimes incorrectly called Pogonatus, meaning the Bearded, like his father; was Byzantine emperor from 668-685. ... Khan Asparoukh (681 - 700) THEN CAME ACROSS THE DANUBE Isperukh Khan. ... The Khazars were a Turkic semi-nomadic people from Central Asia who adopted Judaism. ...


Kotrag, the leader of the Kutrigurs (or Kotrags) left for Middle Volga, where he later established Volga Bulgaria at the Volga-Kama confluence, a state which was to become very prosperous. Volga Bulgars converted voluntary to Islam in the 9th century and managed to preserve their national identity well into the 13th century, by repelling the first Mongol attacks in 1223, thus becoming the only people to ever defeat Chingis khan. However, they were eventually subdued, their main city Bolghar became a capital of the Golden Horde Khanate and the Bulgars mixed with the Tatars. The citizens of modern Russian republic of Tatarstan are considered to be descendants of those Bulgars. Kotrag Khan was the founder of Volga Bulgaria. ... Volga Bulgaria or Volga-Kama Bolghar, is a historic state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama rivers in what is now the Russian Federation. ... Kama (Russian: ; Tatar: Çulman) is a river in Russia, the longest left tributary of the Volga. ... Bulgaria, known today as Volga Bulgaria, is a historic state that existed between the 7th and 13th centuries around the confluence of the Volga and Kama Rivers in what is now the Russian Federation. ... Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was that century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... // Events August 6 - Louis VIII is crowned King of France. ... Genghis Khan (Mongolian: Чингис Хаан, Jenghis Khan, Jinghis Khan, Chinghiz Khan, Jinghiz Khan, Chinggis Khan, Changaiz Khan, original name Temüjin, Temuchin, Mongolian: Тэмүүжин) (c. ... The Little Minaret of Bolghar. ... The Golden Horde (Turkish: Altın Ordu, Russian: Золотая Орда) was a Tatar-Mongol state established in parts of present-day Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan after the break up of the Mongol Empire in the 1240s. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Republic of Tatarstan (Russian: ; Tatar: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ...


Kouber with another part of the Kutrigurs seceded firstly in Pannonia, seemingly recognising the authority of the Avar Khaganate and later, after a unsuccessful attemp to take hold of the Khaganate, resettled in Macedonia. There he had another unsuccessful attemp to create a state by capturing the city of Thessaloniki and had to flee again. For the Hindu god, see Kubera Khan Kuber (Кубер in Bulgarian, also spelled Kuver) was a Bulgar leader from the 7th century who belonged to the same clan as the Danubian Bulgarian khan Asparukh - they both were sons of khan Kubrat. ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... The word Avars can mean: The nomadic people that conquered the Hungarian Steppe in the early Middle Ages, the Eurasian Avars. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Other Bulgars led by Altsek sought refuge from the Avars with the Lombards, near Ravenna and later moved further south, finally settling north-east of Naples and eventually mixing with the Italians. Alcek (Bulgar: Altsikurs) is the name given to a hoarde of Bulgar cavalry who in the 7th century, settled with their families in the Matese mountains of Central Italy in the villages of Gallo, Sepino, Boiano, Isernia and others. ... The Lombards (Latin Langobardi, whence the alternative name Longobards found in older English texts), were a Germanic people originally from Northern Europe that entered the late Roman Empire. ... Ravenna is a city and commune in the Emilia-Romagna region of Italy. ... The Bay of Naples Naples (Italian: , Neapolitan: Nàpule, from Greek Νεάπολη < Νέα Πόλις Néa Pólis New City) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of the Campania region and the Province of Naples. ...


Batbayan's people who remained in their homeland were soon subdued by the Khazars and converted to Judaism, eventually assimilating with their masters. The Khazars (Heb. ... Judaism is the religion of the Jewish people. ...


Out of the turmoil, Asparuh, the third son of Kubrat, emerged as the most prominent figure, leading his Onogur Bulgars out of the range of the Khazars and south across the Danube into Byzantine Moesia, and establishing there the First Bulgarian Empire (Danube Bulgaria), a state that was destined to overcome all the difficulties and to become the predessesor of modern Bulgaria. Khan Asparukh or Khan Asparoukh (d. ... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river of the European Union and Europes second-longest[3] (after the Volga). ... The Byzantine Empire (Greek name: - Basileia tōn Romaiōn) is the term conventionally used since the 19th century to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire of the Middle Ages, centered around its capital of Constantinople. ... Moesia is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... The First Bulgarian Empire was founded in 681 AD in the lands near the Danube delta and disintegrated in 1018 AD by annexion to the Byzantine Empire. ...


Etymology of Onoghuria

Variations of the name include:


Onoghuria, Onoguri, Onoghuri, Onghur, Ongur, Onghuri, Onguri, Onghuria, Onguria, Onogundur, Unogundur, Unokundur, etc.


There are numerous speculations about the origin of the Onogur name:

  • In modern language of the Caucasian Avars Onoghuria could mean "Everlasting", from uno - ever and guro - lasting.
  • Some derive it from the Turkic words On (ten) and Ghur (arrow) which in combination may mean "Ten Arrows", i.e. "A federation of ten tribes".
  • Another explanation states that because in Turkic languages the sound "z" turns to "r" when you go westwards and therefore the ethnonym of the Oguz/Oghuz Turks would sound as Ogur/Oghur in the west. Then Onogur would mean "ten clans of Oguz/Oghuz (Turks)". In support to this view is fact that the Bulgars are listed among the ten sons of Togarmah (the mythic ancestor of the Turks) in the Khazar Correspondence.
  • Others relate Onoghur to Unok-vndur, a Bulgar people mentioned in the early Armenian sources.

Avars or Caucasian Avars are a modern people of Caucasus, mainly of Dagestan, in which they are the predominant group. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China with an estimated 140 million native speakers and tens of millions of second-language speakers. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China with an estimated 140 million native speakers and tens of millions of second-language speakers. ... The Oghuz Turks (also with various alternate spellings, including Oguz, OÄŸuz, Ouz, Okuz, Oufoi, Guozz and Ghuzz) are regarded as one of the major branches of Turkic peoples. ... In the Torah, Togarmah is listed in the genealogy of nations as the son of Gomer, and grandson of Japheth (Gen. ... An exchange of letters in the 950s or 960s between Hasdai ibn Shaprut, foreign secretary to the Caliph of Cordoba, and Joseph, King of the Khazars. ...

Other uses

According to some sources[citation needed], seven Finno-Ugric speaking tribes, including the Magyars, joined three Khazar-Turkic speaking Kabar clans to form a confederation also known as "Ten Arrows" or Onoghur. The word "Hungarian" may derive from this name. Geographical distribution of Finno-Ugric (Finno-Permic in blue, Ugric in green). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Language spoken by the medieval Khazar tribe. ... The Kabars (Gr. ...


References

  1. ^ Theophanes,Op. cit., p. 356-357
  2. ^ Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans
  3. ^ John of Nikiû, Chronicle
  4. ^ Patriarch Nikephoros I of Constantinople, Historia syntomos, breviarium
  5. ^ Rasho Rashev, Die Protobulgaren im 5.-7. Jahrhundert, Orbel, Sofia, 2005 (in Bulgarian, German summary)
  6. ^ Patriarch Nikephoros I of Constantinople, Historia syntomos, breviarium

Saint Theophanes the Confessor (about 758/760, Constantinople - March 17, 817 or 818, Samothrace) was an aristocratic but ascetic Byzantine monk and chronicler. ... The Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans (Bulgarian: ) is a short manuscript containing the names of some early Bulgarian rulers, their clans, the year of their ascending to the throne and the length of their rule, including the times of joint rule and civil war. ... John of Nikiû was a Coptic bishop of Nikiû/Pashati in the Egyptian Delta and appointed general administrator of the monsteries of Upper Egypt in 696. ... St. ... St. ...

External links


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