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Encyclopedia > Old European culture

Some archaeologists and ethnographers use the term Old Europe to characterize the autochthonous ('aboriginal') peoples who were living in Neolithic southeastern Europe before the immigration of Indo-European peoples (for this reason also called Pre-Indo-European). According to this model, Indo-European peoples arrived in the 4th millennium BC, across the plains north of the Black Sea. Their ultimate origins did not concern the culture of "Old Europe." Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Ethnography (from the Greek ethnos = nation and graphe = writing) refers to the qualitative description of human social phenomena, based on months or years of fieldwork. ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ... The Neolithic, (Greek neos=new, lithos=stone, or New Stone Age) was a period in the development of human technology that is traditionally the last part of the Stone Age. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... Satellite view of the Black Sea, taken by NASA MODIS Cities of the Black Sea The Black Sea (known as the Euxine Sea in antiquity) is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Asia Minor. ...


The term "Old Europe" was introduced by Marija Gimbutas, in The Goddesses and Gods of Old Europe: 6500-3500 B.C. (1974). Using evidence from pottery and sculpture, and combining the tools of archaeology, comparative mythology, linguistics, and, most controversially, folklore, Gimbutas invented a new interdisciplinary field, archaeomythology. She investigated the Neolithic period (which she termed "Old Europe") in order to understand cultural developments in settled village culture in the southern Balkans, which she characterized as peaceful and matrilinear, before the Indo-European influences which she broadly characterized as nomadic and patriarchal. She associated the Indo-European immigrants with the Bronze Age "Kurgan culture" that she identified. Marija Gimbutas (Vilnius, Lithuania January 23, 1921 - Los Angeles February 2, 1994) researched the Neolithic and Bronze Age cultures of Old Europe, a term she introduced, in works published between 1946 and 1971, that opened new views by combining traditional spadework, linguistics and mythology. ... 1974 is a common year starting on Tuesday (click on link for calendar). ... // Importance and applicability Most of human history is not described by any written records. ... Mythology is the study of myths: stories of a particular culture that it believes to be true and that feature a specific religious or belief system. ... Broadly conceived, linguistics is the scientific study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. ... For the Nelly Furtado album, see Folklore (album). ... Matrilineality is a system in which one belongs to ones mothers lineage; it may also involve the inheritance of property or titles through the female line. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... This article is about Bronze Age burial mounds and the Kurgan culture. ...


Few details of Old European culture are widely agreed upon, and even the date of the Indo-European arrival in Old Europe is questioned, whether in a Late Neolithic or a Bronze Age context. One major reappraisal of the evidence by the archaeologist Colin Renfrew proposes that the Indo-European 'invasion' is instead linked to the relatively rapid spread of farming from Anatolia into Europe, and was Neolithic in date (from about 6500 BC). The Neolithic, (Greek neos=new, lithos=stone, or New Stone Age) was a period in the development of human technology that is traditionally the last part of the Stone Age. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Andrew Colin Renfrew, Baron Renfrew of Kaimsthorn (born 25 July 1937), English archaeologist, notable for his work on the radiocarbon revolution, the prehistory of languages, archaeogenetics, and the prevention of looting of archaeological sites. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Anatolia ( Greek: ανατολή anatolē or anatolí, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of... A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... The Neolithic, (Greek neos=new, lithos=stone, or New Stone Age) was a period in the development of human technology that is traditionally the last part of the Stone Age. ... (8th millennium BC – 7th millennium BC – 6th millennium BC – other millennia) Events circa 7000 BC – Agriculture and settlement at Mehrgarh in South Asia circa 6500 BC – English Channel formed circa 6100 BC – The Storegga Slide, causing a megatsunami in the Norwegian Sea circa 6000 BC – Neolithic Age in Korea circa...


Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza has also summarized the study of prehistoric European population genetics and demographics in The Great Human Diasporas: The History of Diversity and Evolution (written with his son Francesco). Categories: People stubs | 1922 births | Italian people | Population geneticists ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the five evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, migration and nonrandom mating. ... Demographics is a shorthand term for population characteristics. Demographics include age, income, mobility (in terms of travel time to work or number of vehicles available), educational attainment, home ownership, employment status, and even location. ...

Contents


List of Old European cultures

Before the Indo-European migration described by Marija Gimbutas as beginning around 4000 BC, several Neolithic archaeological cultures are known from Europe, particularly in the Balkans. These are known collectively as Old European cultures. However, many archaeologists do not now see these archaeological cultures as indigenous to the south-east, but as Indo-European farmers who migrated to this area from Anatolia, arriving in Europe about 6500 BC. Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies Indo-European is originally a linguistic term, referring to the Indo-European language family. ... Marija Gimbutas (Vilnius, Lithuania January 23, 1921 - Los Angeles February 2, 1994) researched the Neolithic and Bronze Age cultures of Old Europe, a term she introduced, in works published between 1946 and 1971, that opened new views by combining traditional spadework, linguistics and mythology. ... (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC - other millennia) Events City of Ur in Mesopotamia (40th century BC). ... The Neolithic, (Greek neos=new, lithos=stone, or New Stone Age) was a period in the development of human technology that is traditionally the last part of the Stone Age. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... The word indigenous is derived from the latin word indigena, meaning nativ, indigenous, aboriginal, and has several, related meanings: The native people of a place; see the article indigenous people. ... Anatolia ( Greek: ανατολή anatolē or anatolí, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of... (8th millennium BC – 7th millennium BC – 6th millennium BC – other millennia) Events circa 7000 BC – Agriculture and settlement at Mehrgarh in South Asia circa 6500 BC – English Channel formed circa 6100 BC – The Storegga Slide, causing a megatsunami in the Norwegian Sea circa 6000 BC – Neolithic Age in Korea circa...


Ancient Greek writers called the "Old European" pre-Hellenic dwellers in Greece "Pelasgians" or "Leleges". Greece, formally called the Hellenic Republic (Greek: Ελληνική Δημοκρατία), is a country in the southeast of Europe on the southern tip of the Balkan peninsula. ... Ancient Greek writers used the name Pelasgian to refer to groups of people who preceded the Hellenes and dwelt in several locations in Anatolia, the Aegean and mainland Greece, as neighbors of the Hellenes. ... The Leleges were one of the aboriginal peoples of Greece, the Aegean and southwest Anatolia (compare Pelasgians), who were found there when the Indo-European Hellenes arrived. ...

Reports in 2005 indicate that an early Neolithic Linear Ceramic culture in Central Europe produced monumental structures between 4800 BC and 4600 BC.[1] The Linear Ceramic Culture (German: Linearbandkeramik-Kultur, or LBK) was a Neolithic culture of central Europe. ... The Cucuteni culture (also Cucuteni-Tripolie, after the Romanian Cucuteni and the Ukrainian Trypillia villages) is an early 5th millennium BC neolithic culture of Central Europe, in the area of modern-day Romania, Moldova, and Ukraine, in the Dniestr-Dnjepr region. ... The Vinča culture was an early culture of Europe (between the 6th and the 3rd millennium BC), stretching around the course of Danube in Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria and Macedonia, although traces of it can be found all around the Balkans. ... The DudeÅŸti culture is an farming / herding culture occupied part of Romania in the 6th millenium BC, typified by underground habitations on the edges of low plateaus. ... The Lengyel culture was a 5th millennium BC culture located in the area of modern-day Hungary and the Czech Republic. ... The Beaker culture (ca. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... The Neolithic, (Greek neos=new, lithos=stone, or New Stone Age) was a period in the development of human technology that is traditionally the last part of the Stone Age. ... The Linear Ceramic Culture (German: Linearbandkeramik-Kultur, or LBK) was a Neolithic culture of central Europe. ... Historical lands and provinces in Central Europe Central Europe is the region of Europe between Eastern Europe and Western Europe. ... According to research made public on June 11, 2005, a series of monumental temples were built in Central Europe between 4800 BC and 4600 BC. The remains of approximately 150 such temples have been found at various sites in present-day Germany, Slovakia, Austria, and the Czech Republic. ... (6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – other millennia) Events 4713 BC – The epoch (origin) of the Julian Period described by Joseph Justus Scaliger occurred on January 1, the astronomical Julian day number zero. ... (6th millennium BC – 5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – other millennia) Events 4713 BC – The epoch (origin) of the Julian Period described by Joseph Justus Scaliger occurred on January 1, the astronomical Julian day number zero. ...


Pre-Indo-European peoples

In historical times, some ethnonyms are believed to correspond to Pre-Indo-European peoples, assumed to be the descendants of the earlier Old European cultures, the Pelasgians, Minoans, Leleges, Iberians and Basques. The status of the Etruscans is disputed, they are considered either Pre-Indo-European, or speakers of an Anatolian language. The term Pre-Indo-European is sometimes extended to refer to Asia Minor, Central Asia and India, in which case the Hurrians, Urartians, Dravidians and the Uralic peoples may also be counted among them (the Basques and Uralic peoples only inasmuch as they were replaced, in areas where they persist, they are not pre- but simply non-Indo-European). Ancient Greek writers used the name Pelasgian to refer to groups of people who preceded the Hellenes and dwelt in several locations in mainland Greece, Crete, and other regions of the Aegean as neighbors of the Hellenes. ... The Minoans were an ancient pre-Hellenic civilization on what is now Crete (in the Mediterranean), during the Bronze Age, prior to classical Greek culture. ... The Leleges were one of the aboriginal peoples of Greece, the Aegean and southwest Anatolia (compare Pelasgians), who were found there when the Indo-European Hellenes arrived. ... The Iberian language describes a linguistic group associated with the Iberian civilization (7th Century BC - 1st Century BC), formed in the eastern and south-eastern regions of the Iberian peninsula. ... This article is about the Basque people. ... The Etruscan civilization existed in Etruria and the Po valley in the northern part of what is now Italy, prior to the formation of the Roman Republic. ... Proto-Indo-European Indo-European studies The Anatolian languages are a group of languages, either Indo-European or (in some classifications) closely related to Indo-European, which were spoken in Asia Minor, including Hittite. ... Anatolia (Greek: ανατολη anatole, rising of the sun or East; compare Orient and Levant, by popular etymology Turkish Anadolu to ana mother and dolu filled), also called by the Latin name of Asia Minor, is a region of Southwest Asia which corresponds today to the Asian portion of Turkey. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Hurrians were a people of the Ancient Near East, who apparently originated in the Caucasus and entered Mesopotamia from the north approximately 2500 BC. Their known homeland was centred in the Khabur River valley, and later they established themselves as rulers of small kingdoms throughout northern Mesopotamia and Syria. ... Urartu was an ancient kingdom in eastern Anatolia, centred in the mountainous region around Lake Van (present-day Turkey), which existed from about 1000 BC, or earlier, until 585 BC, and which, at its apogee, stretched from northern Mesopotamia through the southern Caucasus, involving parts of present-day Armenia up... Dravidian may refer to: in the spiritualistic interpretations: the people who are the drav i. ... Geographical distribution of Finnic, Ugric, Samoyed and Yukaghir languages The Uralic languages form a language family of about 30 languages spoken by approximately 20 million people. ...


See also

The Germanic substrate hypothesis is a hypothesis that some have ventured that attempts to explain the distinctiveness of the Germanic languages within the Indo-European language family. ... The Paleolithic Continuity Theory (PCT) suggests that the Indo-European languages originated in Europe and have existed there since the Paleolithic. ... The Proto-Indo-Europeans are the hypothetical speakers of the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European language, a prehistoric people of the late Neolithic and early Bronze Age. ... Excavations at the South Area of Çatal Höyük Çatalhöyük (also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük, or any of the three without accent marks -- Çatal is Turkish for fork and Höyük is Turkish for mound) was a very large Neolithic and... The Aryan invasion theory is a historical theory first put forth by the German Indologist Friedrich Max Müller and others in the mid nineteenth century in order to provide a historical explanation for the existence of Indo-European languages in India. ...

External links

  • culture.gouv.fr: Life along the Danube 6500 years ago
  • Map of the cultures of Balkans - 4000 BC
  • Kathleen Jenks, "Old europe": further links

  Results from FactBites:
 
Pre-Indo-European - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1104 words)
Orange is the Lengyel culture, purple the Vincha culture, red the Cucuteni culture and yellow the western part of the Yamna culture.
Old Europe is a term coined by Marija Gimbutas to describe what she perceives as a relatively homogeneous and widespread pre-Indo-European Neolithic culture in Europe.
Old Europe, or Neolithic Europe, refers to the time between the Mesolithic and Bronze Age periods in Europe, roughly from 7000 BCE (the approximate time of the first farming societies in Greece) to ca.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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