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Encyclopedia > Old Church Slavonic
Old Church Slavonic
Ѩзыкъ словѣньскъ
językŭ slověnĭskŭ
Spoken in: formerly in Slavic areas, under the influence of Byzantium (both Catholic and Orthodox) 
Region: Eastern Europe
Language extinction: in use only as a liturgical language
Language family: Indo-European
 Slavic
  South
   Eastern
    Old Church Slavonic 
Writing system: Glagolitic alphabet; Cyrillic alphabet
Language codes
ISO 639-1: cu
ISO 639-2: chu
ISO 639-3: chu
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Old Church Slavonic (also called Old Slavic[1]) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessalonica (modern Thessaloniki) by the 9th century Byzantine Greek missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius. It was used by them for translation of the Bible and other texts from Greek and for some of their own writings. It played a great role in the history of Slavic languages and evolved into Church Slavonic, which is still used as a liturgical language by some Orthodox and Greek-Catholic Churches of the Slavic peoples. The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages) comprise the languages of the Slavic peoples. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... Byzantine Greeks or Byzantines, is a conventional term used by modern historians to refer to the medieval Greek or Hellenized citizens of the Byzantine Empire, centered mainly in Constantinople, southern Balkans, the Greek islands, the coasts of Asia Minor (modern Turkey) and the large urban centres of Near East and... For details about each of the saints, see Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Page from the Spiridon Psalter in Church Slavic. ... A sacred language is a language, frequently a dead language, that is cultivated for religious reasons by people who speak another language in their daily life. ... ... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ...

Contents

History

The language was standardized for the mission of the two apostles to Great Moravia in 863 (see Glagolitic alphabet for details). For that purpose, Cyril and his brother Methodius first codified Old Church Slavonic from the Macedonian dialect spoken in the neighbourhood (hinterland) of their city, Thessalonica (Ѳессалонїка; in Old Church Slavonic, Словѣньскъ), in the Byzantine Empire. Great Moravia was an empire existing in Central Europe between 833 and the early 10th century. ... Events Constantine I succeeds as king of Scotland. ... The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. ... Saint Cyril (Greek: Κύριλλος , Church Slavonic: Кирилъ) (827 - February 14, 869) was a Byzantine Greek monk, scholar, theologian, and linguist. ... Saint Methodius (Greek: Μεθόδιος; Church Slavonic Мефодии) (b. ... The White Tower The Arch of Galerius Map showing the Thessaloníki prefecture Thessaloníki (Θεσσαλονίκη) is the second-largest city of Greece and is the principal city and the capital of the Greek region of Macedonia. ... Byzantine redirects here. ...


As part of the preparation for the mission, in 862/863, the Glagolitic alphabet was created and the most important prayers and liturgical books, including the Aprakos Evangeliar (a Gospel Book lectionary containing only feast-day and Sunday readings), the Psalter, and Acts of the Apostles, were translated. (The Gospels were also translated early, but it is unclear whether Sts. Cyril or Methodius had a hand in this). The language and the alphabet were taught at the Great Moravian Academy (Veľkomoravské učilište) and were used for government and religious documents and books between 863 and 885. The texts written during this phase contain characteristics of the Slavic vernaculars in Great Moravia. Events Rurik gained control of Novgorod. ... Events Constantine I succeeds as king of Scotland. ... The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. ... A Gospel Book is a codex or bound volume, containing one or more of the four Gospels of the Christian New Testament. ... A Lectionary is a book or listing that contains a collection of scripture readings for Christian worship. ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... Events Constantine I succeeds as king of Scotland. ... Events Vikings besiege Paris Stephen VI elected pope Oldest known mentioning of Baky Births Emperor Daigo of Japan Deaths Pope Adrian III April 6: Saint Methodius, bishop and Bible translator Categories: 885 ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... Great Moravia was an empire existing in Central Europe between 833 and the early 10th century. ...


In 885, the use of the Old Church Slavonic in Great Moravia was prohibited by the Pope in favour of Latin. Students of the two apostles, who were expelled from Great Moravia in 886, brought the Glagolitic alphabet and the Old Church Slavonic language to the Bulgarian Empire. It was taught at two academies - in Preslav (capital 893-972) and Ohrid (capital 991/997-1015). The Cyrillic alphabet was developed shortly afterwards in the Preslav Literary School and replaced the Glagolitic one. The texts written during this era contain characteristics of the vernacular of Macedonia. There are some linguistic differences between texts written in the two academies. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Events The Glagolitic alphabet, devised by Cyril and Methodius, missionairies from Constantinople, is adopted in the Bulgarian Empire. ... Ceramic icon of St. ... Events Simeon I succeeds Vladimir as king of Bulgaria. ... Events Otto II marries Theophanu, Byzantine princess. ... The Ohrid Literary School was one of the two major medieval Bulgarian cultural centres, along with the Preslav Literary School (Pliska Literary School). ... Events Battle of Maldon Sweyn I of Denmark recovers his throne Births Deaths Theophanu, empress, mother of Otto III Emperor Enyu of Japan Categories: 991 ... Events City of Gdansk is founded Saint Adalbert of Prague is sent to Prussia by Boleslaus I of Poland Samuil of Bulgaria crowned Tsar by Pope Gregory V The town of Trondheim is founded. ... Events August: Canute the Great invades England. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... Ceramic icon of St. ...


Thereupon the language, in its Macedonian recension, spread to other South-Eastern and Eastern European Slavic territories, most notably to Croatia, Serbia, Bohemia, Lesser Poland, and the Russian principalities. The texts written in each country contain characteristics of the local Slavic vernacular. Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... Kraków Katowice Wrocław Łódź Poznań Bydgoszcz Lublin Białystok Gdańsk Szczecin Warsaw M A S O V I A S I L E S I A G R E A T E R P O L A N D L E S S E R P O...


Much later, local redactions of Old Church Slavonic were created for ecclesiastical and administrative use, and are collectively known as Church Slavonic (Macedonian: црковнословенски јазик, crkovnoslovenski jazik; Bulgarian: църковнославянски език, ts'rkovnoslavyanski ezik; Russian: церковнославя́нский язы́к, tserkovnoslavyánskiy yazík), but these terms are often confused. Church Slavonic maintained a prestige status, particularly in Russia, for many centuries—among Slavs in the East it had a status analogous to that of the Latin language in western Europe, but had the advantage of being substantially less divergent from the vernacular tongues of average parishioners. Some Orthodox churches, such as the Russian Orthodox Church, Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Macedonian Orthodox Church and Serbian Orthodox Church, as well as several Greek Catholic churches, still use Church Slavonic in their services and chants today. Page from the Spiridon Psalter in Church Slavic. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Look up Vernacular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Russian Orthodox Church of the Moscow Patriarchate (Russian: ), also known as the Orthodox Christian Church of Russia, is a body of Christians who are united under the Patriarch of Moscow, who in turn is in communion with the other patriarchs and primates of the Eastern Orthodox Church. ... The Bulgarian Orthodox Church (Bulgarian: , Bylgarska pravoslavna cyrkva) is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox Church with some 6. ... The Macedonian Orthodox Church (Macedonian: Македонска Православна Црква, Transliteration: Makedonska Pravoslavna Crkva) is the body of Christians who are united under the Archbishop of Ohrid and Macedonia. ... Flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church Unknown flag, seen offten in public. ... The Eastern Catholic Churches are autonomous particular Churches in full communion with the Pope of Rome. ...


Script

Initially Old Church Slavonic was written with the Glagolitic alphabet, but later it was replaced by the Cyrillic alphabet. Only in Croatia was the local variant of the Glagolitic alphabet preserved. See Early Cyrillic alphabet for a detailed description of the script and information about the sounds it originally expressed. The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union... The original Cyrillic alphabet was a writing system developed in Macedonia and in the First Bulgarian Empire in the tenth century to write the Old Church Slavonic liturgical language. ...


Basis and local influences

Old Church Slavonic is evidenced by a relatively small body of manuscripts, most of which were written during the late 10th and the early 11th centuries. The language has a Southern Slavic basis with an admixture of Western Slavic features inherited during the mission of Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius to Great Moravia (863 - 885). The only well-preserved manuscript of Moravian recension, the Kiev Folia, is characterised by the replacement of some Southern Slavic phonetic and lexical features with Western Slavic ones. Manuscripts written in the medieval Bulgarian kingdom have, on the other hand, fewer Western Slavic features. A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... Saint Cyril (Greek: Κύριλλος , Church Slavonic: Кирилъ) (827 - February 14, 869) was a Byzantine Greek monk, scholar, theologian, and linguist. ... Saint Methodius (Greek: Μεθόδιος; Church Slavonic Мефодии) (b. ... Great Moravia was an empire existing in Central Europe between 833 and the early 10th century. ... Events Constantine I succeeds as king of Scotland. ... Events Vikings besiege Paris Stephen VI elected pope Oldest known mentioning of Baky Births Emperor Daigo of Japan Deaths Pope Adrian III April 6: Saint Methodius, bishop and Bible translator Categories: 885 ...


Old Church Slavonic is valuable to historical linguists since it preserves archaic features believed to have once been common to all Slavic languages. Some of these features are:

  • nasal counterparts of the vowels o and e
  • use of supershort vowels ь and ъ for Proto-Indo-European short i and u
  • open articulation of the yat vowel
  • [ň] and [ľ] for the Proto-Slavic [nj], [lj]
  • Proto-Slavic declension system based on stem-endings (so-called o-stems, jo-stems, a-stems and ja-stems)
  • aorists, the imperfect, Proto-Slavic paradigms for participles etc. were still used

The Southern Slavic nature of the language is evident from the following variations: The Proto-Indo-European language (PIE) is the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, spoken by the Proto-Indo-Europeans. ...

  • phonetic:
    • use of [ra-], [la-] for the Proto-Slavic [or̃-], [ol̃-]
    • use of [s] for the Proto-Slavic [x] before the Proto-Slavic åi
    • use of [cv-], [dzv-] for the Proto-Slavic [kv'-], [gv'-]
  • morphosyntactic
    • use of the dative possessive case in personal pronouns and nouns: рѫка ти; отъпоуштенье грѣхомъ; descriptive future tense using the verb хотѣти (to want); use of the comparative form мьнии (smaller) to denote "younger".
    • use of suffixed demonstrative pronouns (тъ, та, то). In Bulgarian and Macedonian these developed into suffixed definite articles.

Some of the phonetic features in Old Church Slavonic are typical only for Bulgarian, as follows:

  • very wide articulation of the Yat vowel (Ѣ); originally still preserved in the Bulgarian dialects of the Rhodope mountains;
  • Proto-Slavic reflexes of *tj ([t']) and *dj ([d']):
Proto-Slavic Old Church Slavonic Bulgarian Czech Macedonian Polish Russian Slovak Slovenian Serbian
*dʲ ʒd ʒd z ʣ ʐ ʣ j ʥ
*tʲ ʃt ʃt ʦ ʦ ʦ ʧ ʨ
*gt/kt ʃt ʃt ʦ ʦ ʦ ʧ ʨ

Yat or Jat (, ) is the name of the thirty-second letter of the old Cyrillic alphabet, or of the sound it represents. ... Landscape of the Rhodopes near the village of Hvoyna View from the Belintash Rock towards the village of Vrata The Rhodopes (Bulgarian: , Rodopi, usually used with a definite article: Родопите, Rodopite, sometimes also called Родопа, Rodopa or Родопа планина, Rodopa planina; Greek: , Rodopi, red aspect) are a mountain range in Southeastern Europe, with over...

Macedonian recension

Macedonian is the oldest recensions of the Old Church Slavonic language and thrived in the period between the 10th and 14th centuries. The main literary center of this recension was the Ohrid Literary School (founded in the First Bulgarian Empire) whose most prominent member, and most likely founder, was Saint Clement of Ohrid. As this recension grew and thrived, several other literary centers emerged, among which most notable is the Lesnovo Literary School of the Lesnovo Monastery in north-eastern Macedonia. The main features are the following: As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... The Ohrid Literary School was one of the two major medieval Bulgarian cultural centres, along with the Preslav Literary School (Pliska Literary School). ... Imperial Emblem Bulgarian Empire at its greatest extent c. ... This article is about the medieval Bulgarian saint. ... Lesnovo (Bulgarian: ) is a village in the Sofia Province, western Bulgaria. ...

  • the traditional form of writing i.e. continuous usage of the Glagolithic alphabet instead of the Cyrillic alphabet;
  • a feature called mixing (confusion) of the nasals which is a unique Macedonian feature. Thus the development ѫ > ѧ occurs: behind the soft consonants р, л and н and in the cluster labial consonant + soft л. The vice versa case, development ѧ > ѫ occurs behind ш, ж, ц, ч, щ (шт), жд and j;
  • wide usage of the soft consonant clusters шт and жд and, in the later stages, their development in the modern Macedonian phonems ќ = /kʲ/ and ѓ = /gʲ/ respectively;
  • Strict distinction in the articulation of the yers and their vocalisation in strong position (ъ > o and ь > e) or omission in weak position;
  • Confusion of ѧ with Ѣ and Ѣ with e;
  • Denasalization in the latter stages: ѧ > e and ѫ > a, ѹ, ъ;
  • Wider usage and keeping of the phoneme ѕ = /dz/ (which in all Slavic languages but Macedonian has merged with з);

Tablet inscribed with the Glagolitic alphabet The Glagolitic alphabet or Glagolitsa is the oldest known Slavonic alphabet. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by certain Slavic languages — Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the former Soviet Union...

Bulgarian recension

The Bulgarian recension is the oldest recension of the Old Church Slavonic language. It was introduced by the Bulgarian Tsar Simeon in the 9-th century throughout the First Bulgarian Empire. The main literary centers of this recension were the two main academies in Ohrid and Preslav, which lead to the Ohrid and Preslav Literary Schools (the first was founded by Saint Clement of Ohrid, who was one of the students of Cyril and Methodius, who came to Bulgaria from Moravia, and was sent by the Bulgarian Tsar Simeon to Ohrid). Since there were several literary centres in the Bulgarian Empire this led to the appearance of multiple Bulgarian recensions in the period from the 9th to the 11th centuries. Thus: As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ...

  • both Glagolitic and Cyrillic alphabets were concurrently used
  • in some documents the original supershort vowels [ъ] and [ь] merged and only one of the letters was used to represent both of them
  • in West-Bulgarian recensions [ъ] was sometimes substituted with [o]
  • in East-Bulgarian recensions the original ascending reflex (rь, lь) of syllabic 'r' and 'l' was sometimes changed to descending ьr, ьl or a combination of both was used
  • original [ы] and [ъi] merged to [ы]
  • sometimes the use of letter 'Ѕ' (dz) was unified with that of 'З' (z)
  • verb forms naricajǫ, naricaješi were substituted or alternated with naričǫ, naričeši
  • lexical - use of words with proto-Bulgar origin, such as кумиръ, капище, чрьтогъ, блъванъ, etc.

Not to be confused with Bulgarians. ...

Moravian recension

While in the Prague fragments the only Moravian influence is replacing [št] with [c] and [žd] with [z], the recension evidenced by the Kiev Folia is characterised by the following features:

  • confusion between the letters Big yus (Ѫ) and Uk (ѹ) occurs once in the Kiev Folia, when the expected form въсѹдъ is spelled въсѫдъ
  • use of [c] for the Proto-Slavic *tj, use of [dz] for the Proto-Slavic *dj, use of šč for the Proto-Slavic *skj
  • use of the words mьša, cirky, papežь, prěfacija, klepati, piskati etc.
  • preservation of the group dl (e.g. modlitvami)
  • use of the ending –ъmь instead of –omь in the masculine singular instrumental, use of the pronoun čьso

In linguistics, the instrumental case (also called the eighth case) indicates that a noun is the instrument or means by which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action. ...

Later recensions (Church Slavonic)

Later use of the language in a number of medieval Slavic states resulted in the adjustment of Old Church Slavonic to the local vernacular, though a number of Southern Slavic, Macedonian, Moravian or Bulgarian features were also preserved. Some of the significant later recensions of Old Church Slavonic (referred to as Church Slavonic) in the present time are: Slovenian, Croatian, Serbian, Russian. Flag of Moravia Moravia (Czech and Slovak: Morava; German: ; Hungarian: ; Polish: ) is a historical region in the east of the Czech RepublicCzechia. ... Church Slavonic may refer to: Old Church Slavonic language Church Slavonic language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ...


Croatian recension

The Croatian recension of Old Church Slavonic is one of the earliest known today. It only used the Glagolitic alphabet. The nasal sounds [ǫ] / [ę] had been substituted with [o] / [u] and a variety of reflections of the proto-Slavic *tj and *dj emerged.


Russian recension

The Russian recension was developed after the 10th century on the basis of the earlier Bulgarian recensions, from which it differed slightly. Its main features are: As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ...

  • substitution of the nasal sound [ǫ] with [u]
  • merging of letters [ě] and [ja]

Serbian recension

The Serbian recension was at first written in Glagolitic alphabet, but later switched to Cyrillic alphabet. It appeared in the 12th century on the basis of the East-Bulgarian recensions: (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ...

  • nasal vowels [ǫ] and [ę] were replaced with [u] and [е]
  • use of diacritical signs by the Resava recension
  • use of letters [i], [y], [ě] for the sound 'i' by the Bosnian recension

Resava (Serbian Cyrillic: Ресава) refers to several toponyms and related topics, all of them located around the river Resava in central Serbia: Resava, a river Resava, a region, sourrounding the river Resava, a monastery Resava school, a cultural movement in XIV-XV century Resava Coal Mines, (or REMBAS) coal mines in...

Authors

The history of Old Church Slavonic writing includes a northern tradition begun by the mission to Great Moravia, including a short mission in the Balaton principality, and a Bulgarian tradition begun by some of the missionaries who relocated to Bulgaria after the expulsion from Great Moravia. Great Moravia was an empire existing in Central Europe between 833 and the early 10th century. ... Map of the main part of the Balaton principality (parts of the Dudleb County, of the Ptuj County, of the whole former Principality of Etgar, as well as territories in the east of the Danube and in the south of the Drava are not shown on this map) The Balaton...


Old Church Slavonic's first writings, translations of Christian liturgical and Biblical texts, were produced by Byzantine missionaries Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius, mostly during their mission to Great Moravia. Saint Cyril (Greek: Κύριλλος , Church Slavonic: Кирилъ) (827 - February 14, 869) was a Byzantine Greek monk, scholar, theologian, and linguist. ... Saint Methodius (Greek: Μεθόδιος; Church Slavonic Мефодии) (b. ... Great Moravia was an empire existing in Central Europe between 833 and the early 10th century. ...


The most important authors in Old Church Slavonic after the death of Methodius and the dissolution of the Great Moravian academy were Clement of Ohrid (active also in Great Moravia), Constantine of Preslav, Chernorizetz Hrabar and John Exarch, all of whom worked in medieval Bulgaria at the end of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th century. This article is about the medieval Bulgarian saint. ... Constantine of Preslav (Konstantin Preslavski) was a medieval Bulgarian scholar, writer and translator, one of the most important men of letters working at the Preslav Literary School at the end of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th century. ... Chernorizetz Hrabar (Chernorizetz the Brave) was a medieval Bulgarian scholar and writer working at the Preslav Literary School at the end of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th century. ... John Exarch (John the Exarch, also transcribed Joan Exarch, Joan Ekzarh) was a medieval Bulgarian scholar, writer and translator, one of the most important men of letters working at the Preslav Literary School at the end of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th century. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ...


Nomenclature

The original name of the language in the Old Church Slavonic texts was simply "Slavic" (словѣньскыи ѩзыкъ slověnĭskyj językŭ),[2] derived from the word словѣне slověne, the self-designation of the compilers of the texts.


The language is sometimes called "Old Slavic", but that term is undesirable as it may be confused with the distinct Proto-Slavic language. Proto-Slavic is the proto-language from which Old Church Slavonic and other Slavic languages later emerged. ...


The designation Old Bulgarian (German Altbulgarisch) was introduced in the 19th century by reputable linguists as August Schleicher, Martin Hattala and Leopold Geitler who noticed that the linguistic features of the first Slavic literary works are the same as those of the Bulgarian language. For similar reasons Russian linguist Aleksandr Vostokov used the term Slav-Bulgarian. The designation is, however, now considered by some as incorrect, as it implies that Old Church Slavonic was the ancestor exclusively of Bulgarian and that all manuscripts have a connection to Bulgarian. Old Bulgarian may refer to: The first literary period in the development of the Bulgarian language. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... August Schleicher August Schleicher (February 19, 1821 - December 6, 1868) was a German linguist. ... Martin Hattala (born 1821, Trstená, died 1903, Prague) was Slovak pedagogue, Roman Catholic theologian and linguist. ... Alexander Khristoforovich Vostokov (1781-1864) was one of the first Russian philologists and the greatest 19th-century authority on the Old Church Slavonic language. ...


The commonly accepted terms in modern English-language Slavic studies are Old Church Slavic (American usage) and Old Church Slavonic (British usage). Old Bulgarian can still be found in a number of sources and is the only designation used by Bulgarian linguistics. Some scholars use these terms for tradition's sake but believe that Old Macedonian better reflects the language's basis in the dialect of Thessaloniki spoken by Cyril and Methodius.


Modern Slavic nomenclature

Here are some of the names used by speakers of modern Slavic languages:

  • Belarusian: старажытнаславянская мова (staražytnasłavianskaja mova) — 'Old Slavic'
  • Bosnian: staro(crkveno) slavenski — 'Old (Church) Slavic'
  • Bulgarian: старобългарски (starobălgarski) — 'Old Bulgarian'
  • Czech: staroslověnština — 'Old Slavic'
  • Croatian: staro(crkveno) slavenski — 'Old (Church) Slavic'
  • Macedonian: старо(црковно) словенски (staro(crkovno) slovenski) — 'Old (Church) Slavic'
  • Polish: staro-cerkiewno-słowiański — 'Old Church Slavic'
  • Russian: старославянский язык (staroslavjánskij jazýk) — 'Old Slavic'
  • Serbian: старо(црквено)словенски / staro(crkveno)slovenski — 'Old (Church) Slavic'
  • Slovak: (staro) slovienčina — '(Old) Slavic'
  • Slovenian: stara cerkvena slovanščina — 'Old Church Slavic'
  • Ukrainian: старослов’янська мова (staroslovjans'ka mova) — 'Old Slavic'

Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ...

References

  1. ^ "Old Church Slavonic language." Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. <http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9056967>. In older writing and in Bulgaria, it is often called Old BulgarianUniversity of Texas Linguistics Research Center: Old Church Slavonic Online. Because of the language's importance in the development of Macedonian, it is sometimes called Old Macedonian (distinct from Ancient Macedonian) in the Republic of MacedoniaThe European Library
  2. ^ Nandris, Grigore (1959). Old Church Slavonic Grammar, p. 2 (London: University of London Athlone Press).

This article is about the language used in antiquity. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ...

See also

Proto-Slavic is the proto-language from which Old Church Slavonic and other Slavic languages later emerged. ... Page from the Spiridon Psalter in Church Slavic. ... The Slavoserbian language (славяносербскій [slavjanoserbskij], словенскій [slovenskij]; in Serbian славеносрпски/slavenosrpski) is a form of the Serbian language which was predominantly used at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century by educated Serbian citizens in Vojvodina, and the Serbian diaspora in other parts of the Habsburg Monarchy. ...

External links

Wikipedia
Old Church Slavonic edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
  • Old Church Slavonic Wikipedia
  • Old Church Slavonic Online, a comprehensive tutorial at the A. Richard Diebold Center for Indo-European Language and Culture, Linguistics Research Center, University of Texas at Austin

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... University of Texas redirects here. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... This article or section should be merged with List of East Slavic languages The East Slavic languages constitute one of three regional subgroups of Slavic languages, currently spoken in Eastern Europe. ... Old East Slavic, traditionally known as Old Russian (Russian: древнерусский), is a name for a vernacular literary language used between the 10th and 14th centuries by East Slavs in Kievan Rus and other states formed by that ethnic group. ... Old Novgorod dialect (Russian &#1076;&#1088;&#1077;&#1074;&#1085;&#1077;&#1085;&#1086;&#1074;&#1075;&#1086;&#1088;&#1086;&#1076;&#1089;&#1082;&#1080;&#1081; &#1076;&#1080;&#1072;&#1083;&#1077;&#1082;&#1090;, also translated as Old Novgorodian or Ancient Novgorod dialect) is a term introduced by Andrey Zaliznyak (&#1040;&#1085;&#1076;&#1088;&#1077... Rusyn is an East Slavic language (along with Russian, Belarusian and Ukrainian to which it shares a common linguistic ancestry) that is spoken by the Rusyns. ... Ruthenian was a historic East Slavic language, spoken in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and later in the East Slavic territories of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... This article or section should be merged with List of West Slavic languages The West Slavic languages is a subdivision of the Slavic language group (q. ... Kashubian or Cassubian (Kashubian: kaszëbsczi jãzëk, pòmòrsczi jãzëk, kaszëbskò-sÅ‚owiÅ„skô mòwa) is one of the Lechitic languages, which are a group of Slavic languages. ... Knaanic (also called Canaanic, Leshon Knaan or Judeo-Slavic) was a West Slavic language, formerly spoken in the Czech lands, now the Czech Republic. ... Lower Sorbian (dolnoserbšćina) is a Slavic minority language spoken in eastern Germany in the historical province of Lower Lusatia, today part of Brandenburg. ... Pannonian Rusyn or simply Rusyn (Ruthenian) is a Slavic language or dialect spoken in north-western Serbia and eastern Croatia (therefore also called Yugoslavo-Ruthenian, Vojvodina-Ruthenian or Bačka-Ruthenian). ... The Polabian language, which became extinct in the 18th century, was a group of Slavic dialects spoken in present-day northern Germany: Mecklenburg, Brandenburg, Saxony-Anhalt, eastern parts of Lower Saxony, and Schleswig-Holstein. ... Stefan RamuÅ‚ts Dictionary of the Pomeranian (Kashubian) language, published in Kraków, 1893 Pomeranian language edition of Wikipedia Pomeranian is a group of Lechitic dialects which were spoken in the Middle Ages on the territory of Pomerania, between the Oder and Vistula rivers. ... Slovincian is an extinct dialect of the Pomeranian language, spoken between the lakes Gardno and Łebsko in Pomerania. ... Upper Sorbian (hornjoserbšćina) is a minority language of Germany spoken in the historical province of Upper Lusatia, today part of Saxony. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Banat Bulgarians in Romania (in brown) The Banat Bulgarians (Bulgarian: , banatski balgari, endonym palćene and banátsći balgare) are a Bulgarian minority group living mostly in the Romanian part of the historical region of the Banat. ... Page from the Spiridon Psalter in Church Slavic. ... Serbo-Croatian or Croato-Serbian (sometimes just Croatian or Serbian) (srpskohrvatski, cрпскохрватски, hrvatskosrpski, hrvatski ili srpski or srpski ili hrvatski), earlier also Serbo-Croat, is a South Slavic language. ... Bunjevac language or Bunjevac dialect (Bunjevački jezik or Bunjevački dijalekat) is a language/dialect spoken by Bunjevac ethnic group in Vojvodina province of Serbia and Montenegro. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... The Å okac language (Å okački jezik) was a language listed in Austro-Hungarian censuses. ... Slavic (Greek: Σλάβικα Slávika, reported self-identifying names: endopika, makedonski (Macedonian), pomakika, bugarski, balgarski (Bulgarian) [1]) are terms sometimes used to designate the dialects spoken by the Slavophone (i. ... It has been suggested that Moribund language be merged into this article or section. ... Proto-Slavic is the proto-language from which Old Church Slavonic and other Slavic languages later emerged. ... Russenorsk or Russonorsk (Norwegian for Russo-Norwegian) was a pidgin language combining elements of Russian and Norwegian, created by traders and whalers from northern Norway and the Russian Kola peninsula, and also used in Svalbard. ... The Slavoserbian language (славяносербскій [slavjanoserbskij], словенскій [slovenskij]; in Serbian славеносрпски/slavenosrpski) is a form of the Serbian language which was predominantly used at the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century by educated Serbian citizens in Vojvodina, and the Serbian diaspora in other parts of the Habsburg Monarchy. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Old Church Slavonic - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2000 words)
Old Church Slavonic (Old Bulgarian, Old Macedonian, and Old Slavic) is the first literary Slavic language, developed from the Slavic dialect of Thessaloniki (Solun) by the 9th century Byzantine missionaries, Saints Cyril and Methodius.
Church Slavic maintained a prestige status, particularly in Russia, for many centuries—among Slavs in the East it had a status analogous to that of the Latin language in western Europe, but had the advantage of being substantially less divergent from the vernacular tongues of average parishioners.
Macedonian is one of the oldest recenesions of the Old Church Slavonic language and thrived in the period between 10.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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