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Encyclopedia > Olaf I of Norway
Olaf Tryggvason
King of Norway
Olaf Tryggvason has been elected king, a painting by Peter Nicolai Arbo
Reign 995 - 1000
Born 960s
Norway
Died 1000
Norway
Consort Geira
Gyda
Thyre
Father Tryggve Olafsson
Mother Astrid Eiriksdottir

Olaf Tryggvason (Old Norse: Óláfr Tryggvason, Norwegian: Olav Tryggvason), (960s-September 9? 1000), was King of Norway from 995 to 1000. He was the son of Tryggve Olafsson, king of Viken, (Vingulmark and Ranrike), and the great-grandson of Harald Fairhair, first King of Norway. Image File history File links Painting by Norwegian artist Peter Nicolai Arbo (1831-1892). ... Events (Erik Segersäll) is succeeded by (Olof Skötkonung), the first baptized ruler of Sweden. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... Tryggve Olafsson (d. ... Old Norse is the Germanic language spoken by the inhabitants of Scandinavia and their overseas settlements during the Viking Age, until about 1300. ... Centuries: 9th century - 10th century - 11th century Decades: 910s - 920s - 930s - 940s - 950s - 960s - 970s - 980s - 990s - 1000s - 1010s Years: 960 961 962 963 964 965 966 967 968 969 Events Khazar kingdom is attacked and defeated by Kievan Rus (965) Categories: 960s ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... Tryggve Olafsson (d. ... Viken (literally the bay) is a landscape defined by Oslofjord in southeastern Norway which terminates at Terra Scania on the coast of West Sweden. ... Vingulmark was the name of a Viking Age petty kingdom around Oslofjorden. ... Ranrike (Old Norse Ránríki) was the old name for a part of Viken, corresponding to the northern half of the traditional Swedish province of Bohuslän (roughly the physical Alfheim of Scandinavian mythology). ... Harald Fairhair or Harald Finehair (Old Norse:Haraldr hinn hárfagri, Icelandic:Haraldur hinn hárfagri, Norwegian:Harald HÃ¥rfagre) (c. ...


Olaf played an important part in the conversion of the Vikings to Christianity. He is said to have built the first church in Norway (in 995) and to have founded the city of Trondheim (in 997). The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch... County District Municipality NO-1601 Administrative centre Trondheim Mayor (2003-) Rita Ottervik (AP) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 258 342 km² 322 km² 0. ...

Contents

Birth and early life

There is some uncertainty regarding the date of Olaf's birth. The Heimskringla states that he was born shortly after the murder of his stated father in 963, while other sources suggest a date between 964 and 969. The later dates cast doubt over Olaf's claim to be of Harald Fairhair's kin, and the legitimacy of his claim to the throne. Snorri Sturluson claims in Olav Tryggvson's saga that Olaf was born on an islet in Randsfjorden, where his mother Astrid daughter of Eirik Bjodaskalle, was hiding from her husband's killers, led by Harald Greyhide, the son of Eirik Bloodaxe. Greyhide and his brothers had seized the throne from Haakon the Good, but only had influence of friendship, and asked for permission to take the boy back to Norway, where he would be raised by Greyhide's mother Gunhild. The Swedish king gave them men to help them claim the young boy, but to no avail. After a short scuffle Astrid (with her son) fled again. This time their destination was Gardarike, where Astrid's brother Sigurd was in the service of King Valdemar. Olaf was three years old when they set sail on a merchant ship for Novgorod. The journey was not successful -- in the Baltic Sea they were captured by Estonian pirates, and the people aboard were either killed or taken as slaves. Olaf became the possession of a man named Klerkon, together with his foster father Thorolf and his son Thorgils. Klerkon considered Thorolf too old to be useful as a slave and killed him, and then sold the two boys to a man named Klerk for a stout and a good ram. Olaf was then sold to a man called Reas for a fine cloak. [1] Heimskringla is the Old Norse name of a collection of sagas recorded in Iceland around 1225 by the poet and historian Snorri Sturluson (1179-1242). ... Harald I (b. ... Snorri Sturluson (1178 – September 23, 1241) was an Icelandic historian, poet and politician. ... Randsfjorden is Norways fourth largest lake with an area of 138 km2. ... Harald Greyhide (died 976) (Old Norse: Haraldr gráfeldr, Norwegian: Harald Gråfell. ... Eric I (Norw. ... Haakon I (ca. ... Anthem Hymn of the Russian Federation Capital (and largest city) Moscow Official languages Russian official throughout nation; thirty others co-official in various regions Government Semi-presidential federal republic  -  President Vladimir Putin  -  Prime Minister Mikhail Fradkov Formation  -  Declared June 12, 1990   -  Finalized December 25, 1991  Area  -  Total 17,075,400... Saint Vladimir Svyatoslavich the Great (c. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Estonian pirates appear at least twice in history and legend. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Binomial name Ovis aries Linnaeus, 1758 The domestic sheep (Ovis aries), the most common species of the sheep genus (Ovis), is a woolly ruminant quadruped which probably descends from the wild mouflon of south-central and south-west Asia. ... Evening cloak or manteau, from Costume Parisien, 1823 A cloak is a type of loose garment that is worn over indoor clothing and serves the same purpose as an overcoat—it protects the wearer from the cold, rain or wind for example, or it may form part of a fashionable...


Life in Novgorod

Six years later when Sigurd Eirikson traveled to Estonia to collect taxes on behalf of Valdemar, he spotted a remarkably handsome boy, who did not appear to be a native. He asked the boy about his family, and the boy told him he was Olaf, son of Tryggve Olafson and Astrid Eiriksdattir. Sigurd then went to Reas and bought Olaf and Thorgils out from slavery, and took the boys with him to Novgorod to live under the protection of Valdemar.


According to Tryggvason's saga, one day in the Novgorod marketplace Olaf encountered Klerkon, his enslaver and the murderer of his foster father. Olaf killed Klerkon with an axe blow to the head. A mob followed the young boy as he fled to his protector Queen Allogia, with the intent of killing him for his misdeed. Only after Allogia had paid blood money for Olaf did the mob calm down. A throng of people returning from a show of fireworks spill in to the street stopping traffic at the intersection of Fulton Street and Gold Street in Lower Manhattan. ... Until his baptism, Vladimir I of Kiev (c. ... Blood money is money paid as a fine to the next of kin of somebody who was killed intentionally. ...


As Olaf grew older, Valdemar made him chief over his men-at-arms, but after a couple years the king became wary of Olaf and his popularity with his soldiers. Fearing he might be a threat to the safety of his reign, Valdemar stopped treating Olaf as a friend. Olaf decided that it was better for him to seek his fortune elsewhere, and set out for the Baltic.

Olaf arrives in Norway (Illustration by Peter Nicolai Arbo).
Olaf in the temple of Thor (Illustration by Halfan Egedius).
Olaf in the temple of Thor (Illustration by Halfan Egedius).
During the Christianisation of Norway, king Olaf had male völvas (shamans) tied and left on a skerry at ebb. This was a long and terrible wait for death.
During the Christianisation of Norway, king Olaf had male völvas (shamans) tied and left on a skerry at ebb. This was a long and terrible wait for death.
Olaf's ship, the "Long Serpent", is attacked during the Battle of Svolder (Illustration by Halfan Egedius)
Olaf's ship, the "Long Serpent", is attacked during the Battle of Svolder (Illustration by Halfan Egedius)

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1230x790, 122 KB) Arrival of Olav Tryggvason to Norway. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1230x790, 122 KB) Arrival of Olav Tryggvason to Norway. ... Image File history File links Olav_Tryggvasons_saga_-_Olav_i_Tors_hov_-_H._Egedius. ... Image File history File links Olav_Tryggvasons_saga_-_Olav_i_Tors_hov_-_H._Egedius. ... Thors battle against the giants, by Mårten Eskil Winge, 1872 Thor (Old Norse: Þórr) is the red-haired and bearded god of thunder and war in Norse Mythology and more generally Germanic mythology (Old English: Þunor, Old Dutch and Old High German: Donar, from Proto-Germanic *Þunraz). ... Halvdan Egedius (1877-1899) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Halvdan Egedius (1877-1899) This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... The völva, vala, wala (Old High German), seiðkona, or wicce was a female shaman in Norse mythology, and among the Germanic tribes. ... The shaman is an intellectual and spiritual figure who is regarded as possessing power and influence on other peoples in the tribe and performs several functions, primarily that of a healer ( medicine man). The shaman provides medical care, and serves other community needs during crisis times, via supernatural means (means... Look up skerry in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Ebb tide” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Olav_Tryggvasons_saga_-_Eriks_menn_entrer_Ormen_lange_-_Halfdan_Egedius. ... Image File history File links Olav_Tryggvasons_saga_-_Eriks_menn_entrer_Ormen_lange_-_Halfdan_Egedius. ... The naval Battle of Svolder or Swold took place on 9 September 1000 in the western Baltic Sea, between Norway and the other Scandinavians. ...

Raiding

After leaving Novgorod, Olaf raided settlements and ports with success. In 982 he was caught in a storm and made port in Vindland, where he met Queen Geira a daughter of King Burizleif. She ruled the part of Vindland in which Olaf had landed, and Olaf and his men was given an offer to stay for the winter. Olaf accepted and after courting the Queen, they were married. Olaf began to reclaim the baronies that while under Geira rule had refused to pay taxes. After these successful campaigns, he began raiding again both in Skåne and Gotland. Anthem Mazurek DÄ…browskiego(Polish) DÄ…browskis Mazurka Poland() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Warsaw Official languages Polish² Demonym Pole Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Lech KaczyÅ„ski  -  Prime Minister JarosÅ‚aw KaczyÅ„ski Formation  -  Christianisation4 966   -  Redeclared November 11, 1918  Accession to... Burislav, Burisleif, BurysÅ‚aw is the name of mythical Wendish king from Scandinavian sagas who is said to rule over Wendland. ... The Flag of SkÃ¥ne (also known as Scania in English) is the southernmost historical province (landskap) and County (Län) of Sweden. ...   is a county and province of Sweden and the largest island in the Baltic Sea. ...


Fighting for Otto III

The Holy Roman Emperor Otto III had assembled a great army of Saxons, Franks, Frisians and Wends to fight against the heathen Danes. Olaf was part of this army as his father-in-law was king of Vindland. Otto's army met the armies of King Harald I of Denmark and Haakon Jarl the ruler of Norway under the Danish king, at Danevirke, a great wall near Schleswig. Otto's army was unable to break the fortification, so he changed tactics and sailed around it landing in Jutland with a large fleet. Otto won a large battle there, and forced Harald and Haakon with their armies to convert to Christianity. Otto's army then returned to their homelands. Harald would hold on to his new faith, but Haakon began worshiping the old gods when he got home. The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... For other uses, see Saxon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Satellite view of the German Bight (the Frisian Coast). ... Wends (German: Wenden, Latin: Venedi) is the English name for some Slavic people from north-central Europe. ... Ásatrú (Icelandic Æsir faith) is a new religious movement which is attempting to revive the Norse paganism of the Viking Age - as described in the Eddas - prior to the arrival of Christianity. ... Rune stones of Gorm and Harald Rune stone of Harald, writing side Rune stones of Gorm and Harald, back side Harald Bluetooth Gormson (Danish: , Old Norse: , Norwegian: ), was born around 935, the son of King Gorm the Old, king of Jutland (that is, peninsular Denmark) and of Thyra (also known... Haakon Sigurdsson Jarl (d. ... // For the town in New Zealand, see Dannevirke. ... The region of Schleswig (former English name: Sleswick, Danish: Sønderjylland or Slesvig, Low German: Sleswig, North Frisian: Slaswik or Sleesweg) covers the area about 60 km north and 70 km south of the border between Germany and Denmark. ... Jutland Peninsula Jutland (Danish: Jylland; German: Jütland; Frisian Jutlân; Low German Jötlann) is the western, continental part of Denmark as well as one of the three historical Lands of Denmark, dividing the North Sea from Kattegat and the Baltic Sea. ... Christianity percentage by country, purple is highest, orange is lowest Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch...


Death of Geira and conversion

After Olaf had spent three years in Vindland, his wife fell sick and died. He felt so much sorrow from her death that he could no longer bear to stay in Vindland, and set out to plunder in 984. He raided from Frisland to the Hebrides, until after four years he landed on one of the Scilly Isles. He heard of a seer who lived there. Desiring to test the seer, he sent one of his men to pose as Olaf. But the seer was not fooled. So Olaf went to see the hermit, now convinced he was a real fortune teller. And the seer told him: This article is about the Hebrides islands in Scotland. ... The Isles of Scilly (Cornish: Ynysek Syllan) are an archipelago of islands off the Cornish coast. ... Categories: Stub ...


Thou wilt become a renowned king, and do celebrated deeds. Many men wilt thou bring to faith and baptism, and both to thy own and others' good; and that thou mayst have no doubt of the truth of this answer, listen to these tokens. When thou comest to thy ships many of thy people will conspire against thee, and then a battle will follow in which many of thy men will fall, and thou wilt be wounded almost to death, and carried upon a shield to thy ship; yet after seven days thou shalt be well of thy wounds, and immediately thou shalt let thyself be baptized.


After the meeting Olaf was attacked by a group of mutineers, and what the seer had foretold happened. So Olaf let himself be baptised by the hermit. After his conversion Olaf stopped looting in England. It is because of his conversion to Christianity that many modern day Asatruar call him Olaf the Traitor. Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total... satr , also known as Odinism, describes a number of attempts to reconstruct the indigenous religions of Northern Europe. ...


Marriage to Gyda

In 988 Olaf sailed to England, because a thing had been called by Queen Gyda, sister of the King of Dublin, Olaf Cuaran. She had been widowed by an earl, and was searching for a husband. A great many men had come, but Gyda singled out Olaf, despite the fact he was wearing his bad weather clothes, and the other men wore their finest clothing. They were to be married, but another man by the name of Alfvine took objection, and challenged Olaf and his men to holmgang. Olaf and his men fought Alfvine's crew and won every battle, but did not kill any of them, instead they bound them. Alfvine was told to quit the country and never come back again. Gyda and Olaf married, and spent half their time in England and the other half in Ireland. A thing or ting (Old Norse and Icelandic: þing; other modern Scandinavian: ting) was the governing assembly in Germanic societies, made up of the free men of the community and presided by lawspeakers. ... Dublin city centre at night WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Leinster County: Dáil Éireann: Dublin Central, Dublin North Central, Dublin North East, Dublin North West, Dublin South Central, Dublin South East European Parliament: Dublin Dialling Code: 01, +353 1 Postal District(s): D1-24, D6W Area: 114. ... Olaf Cuaran (d. ... For other uses, see Earl (disambiguation). ... Egill Skallagrímsson engaging in holmgang with Berg-Önundr, painting by Johannes Flintoe Holmgång (or holmganga) was a duel practiced by Norsemen. ...


Ascent to the throne

In 995 rumours began to surface in Norway about a king in Ireland of Norwegian blood. This caught the ear of Haakon Jarl, who sent Thorer Klakka to Ireland, posing as a merchant, to see if he was the son of Tryggve Olafson. Haakon told Thorer that if it were him, to lure him to Norway, so Haakon could have him under his power. Thorer befriended Olaf and told him of the situation in Norway, that Haakon Jarl had become unpopular with the populace, because he often took daughters of the elite as concubines, which was his right as ruler. He quickly grew tired of them and sent them home after a week or two. He had also been weakened by his fighting with the Danish king, due to his rejection of the Christian faith. A swampy marsh area ...


Olaf seized this opportunity, and set sail for Norway. When he arrived many men had already started a revolt against Haakon Jarl, and he had gone in hiding in a hole dug in a pigsty, together with one of his slaves Kark. When Olaf met the rebels they accepted him as their king, and together they started to search for Haakon. They eventually came to the farm where Haakon and Kark were hiding, but could not find them. Olaf held a meeting just outside the swine-sty and promised a great reward for the man who killed the Jarl. The two men in the hole heard this speech, and Haakon became distrustful of Kark, fearing he would mutilate him to claim the price. He could not leave the sty, nor could he keep awake forever, and when he fell asleep Kark took out a knife and cut Haakon's head off. The next day the slave went to meet Olaf and presented with the head of Haakon. The king did not reward him, and instead beheaded the slave. A spider hole A spider hole is military slang for a small one-person foxhole, often camouflaged so that it can be used for ambushes. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


After his confirmation as King of Norway, Olaf traveled to the parts of Norway that had not been under the rule of Haakon, but that of the King of Denmark; they too swore rudely at him. He then demanded that they all be baptised, and most reluctantly they agreed. Those that did not were tortured or killed. Torture is defined by the United Nations Convention Against Torture as any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he...


Rule as king

In 997 Olaf founded his seat of government in Trondheim, where he had first held thing with the revolters against Haakon. It was a good site because the River Nid twisted itself before going in to the fjord, creating a peninsula, that could be easily defended against land attacks by just one short wall. County District Municipality NO-1601 Administrative centre Trondheim Mayor (2003-) Rita Ottervik (AP) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 258 342 km² 322 km² 0. ... A thing or ting (Old Norse and Icelandic: þing; other modern Scandinavian: ting) was the governing assembly in Germanic societies, made up of the free men of the community and presided by lawspeakers. ... Nidelva is a river in the county Sør-Trøndelag, Norway. ... A peninsula in Croatia A peninsula is a piece of land that is bordered on three or more sides by water. ...


It has been suggested that Olaf's ambition was to rule a united Christian Scandinavia, and we know that he made overtures of marriage to Sigrid the Haughty, queen of Sweden, but negotiations fell through due to her steadfast heathenism. Instead he made an enemy of her, and did not hesitate to involve himself in a quarrel with King Sweyn I of Denmark by marrying his sister Thyre, who had fled from her heathen husband Burislav (Mieszko I) in defiance of her brother's authority. Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe and includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ... Sigrid the Haughty, Gunhilda, Sigrid Storråda, Świętosława, (967 - 1014). ... Sweyn I, or Sweyn Forkbeard, (Danish: Svend Tveskæg, originally Tjugeskæg or Tyvskæg, Old Norse: Sveinn Tjúguskegg, Norwegian: Svein Tjugeskjegg), (??? – February 3, 1014), king of Denmark and England, a leading Viking warrior and the father of Canute the Great (Cnut I). ... Reign ca. ...


Both his Wendish and his Irish wife had brought Olaf wealth and good fortune, but Thyre was his undoing, for it was on an expedition undertaken in the year 1000 to wrest her lands from Burislav that he was waylaid off the island Svold, near Rügen, by the combined Swedish, Danish and Wendish fleets, together with the ships of Earl Haakon's sons. The Battle of Swold ended in the death of the Norwegian king. Olaf fought to the last on his great vessel the "Long Serpent" (Ormurin Langi), the mightiest ship in the North, and finally leapt overboard and was seen no more. Map of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania highlighting the district Rügen Rügen (Polish: Rugia) is an island located off the coast of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania in the Baltic Sea. ... The Battle of Swold was a naval battle that took place on September 9, 1000 between Norway and the other Scandinavians. ... Ormurin Langi is a very popular song in the Faeroe Islands. ...

Preceded by
Haakon Sigurdsson
King of Norway
995–1000
Succeeded by
Svein Forkbeard
Eiríkr Hákonarson
Sveinn Hákonarson

Haakon Sigurdsson Jarl (d. ... This article is a list of rulers of Norway up until the present, including: The Norwegian kingdom (with the Faroe Islands) The Union with Iceland and Greenland (1262-1814) The Norwegian kingdom (with Iceland, Greenland and the Faroe Islands 1262-1814) The Union of Sweden and Norway (1319-1343) The... Sweyn I, or Sweyn Forkbeard, (Danish: Svend Tveskæg, originally Tjugeskæg or Tyvskæg, Old Norse: Sveinn Tjúguskegg, Norwegian: Svein Tjugeskjegg), (??? – February 3, 1014), king of Denmark and England, a leading Viking warrior and the father of Canute the Great (Cnut I). ... Erics victory in the battle of Svolder was his most celebrated achievement. ... After the Battle of Svolder, Sveinn ruled the area marked yellow on the map. ...

See also

The minelayer HNoMS Olav Tryggvason was built for the Royal Norwegian Navy by the naval shipyard at Horten in the early 1930s and had build number 119. ...

External links

  • Heimskringla: The Saga of Olaf Tryggvason (English translation) on Wikisource
  • Heimskringla: Saga Ólafs Tryggvasonar (Old Norse)

References

  1. ^ Snorri Sturluson's Heimskringla saga.
  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.

 
 

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