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Encyclopedia > Oklahoma City bombing
Oklahoma City bombing (1995)
Oklahoma City bombing (1995)
Damage to the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building before cleanup began.
Location Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA
Date Wednesday 19 April 1995
9:02am (UTC-5)
Attack type Truck bomb
Deaths 168
Injured 800+
Perpetrator(s) Timothy McVeigh, Terry Nichols, and Michael Fortier

The Oklahoma City bombing was a domestic terrorist attack on April 19, 1995 aimed at the U.S. government in which the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building was bombed in an office complex in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. The attack claimed 168 lives and left over 800 injured. Until the September 11, 2001 attacks, it was the deadliest act of terrorism on U.S. soil.[1] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 408 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1880 × 2760 pixel, file size: 2. ... Alfred P. Murrah building four days before its demolition Alfred P. Murrah building during demolition Aerial view of Alfred P. Murrah building after bombing The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building was a United States Federal Government complex located at 200 N.W. 5th Street in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. ... Alfred P. Murrah building four days before its demolition Alfred P. Murrah building during demolition Aerial view of Alfred P. Murrah building after bombing The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building was a United States Federal Government complex located at 200 N.W. 5th Street in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. ... Nickname: Location in Oklahoma County and the state of Oklahoma. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... ... For other uses, see Car bomb (disambiguation). ... For the Navy sailor, see Timothy R. McVeigh. ... Terry Lynn Nichols (born April 1, 1955) was convicted of being an accomplice of Timothy McVeigh, the man convicted of murder in the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, April 19, 1995), which claimed 168 lives. ... Michael Fortier (born 1968) and Lori Fortier, his wife, were accomplices in the Oklahoma City bombing and key informants in the trials of Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols. ... The following is a timeline of acts and failed attempts that can be considered non-state terrorism. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... This article is about the federal government of the United States. ... Alfred P. Murrah building four days before its demolition Alfred P. Murrah building during demolition Aerial view of Alfred P. Murrah building after bombing The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building was a United States Federal Government complex located at 200 N.W. 5th Street in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. ... Nickname: Location in Oklahoma County and the state of Oklahoma. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Terrorist redirects here. ...


Shortly after the explosion, Oklahoma Highway Patrol officer Charlie Hanger stopped 26-year-old Timothy McVeigh for driving without a license plate and unlawfully carrying a weapon.[2] Within days after the bombing, Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols were both arrested for their roles in the bombing. Investigators determined that McVeigh and Nichols were sympathizers of an anti-government militia movement and that their motive was to avenge the government's handling of the Waco and Ruby Ridge incidents (the bombing occurred on the anniversary of the Waco incident). McVeigh was executed by lethal injection on June 11, 2001. Nichols was sentenced to life in prison. A third conspirator, Michael Fortier, who testified against McVeigh and Nichols, was sentenced to twelve years in prison for failing to warn the U.S. government. As with other large scale terrorist attacks, conspiracy theories dispute the official claims and point to additional perpetrators involved. For the Navy sailor, see Timothy R. McVeigh. ... Terry Lynn Nichols (born April 1, 1955) was convicted of being an accomplice of Timothy McVeigh, the man convicted of murder in the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, April 19, 1995), which claimed 168 lives. ... The role of militia, also known as civilian military service and duty, in the United States is complex and has transformed over time. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Combatants ATF, FBI, U.S. Army Branch Davidians Commanders Assault: Phil Chojnacki Siege: Many David Koresh† Strength Assault: 75 ATF agents Siege: Hundreds of federal agents and soldiers 50+ men, 75+ women and children Casualties 4 dead, 21 wounded in assault 6 dead and 3+ wounded in assault, 79 dead... Ruby Ridge refers to a violent confrontation and siege involving Randy Weaver, his family, Weavers friend Kevin Harris, federal agents from the United States Marshals Service and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. ... This article is about the execution and euthanasia method. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Life imprisonment is a sentence of imprisonment for a serious crime, nominally for the entire remaining life of the prisoner, but in fact for a period which varies between jurisdictions: many countries have a maximum possible period of time (usually 50 years) a prisoner may be incarcerated, or require the... Michael Fortier (born 1968) and Lori Fortier, his wife, were accomplices in the Oklahoma City bombing and key informants in the trials of Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols. ... A conspiracy theory is a theory that defies common historical or current understanding of events, under the claim that those events are the result of manipulations by two or more individuals or various secretive powers or conspiracies. ...


The attacks led to widespread rescue efforts from local, state, and federal and worldwide agencies, along with considerable donations from across the country. As a result of the destruction of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, the U.S. government passed legislation designed to increase protection around federal buildings and to thwart future terrorist attacks. Under these measures, law enforcement has since foiled over fifty domestic terrorism plots.[3] On April 19, 2000, the Oklahoma City National Memorial was dedicated on the site of the Murrah Federal Building to commemorate the victims of the bombing and annual remembrance services are held at the time of the explosion. Legislation (or statutory law) is law which has been promulgated (or enacted) by a legislature or other governing body. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The Oklahoma City National Memorial is the largest memorial of its kind in the United States. ...

Contents

Terror

Prelude

On April 15, 1995 Timothy McVeigh rented a Ryder truck in Junction City, Kansas under the alias Robert D. Kling.[4][5] On April 16, he drove to Oklahoma City with fellow conspirator Terry Nichols where he parked a getaway vehicle several blocks away from the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building. After removing the license plate from the car, the two men returned to Kansas. On April 17 and April 18, the men loaded 108 fifty-pound (22 kg) bags of ammonium nitrate fertilizer, three fifty-five gallon (208 l) drums of liquid nitromethane, several crates of explosive Tovex sausage, seventeen bags of ANFO, and spools of shock tube and cannon fuse into the truck. The two then drove to Geary County State Lake where they mixed the chemicals together using plastic buckets and a bathroom scale. McVeigh then added a dual-fuse ignition system that he could access through the truck's front cab. McVeigh also included more explosives on the driver's side of the cargo bay, which he could ignite with his Glock pistol if the primary fuses failed. After finishing the construction of the truck-bomb, the two men separated. Nichols returned to Herington, Kansas; McVeigh drove the truck to Oklahoma City. is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... For the Navy sailor, see Timothy R. McVeigh. ... Ryder NYSE: R is a popular truck rental and leasing company for companies distribution and supply chain efforts. ... Junction City is a city in Geary County, Kansas, United States. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Terry Lynn Nichols (born April 1, 1955) was convicted of being an accomplice of Timothy McVeigh, the man convicted of murder in the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, April 19, 1995), which claimed 168 lives. ... Alfred P. Murrah building four days before its demolition Alfred P. Murrah building during demolition Aerial view of Alfred P. Murrah building after bombing The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building was a United States Federal Government complex located at 200 N.W. 5th Street in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Related Compounds Other anions Ammonium nitrite; ammonium perchlorate Other cations Sodium nitrate; potassium nitrate; hydroxylammonium nitrate Related compounds Nitrous oxide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references The chemical compound ammonium nitrate, the nitrate of... Spreading manure, an organic fertilizer Fertilizers (also spelled fertilisers) are compounds given to plants to promote growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar feeding, for uptake through leaves. ... Flash point 35 °C R/S statement R: S: RTECS number PA9800000 Related compounds Related nitro compounds nitroethane Related compounds methyl nitrite methyl nitrate Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Nitromethane is an organic... Tovex is a water gel explosive that has several advantages over traditonal dynamite. ... ANFO stands for ammonium nitrate/fuel oil (most often diesel fuel, sometimes kerosene or even molasses). ... An idealized shock tube. ... In an explosive, pyrotechnic device or military munition, a fuse (or fuze) is the part of the device that initiates function. ... The Glock 21 is a pistol manufactured by Glock. ...

A security photo from a nearby building showing the Ryder truck approaching the Murrah Federal building.

At dawn on April 19, as he drove toward the Murrah Federal building, McVeigh carried with him an envelope whose contents included pages from The Turner Diaries, a fictional account of modern-day revolutionary activists who rise up against the government and create a full scale race war. He wore a printed T-shirt with the slogan Sic semper tyrannis ("Thus ever to tyrants", the phrase shouted by John Wilkes Booth immediately after the assassination of Abraham Lincoln) and "The tree of liberty must be refreshed time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants" (from Thomas Jefferson). As the truck approached the building, at 8:57 a.m. CST, McVeigh lit the five-minute fuse. Three minutes later, still a block away, he lit the two-minute fuse. He parked the Ryder truck in a drop-off zone situated under the building's day care center, locked the vehicle, and headed to his getaway vehicle.[6] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Turner Diaries is a 1978 novel by Dr. William Luther Pierce (under the pseudonym Andrew Macdonald), the late leader of the National Alliance, a white separatist organization. ... Great Seal of Virginia with the state motto. ... John Wilkes Booth (May 10, 1838 – April 26, 1865) assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Fords Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865. ... Assassination of Abraham Lincoln From left to right: Major Henry Rathbone, Clara Harris, Mary Todd Lincoln, Abraham Lincoln, and John Wilkes Booth. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ...


Bombing

At 9:02 a.m. CST, the Ryder truck, containing about 5,000 pounds (2,300 kg) of ammonium nitrate fertilizer, nitromethane, and diesel fuel mixture, detonated in front of the north side of the nine-story Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building.[7][8] The blast destroyed a third of the building[9] and created a thirty-foot (9 m) wide, eight-foot (2.4 m) deep crater on NW 5th Street next to the building.[10] The blast destroyed or damaged 324 buildings in a sixteen-block radius,[11] destroyed or burned 86 cars around the site, and shattered glass in 258 nearby buildings[12] (the broken glass alone accounted for 5% of the death total and 69% of the injuries outside the Murrah Federal building).[13] The destruction of the buildings left several hundred people homeless and shut down multiple offices in downtown Oklahoma City.[14] Related Compounds Other anions Ammonium nitrite; ammonium perchlorate Other cations Sodium nitrate; potassium nitrate; hydroxylammonium nitrate Related compounds Nitrous oxide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references The chemical compound ammonium nitrate, the nitrate of... Flash point 35 °C R/S statement R: S: RTECS number PA9800000 Related compounds Related nitro compounds nitroethane Related compounds methyl nitrite methyl nitrate Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Nitromethane is an organic... This article is about the fuel. ... Alfred P. Murrah building four days before its demolition Alfred P. Murrah building during demolition Aerial view of Alfred P. Murrah building after bombing The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building was a United States Federal Government complex located at 200 N.W. 5th Street in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. ...

An aerial view of the destruction
An aerial view of the destruction

The shaped charge effects of the blast were equivalent to over 4,000 lbs (1,814 kg) of TNT,[15] and could be heard and felt up to fifty-five miles (89 km) away.[14] Seismometers at the Omniplex Museum in Oklahoma City (4.3 miles/7 kilometers away) and in Norman, Oklahoma (16.1 miles/26 kilometers away) recorded the blast as measuring approximately 3.0 on the Richter scale.[16] Image File history File links Aerial view of Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building after bombing, 1995 Source: [1] URL: [2] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Aerial view of Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building after bombing, 1995 Source: [1] URL: [2] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Sectioned HEAT round with the inner shaped charge visible 1:Aerodynamic cover 2: Empty room 3: Conical liner 4: Detonator 5: Explosive 6: Piezo-electric sensor A shaped charge is an explosive charge shaped to focus the effect of the explosives energy. ... R-phrases S-phrases Related Compounds Related compounds picric acid hexanitrobenzene Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. ... Seismometers is of Greek origin and comes from Seism - the shakes and Meteo - I measure are instruments that measure and record motions of the ground, including those of seismic waves generated by earthquakes, nuclear explosions, and other seismic sources. ... The Omniplex Science Museum is a complex of museums in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... “km” redirects here. ... Norman, Oklahoma, is the county seat and largest city in Cleveland County in the U.S. state of Oklahoma, and is part of the Oklahoma City Metropolitan Statistical Area. ... The Richter magnitude scale, or more correctly local magnitude ML scale, assigns a single number to quantify the amount of seismic energy released by an earthquake. ...


Arrests

Within 90 minutes of the explosion, McVeigh was arrested.[17] He was traveling north out of Oklahoma City on Interstate 35 near Perry in Noble County, when an Oklahoma State Trooper stopped him for driving his yellow 1977 Mercury Marquis without a license plate. The arrest was for having a concealed weapon.[18] Later that day, McVeigh was linked to the bombing via the VIN number of an axle from the destroyed Ryder truck that had been rented under his alias name, Robert Kling.[19] After a court hearing on the gun charges, but before McVeigh was released, federal agents took him into custody as they continued their investigation into the bombing. Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Interstate 35 Interstate 35 (abbreviated I-35) is a north–south interstate highway in the central United States. ... Perry is a city in Noble County, Oklahoma, United States. ... Noble County is a county located in the state of Oklahoma. ... The Oklahoma Highway Patrol is a state law enforcement agency of the Government of Oklahoma. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... VIN redirects here. ... An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear. ... Ryder NYSE: R is a popular truck rental and leasing company for companies distribution and supply chain efforts. ...


Federal agents then searched for Nichols, a friend of McVeigh. Two days after the bombing, Nichols learned that FBI investigators were looking for him, and he turned himself in. After a nine-hour interrogation, he was formally held in federal custody until his trial for involvement in the bombing.[20]


Ibrahim Ahmad, a Jordanian-American traveling from his home in Oklahoma City to visit family in Jordan was also arrested in what was described as an "initial dragnet". Due to his background, the media initially was concerned that Middle Eastern terrorists were behind the attack. Further investigation, however, cleared Ahmad in the bombing.[21]


Casualties

The Water Resources building three months after the bombing
The Water Resources building three months after the bombing

At the end of the day of the bombing, twenty people were confirmed dead, including six children, with over a hundred injured.[22] The toll eventually reached 168 confirmed dead, not including an unmatched leg that might be from a possible, unidentified 169th victim.[23] Of these, 160 were killed in the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, four people in the Athenian Building, one woman in a parking lot across the street, a man and woman in the Oklahoma Water Resources building, and a rescue worker struck in the head by debris.[14] The victims ranged in age from three months to seventy-three, not including unborn children of three pregnant women.[4][24] Nineteen of the victims were children, including fifteen who were in the America's Kids Day Care Center.[25] The bodies of all 168 victims were identified at a temporary morgue set up at the scene.[26] Twenty-four people, including sixteen specialists, used full-body X-rays, dental examinations, fingerprinting, blood tests, and DNA testing to identify the bodies.[4][26] The bomb injured 853 people with the majority of the injuries ranging from abrasions to severe burns and bone fractures.[27] In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... This article is about the dental profession. ... This article is about human fingerprints. ... Blood tests are laboratory tests done on blood to gain an appreciation of disease states and the function of organs. ... Genetic fingerprinting, DNA testing, DNA typing, and DNA profiling are techniques used to distinguish between individuals of the same species using only samples of their DNA. Its invention by Dr. Alec Jeffreys at the University of Leicester was announced in 1985. ... Abrasion on the palm of a right hand, shortly after falling Abrasions on elbow and lower arm, still healing. ... For other uses, see Burn. ... Internal and external views of an arm with a compound fracture, both before and after surgery A bone fracture is a medical condition in which a bone has cracked or broken. ...


Response and relief

Rescue efforts

U.S. Air Force personnel and firefighters removing rubble in the rescue attempt
U.S. Air Force personnel and firefighters removing rubble in the rescue attempt

At 9:03:25 a.m. CST, the first of over 1,800 9-1-1 calls related to the bombing was received by Emergency Medical Services Authority (EMSA).[28] Already by that time, however, EMSA ambulances and members of the police and firefighters, having heard the blast, were heading to the scene.[29] Nearby citizens, who had also witnessed or heard the blast, arrived to assist the victims and emergency workers.[9] Within 23 minutes of the bombing, the State Emergency Operations Center (SEOC) was set up and included representatives of the state departments of public safety, human services, military, health, and education. Assisting the SEOC were agencies such as the National Weather Service, the Air Force, the Civil Air Patrol, and the American Red Cross.[30] Immediate assistance also came from 465 members of the Oklahoma National Guard, who arrived within the hour to provide security, and from members of the Department of Civil Emergency Management.[29] Within the first hour, fifty people were rescued from the Murrah Federal building.[31] Victims were sent to every hospital in the area. By the end of the day, 153 victims had been treated at St. Anthony Hospital, eight blocks from the blast, over 70 at Presbyterian, 41 at University, and 18 at Children's.[26] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 525 pixelsFull resolution (2902 × 1906 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 525 pixelsFull resolution (2902 × 1906 pixel, file size: 2. ... This article is about the emergency telephone number. ... The National Weather Service (NWS) is one of the six scientific agencies that make up the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the United States government. ... “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... Civil Air Patrol Corporate seal The Civil Air Patrol (CAP) is the civilian auxiliary of the United States Air Force (USAF). ... A WWII-era poster encouraged American women to volunteer for the Red Cross as part of the war effort. ... It has been suggested that National Guard Bureau be merged into this article or section. ...


At 10:28 a.m. CST, rescuers found what they believed to be a second bomb. Some rescue workers initially refused to leave until police ordered a mandatory evacuation of a four-block area around the site.[28][26] However about 45 minutes later the device was determined to be a simulator used in training federal agents and bomb-sniffing dogs, and relief efforts were continued.[12][26] The last survivor, a fifteen-year-old girl found under the base of the collapsed building, was discovered at about 7:00 p.m. CST.[26]


In the days following the blast, over 12,000 people participated in relief and rescue operations. FEMA activated 11 of its Urban Search and Rescue Task Forces, comprising a team of 665 rescue workers who assisted in rescue and recovery operations.[30][32] In an effort to recover additional bodies, 100 to 350 tons of rubble were removed from the site each day until April 29.[26] Twenty-four K-9 units and out-of-state dogs were brought in to search for survivors and locate bodies amongst the building refuse.[12][33][26] FEMA redirects here. ... A FEMA Urban Search and Rescue Task Force (US&R Task Force) is a team of individuals specializing in urban search and rescue, disaster recovery, and emergency triage and medicine. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Police dog getting ready to search a vehicle for drugs A policemans dog is a dog that is trained specifically to assist police and similar law-enforcement personnel with their work. ...

Search and rescue teams work together to free trapped victims
Search and rescue teams work together to free trapped victims

Rescue and recovery efforts were concluded at 11:50 p.m. on May 4, with the bodies of all but three victims recovered.[26] For safety reasons, the building was to be demolished shortly afterward. However, McVeigh's attorney, Stephen Jones, called for a motion to delay the demolition until the defense team could examine the site in preparation for the trial.[34] More than a month after the bombing, at 7:01 a.m. on May 23, the Murrah Federal building was demolished.[26] The final three bodies, those of two credit union employees and a customer, were recovered.[35] For several days after the building's demolition, trucks hauled 800 tons of debris a day away from the site. Some of the debris was used as evidence in the conspirators' trials, incorporated into parts of memorials, donated to local schools, and sold to raise funds for relief efforts.[36] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 528 pixelsFull resolution (2292 × 1512 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 528 pixelsFull resolution (2292 × 1512 pixel, file size: 3. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Stephen Jones is an attorney and Republican activist from Enid, Oklahoma. ... A legal motion is a procedural device in law to bring a limited, contested matter before a court for decision. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The law of evidence governs the use of testimony (e. ...

Alfred P. Murrah Building four days before its demolition.
Alfred P. Murrah Building four days before its demolition.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 556 pixelsFull resolution (1140 × 792 pixel, file size: 128 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture of the Murrah Federal Building on May 19, 1995. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 556 pixelsFull resolution (1140 × 792 pixel, file size: 128 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Picture of the Murrah Federal Building on May 19, 1995. ...

Humanitarian aid

The national humanitarian response was immediate and, in some cases, even overwhelming. Rescue workers received large amounts of donated goods such as wheelbarrows, bottled water, rain gear, and even football helmets.[37] The sheer number of donated goods caused logistical and inventory control problems until drop-off centers were set up to accept and sort the goods.[9] The Oklahoma Restaurant Association, which was holding a trade show in the city, assisted rescue workers by providing 15,000 to 20,000 meals over a ten-day period.[38] Requests for blood donations were met by local residents[22] and also from those around the nation.[39] Of the 9,000 units of blood donated to the victims, only 131 units were used, the rest saved in blood banks.[40] A common wheelbarrow Older wheelbarrow Wheelbarrows on the Belomorkanal A wheelbarrow is a small one-wheeled, hand-propelled vehicle, designed to be pushed and guided by a single person using two handles to the rear. ... A 1. ... Group of men drilling in football helmets A football helmet is a protective device used primarily in American football and Canadian football which was created by Paul Brown. ... Give blood redirects here. ... A blood bank is a cache or bank of blood or blood components, gathered as a result of blood donation, stored and preserved for later use in blood transfusions. ...


Federal and state government aid

President Bill Clinton being told about the Oklahoma City bombing an hour after it occurred

At 9:45 a.m. CST, Governor Frank Keating declared a state of emergency and ordered all non-essential workers located in the Oklahoma City area to be released from their duties for their safety.[9] President Bill Clinton learned about the bombing around 10:00 a.m. while he was meeting with Turkish Prime Minister Tansu Çiller at the White House.[22] At 4:00 p.m. CST, President Clinton declared a federal emergency in Oklahoma City[29] and spoke to the nation: Image File history File links Billclintonokcb. ... Image File history File links Billclintonokcb. ... Francis Anthony Frank Keating (February 10, 1944) is an American politician from Oklahoma. ... For other uses, see State of emergency (disambiguation). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Tansu Çiller Tansu Penbe Çiller (IPA: (born 9 October 1946) is an economist and politician in Turkey. ...

The bombing in Oklahoma City was an attack on innocent children and defenseless citizens. It was an act of cowardice and it was evil. The United States will not tolerate it, and I will not allow the people of this country to be intimidated by evil cowards.[22]

Four days later, on April 23, Clinton spoke from Oklahoma City. is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


There was no major federal financial assistance provided to the survivors of the Oklahoma City bombing, However, the Murrah Fund was established and collected over $300,000 from federal grants. Additionally, individuals around the country donated $15 million to aid the disaster relief and to compensate the victims.[30] Later, a committee chaired by Daniel J Kurtenbach of Goodwill Industries provided financial assistance to the survivors.[41] Goodwill Industries International, Inc. ...


Children terrorized

The image of firefighter Chris Fields holding the dying infant Baylee Almon won the Pulitzer Prize for Spot News Photography in 1996.Two people, Lester LaRue and Charles Porter, standing just three feet apart took almost the same image yet it was Charles Porter's image that won the Pulitzer.
The image of firefighter Chris Fields holding the dying infant Baylee Almon won the Pulitzer Prize for Spot News Photography in 1996.

Two people, Lester LaRue and Charles Porter, standing just three feet apart took almost the same image yet it was Charles Porter's image that won the Pulitzer.[42]

In the wake of the bombing, the national media seized upon the fact that 19 of the victims had been children. Schools across the country were dismissed early and ordered closed. A photograph of firefighter Chris Fields emerging from the rubble with infant Baylee Almon, who later died in a nearby hospital, was reprinted worldwide and became a symbol of the attack.[43] The images and thoughts of children dying terrorized many children who, as demonstrated by later research, showed symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder.[44] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (640x812, 69 KB) // A photograph of firefighter Chris Fields removing infant Baylee Almon (who later died in a nearby hospital) from the destruction of the Oklahoma City bombing. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (640x812, 69 KB) // A photograph of firefighter Chris Fields removing infant Baylee Almon (who later died in a nearby hospital) from the destruction of the Oklahoma City bombing. ... The Pulitzer Prize for Spot News Photography was awarded from 1968 – 1999, thereafter being renamed as the Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News Photography. ... Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a term for certain severe psychological consequences of exposure to, or confrontation with, stressful events that the person experiences as highly traumatic. ...


President Clinton and his wife, Hillary, showed concern about how children were reacting to the bombing. They requested that aides talk to child care specialists about how to talk to the children regarding the bombing. President Clinton spoke to the nation three days after the bombing, saying: "I don't want our children to believe something terrible about life and the future and grownups in general because of this awful thing...most adults are good people who want to protect our children in their childhood and we are going to get through this".[45] On the Saturday after the bombing, April 22, the Clintons gathered children of employees of federal agencies that had offices in the Murrah Building, and in a live nationwide television and radio broadcast, addressed their concerns. REDIRECT Hillary Rodham Clinton   This is a redirect from a title with another method of capitalisation. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Media coverage

Hundreds of news trucks and members of the press arrived at the site to cover the story. The press immediately noticed that the bombing took place on the second anniversary of the Waco incident.[22] Many initial news stories, however, hypothesized the attack had been undertaken by Islamic terrorists, such as those who had masterminded the World Trade Center bombing two years before.[46] Some responded to these reports by attacking Muslims and people of Arab descent.[47][48] Combatants ATF, FBI, U.S. Army Branch Davidians Commanders Assault: Phil Chojnacki Siege: Many David Koresh† Strength Assault: 75 ATF agents Siege: Hundreds of federal agents and soldiers 50+ men, 75+ women and children Casualties 4 dead, 21 wounded in assault 6 dead and 3+ wounded in assault, 79 dead... For the 2001 attack and destruction of the World Trade Center, see September 11, 2001 attacks. ...


As the rescue effort wound down, the media interest shifted to the investigation, arrests, and trials of Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols, and on the search for an additional suspect named "John Doe 2". Several witnesses had claimed to see the second suspect with McVeigh who did not resemble Nichols.[49] For the Navy sailor, see Timothy R. McVeigh. ... Terry Lynn Nichols (born April 1, 1955) was convicted of being an accomplice of Timothy McVeigh, the man convicted of murder in the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, April 19, 1995), which claimed 168 lives. ...


Trials and sentencing of the conspirators

The FBI led the official investigation, known as OKBOMB,[50] with Weldon L. Kennedy acting as Special Agent in charge.[51] It was the nation's largest criminal case in history, with FBI agents conducting 28,000 interviews, amassing 3.5 tons of evidence, and collecting nearly one billion pieces of information.[19][52] The investigation led to the separate trials and convictions of McVeigh, Nichols, and Fortier. F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... Weldon Lynn Kennedy (born September 12, 1938) was a special agent for the Federal Bureau of Investigation and served for 33 years. ...

Timothy McVeigh's mug shot after being arrested less than two hours after the bombing for driving without a license plate and having a concealed weapon

Image File history File linksMetadata Mcveighmugshot. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Mcveighmugshot. ... For the Navy sailor, see Timothy R. McVeigh. ... A concealed carry is the right to carry a handgun or other weapon in public in a concealed manner. ...

Timothy McVeigh

Main article: Timothy McVeigh

The United States was represented by a team of prosecutors, led by Joseph Hartzler. In his opening statement, Hartzler outlined McVeigh's motivations and the evidence against him. McVeigh's motivation, he said, was hatred of the government, which began during his tenure in the Army as he read The Turner Diaries, and grew through the increase in taxes and the passage of the Brady Bill, and grew further with the Waco and Ruby Ridge incidents. The prosecution called 137 witnesses, including Michael Fortier, Michael's wife Lori Fortier, and McVeigh's sister, Jennifer McVeigh, all of whom testified on McVeigh's hatred of the government and demonstrated desire to take militant action against it. Both Fortiers testified that McVeigh had told them of his plans to bomb the Alfred P. Murrah Federal building. Michael revealed how McVeigh had chosen the date and Lori testified that she created the false identification card that McVeigh used to rent the Ryder truck.[53][54] For the Navy sailor, see Timothy R. McVeigh. ... The Turner Diaries is a 1978 novel by Dr. William Luther Pierce (under the pseudonym Andrew Macdonald), the late leader of the National Alliance, a white separatist organization. ... The Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act, also known as the Brady Bill, was passed by Congress and signed into law by President Bill Clinton on November 30, 1993. ... Combatants ATF, FBI, U.S. Army Branch Davidians Commanders Assault: Phil Chojnacki Siege: Many David Koresh† Strength Assault: 75 ATF agents Siege: Hundreds of federal agents and soldiers 50+ men, 75+ women and children Casualties 4 dead, 21 wounded in assault 6 dead and 3+ wounded in assault, 79 dead... Ruby Ridge refers to a violent confrontation and siege involving Randy Weaver, his family, Weavers friend Kevin Harris, federal agents from the United States Marshals Service and the Federal Bureau of Investigation. ... Michael Fortier (born 1968) and Lori Fortier, his wife, were accomplices in the Oklahoma City bombing and key informants in the trials of Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols. ... Michael Fortier (born 1968) and Lori Fortier, his wife, were accomplices in the Oklahoma City bombing and key informants in the trials of Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols. ... German identity card with a KINEGRAM® A piece of identification (ID) is a document designed to verify aspects of a persons identity. ...


In his trial, whose venue had been moved from Oklahoma City to Denver, Colorado, McVeigh was represented by a defense counsel team of six principal attorneys led by Stephen Jones.[55] According to Linder, McVeigh wanted Jones to present a "necessity defense"––which would argue that he was in "imminent danger" from the government (that his bombing was intended to prevent future crimes by the government, such as the Waco and Ruby Ridge incidents).[53] Contrary to his client's wishes, however: Nickname: Location of Denver in the State of Colorado Location of Colorado in the United States Coordinates: , Country United States State State of Colorado City and County Denver[1] Founded 1858-11-22, as Denver City, K.T.[2] Incorporated 1861-11-07, as Denver City, C.T.[3] Consolidated... Stephen Jones is an attorney and Republican activist from Enid, Oklahoma. ...

Jones opted for a strategy of trying to poke what holes he could in the prosecution's case, thus raising a question of reasonable doubt. In addition, Jones believed that McVeigh was taking far more responsibility for the bombing than was justified and that McVeigh, although clearly guilty, was only a player in a large conspiracy.... In his book about the McVeigh case, Others Unknown: Timothy McVeigh and the Oklahoma City Bombing Conspiracy, Jones wrote: "It strains belief to suppose that this appalling crime was the work of two men--any two men...Could [this conspiracy] have been designed to protect and shelter everyone involved? Everyone, that is, except my client...[.]" Jones considered presenting McVeigh as "the designated patsy" in a cleverly designed plot, but his own client opposed the strategy and Judge Matsch, after a hearing, ruled the evidence concerning a larger conspiracy to be too insubstantial to be admissible.[53]

In addition to arguing that the bombing could not have been accomplished by two men alone but must have been perpetrated by a conspiracy of more people whom McVeigh was protecting, Jones also attempted to raise reasonable doubt by arguing that no one had seen McVeigh near the scene of the crime and that the investigation into the bombing had lasted merely two weeks.[53] During the trial, Linder observed further:

The defense presented 25 witnesses over just a one-week period. The most effective witness for the defense might have been Dr. Frederic Whitehurst, who provided a damning critique of the FBI's sloppy investigation of the bombing site and its handling of other key evidence. Unfortunately for McVeigh, while Whitehurst could show that FBI techniques made contamination of evidence possible, he could not point to any evidence (such as trace evidence of explosives on the shirt McVeigh wore on April 19) that he knew to be contaminated.[53] Dr. Frederic Whitehurst joined the FBI in 1982 and served as a Supervisory Special Agent in the FBI crime lab from 1986-98. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

The jury deliberated for twenty-three hours. On June 2, 1997, McVeigh was found guilty on eleven counts of murder and conspiracy.[56][57] Although the defense argued for a reduced sentence of life imprisonment, McVeigh was sentenced to death.[58] He was executed by lethal injection at a U.S. penitentiary in Terre Haute, Indiana, on June 11, 2001.[59] The execution was televised on closed-circuit television so that the relatives of the victims could witness his death.[60] is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... This article is about the execution and euthanasia method. ... Terre Haute (pronounced ) is a city in Vigo County, Indiana near the states western border with Illinois. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... This article refers to a surveillance system. ...


Terry Nichols

Main article: Terry Nichols

Terry Nichols stood trial twice. He was first tried by the federal government in 1997 and found guilty of conspiring to build a weapon of mass destruction and of eight counts of involuntary manslaughter of federal officers.[61] After he received the sentence on June 4, 1998 of life-without-parole, the State of Oklahoma in 2000 sought a death-penalty conviction on 161 counts of first-degree murder. On May 26, 2004 the jury found him guilty on all charges, but deadlocked on the issue of sentencing him to death. Presiding Judge Steven W. Taylor then determined the sentence of 161 consecutive life terms without the possibility of parole.[62] He is currently held in the ADX Florence Federal Prison.[63] Terry Lynn Nichols (born April 1, 1955) was convicted of being an accomplice of Timothy McVeigh, the man convicted of murder in the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building (Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, USA, April 19, 1995), which claimed 168 lives. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Steven W. Taylor, (born June 7, 1949), is a Justice on the Oklahoma Supreme Court. ... The ADX Florence facility from the outside The United States Penitentiary Administrative Maximum Facility (ADX) in Florence, CO. is a supermax prison in Florence, Colorado, USA. It is unofficially known as ADX Florence, Florence ADMAX, Supermax, or The Alcatraz of the Rockies. ...


Michael Fortier

Main article: Michael and Lori Fortier

Though Michael Fortier was considered an accomplice and co-conspirator, he agreed to testify against McVeigh in exchange for a modest sentence and immunity for his wife.[64][54] He was sentenced on May 27, 1998 to twelve years in prison and fined $200,000 for failing to warn authorities about the attack.[62] As discussed by Jeralyn Merritt, who served on Timothy McVeigh's criminal defense team, on January 20, 2006, after serving eighty-five percent of his sentence, Fortier was released for good behavior into the Witness Protection Program and given a new identity.[65] Michael Fortier (born 1968) and Lori Fortier, his wife, were accomplices in the Oklahoma City bombing and key informants in the trials of Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols. ... Michael Fortier (born 1968) and Lori Fortier, his wife, were accomplices in the Oklahoma City bombing and key informants in the trials of Timothy McVeigh and Terry Nichols. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Jeralyn Elise Merritt (b. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the United States, the Witness Protection Program (also known as the Witness Security Program, or WITSEC) was established by the Organized Crime Control Act of 1970, which in turn sets out the manner in which the U.S. Attorney General may provide for the relocation and protection of a...


Others

No "John Doe #2" was ever identified, nothing conclusive was ever reported regarding the owner of the missing leg, and the government never openly investigated anyone else in conjunction with the bombing. Though the defense teams in both McVeigh's and Nichols trials tried to suggest that others were involved, Judge Steven W. Taylor, who presided over the Nichols trial, found no credible, relevant, or legally admissible evidence of anyone other than McVeigh and Nichols as having directly participated in the bombing.[53] Steven W. Taylor, (born June 7, 1949), is a Justice on the Oklahoma Supreme Court. ...


Aftermath

The site of the building after it was torn down, three months after the bombing
The site of the building after it was torn down, three months after the bombing

Until the September 11, 2001 attacks, the Oklahoma City bombing was the deadliest act of terror against the U.S. on American soil.[1] In response, the U.S. Government enacted several pieces of legislation, notably the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996.[66] In response to the trials of the conspirators being moved out-of-state, the Victim Allocution Clarification Act of 1997 was signed on March 20, 1997 by President Clinton to allow the victims of the bombing (and the victims of any other future acts of violence) the right to observe trials and to offer impact testimony in trials. In response to passing the legislation, Clinton stated that "when someone is a victim, he or she should be at the center of the criminal justice process, not on the outside looking in."[67] A common definition of terrorism is the systematic use or threatened use of violence to intimidate a population or government and thereby effect political, religious, or ideological change. ... In the United States, acts of domestic terrorism are generally considered to be uncommon. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... The Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 (also known as AEDPA) is a series of laws in the United States signed into law on April 24, 1996 to deter terrorism, provide justice for victims, provide for an effective death penalty, and for other purposes. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...


In the weeks following the bombing, the federal government ordered that all federal buildings in all major cities be surrounded with prefabricated Jersey barriers to ward off similar attacks.[68] Most of these temporary barriers have since been replaced with permanent security barriers which look more attractive and are driven deep into the ground for sturdiness.[69][70] Furthermore, all new federal buildings must now be constructed with truck-resistant barriers and with deep setbacks from surrounding streets to minimize their vulnerability to truck bombs.[71][72][73] The total cost of improving security in federal buildings across the country in response to the bombing reached over $600 million.[74] Jersey wall on the Woodrow Wilson Bridge near Washington, D.C. A Jersey barrier or Jersey wall separates lanes of traffic (often opposing lanes of traffic) with a goal of minimizing vehicle crossover in the case of accidents. ...


According to Mark Potok, director of Intelligence Project at the Southern Poverty Law Center, law enforcement officials have foiled over fifty domestic terror plots since the Oklahoma City bombing.[3] The attacks were prevented due to measures established by the local and federal government to increase security of high-priority targets and following-up on hate groups within the United States.

The Field of Empty Chairs, east Gate of Time, and Reflecting Pool at the Oklahoma City National Memorial.
The Field of Empty Chairs, east Gate of Time, and Reflecting Pool at the Oklahoma City National Memorial.

The attack led to improvements in engineering for the purpose of constructing buildings that would be better able to withstand tremendous forces. Oklahoma City's new federal building was constructed using those improvements. The National Geographic Channel documentary series Seconds From Disaster suggested that the Murrah Building would probably have survived the blast had it been built according to California earthquake design codes. Download high resolution version (2048x1360, 1444 KB)Photograph of the Oklahoma City National Memorial as taken from the south observation area on 18 September 2004 by Dustin M. Ramsey. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1360, 1444 KB)Photograph of the Oklahoma City National Memorial as taken from the south observation area on 18 September 2004 by Dustin M. Ramsey. ... The National Geographic Channel is a subscription television network that features documentaries produced by the National Geographic Society. ... Seconds From Disaster was a documentary television series that investigates the worst man-made disasters and several natural disasters in modern history, and analyses the causes and events that led up to each disaster. ...


Oklahoma City National Memorial & Museum

For two years after the bombing, the only memorial for the victims were stuffed animals, crucifixes, letters, and other personal items left by thousands of people at a security fence surrounding the site of the building.[75] The Oklahoma City National Memorial is the largest memorial of its kind in the United States. ...


Although multiple ideas for memorials were sent to Oklahoma City within the first day after the bombing, an official memorial planning committee did not form until early 1996.[76] The Murrah Federal Building Memorial Task Force, composed of 350 members, was established to formulate plans in choosing a memorial to commemorate the victims of the bombing.[45] On July 1, 1997, the winning design was chosen unanimously by a 15-member panel from 624 submissions.[77][78] The memorial, which has become part of the National Park Service, was designed by Oklahoma City architects Hans and Torrey Butzer and Sven Berg. It was dedicated by President Clinton on April 19, 2000, exactly five years after the bombing.[78][79] is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ...

After surviving the bombing, The Survivor Tree elm became an emblem of the memorial.
After surviving the bombing, The Survivor Tree elm became an emblem of the memorial.

The museum includes a reflecting pool flanked by two large "gates", one inscribed with the time 9:01, the opposite with 9:03, the pool between representing the moment of the blast. On the south end of the memorial is a field full of symbolic bronze and stone chairs—one for each person lost, arranged based on what floor they were on. The chairs represent the empty chairs at the dinner tables of the victim's family. The seats of the children killed are smaller than those of the adults lost. On the opposite side is the "survivor tree", part of the building's original landscaping that somehow survived the blast and fires that followed it. The memorial left part of the foundation of the building intact, so that visitors can see the scale of the destruction. Around the western edge of the memorial is a portion of the chain link fence which had amassed over 800,000 personal items which were later collected by the Oklahoma City Memorial Foundation.[80] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1360 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (2048 × 1360 pixel, file size: 1. ...

In front of the memorial is a statue of Jesus weeping for the victims who died in the bombing

On a corner adjacent to the memorial is a sculpture titled "And Jesus Wept", erected by St. Joseph's Catholic Church. St. Joseph's, one of the first brick and mortar churches in the city, was almost completely destroyed by the blast. The statue is not part of the memorial itself but is popular with visitors nonetheless. North of the memorial is the Journal Record Building which now houses the Oklahoma City National Memorial Museum, an affiliate of the National Park Service. Also in the building is the National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism, a non-partisan think tank. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (480x640, 56 KB) Photo by Ian Ang for Wikipeida article on Oklahoma City Memorial. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (480x640, 56 KB) Photo by Ian Ang for Wikipeida article on Oklahoma City Memorial. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... The National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism (MIPT) is a non-profit organization founded in response to the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing. ... In politics, an independent is a politician who is not affiliated with any political party. ... This article is about the institution. ...

Flowers and personal items left on several of the 168 memorial chairs on the 10th anniversary of the bombing.

Download high resolution version (515x772, 131 KB)Flowers and personal items are left on several of the 168 memorial chairs at the Oklahoma City National Memorial on the 10th anniversary of the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. ... Download high resolution version (515x772, 131 KB)Flowers and personal items are left on several of the 168 memorial chairs at the Oklahoma City National Memorial on the 10th anniversary of the bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. ...

Remembrance

From April 17 to April 24, 2005, to mark the tenth anniversary of the bombing in Oklahoma City, the Oklahoma City National Memorial held a week-long series of events known as the "National Week of Hope."[81] is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On April 19, as in previous years, the tenth anniversary of the bombing observances began with a service at 09:02 CST, marking the moment the bomb went off, with the traditional 168 seconds of silence - one second for each person who was killed as a result of the blast. The service also included the traditional reading of the names, read by children to symbolize the future of Oklahoma City.[82] is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Vice President Dick Cheney, former president Clinton, Oklahoma Governor Brad Henry, former Oklahoma governor Frank Keating, and other political dignitaries attended the service and gave speeches in which they emphasized that "goodness overcame evil".[83] The relatives of the victims and the survivors of the blast also made note of it during the service at First United Methodist Church in Oklahoma City.[84] Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... Charles Bradford Brad Henry (born June 10, 1963) is the Governor of the U.S. state of Oklahoma. ... Francis Anthony Frank Keating (February 10, 1944) is an American politician from Oklahoma. ... This article is about the current Christian denomination based in the United States. ...


President George W. Bush made note of the anniversary in a written statement, part of which echoes his remarks on the execution of Timothy McVeigh in 2001: "For the survivors of the crime and for the families of the dead the pain goes on."[85] Bush was invited but did not attend the service because he was en route to Springfield, Illinois to dedicate the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum. Vice President Cheney presided over the service in his place.[83] George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... : Home of President Abraham Lincoln United States Illinois Sangamon 60. ... Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum looks at the life of the 16th U.S. President, Abraham Lincoln, and the course of the American Civil War. ...


Conspiracy theories involving more perpetrators

Rescue Team 5 remembers the victims who died in the bombing.
Rescue Team 5 remembers the victims who died in the bombing.

Some people believe that a conspiracy is covering up the existence of additional explosives planted within the Murrah building.[86] Multiple websites show alleged cover-ups and other possible perpetrators who helped in planning the bombing.[87][88][89] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 195 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 195 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the copyright holder of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU... For other uses, see Conspiracy theory (disambiguation). ...


Conspiracy theorists say that there are several discrepancies, such as an inconsistency between the observed destruction and the bomb used by McVeigh. One vocal proponent of this view is Brigadier General Benton K. Partin.[90] Many critics of the official explanation point to a blast effects study published in 1997, utilizing test results from the Eglin Air Force Base, which concluded that "it is impossible to ascribe the damage that occurred on April, 1995 to a single truck bomb containing 4,800 lbs. of ANFO" so that the damage to the Murrah building was "not the result of the truck bomb itself, but rather due to other factors such as locally placed charges within the building itself".[91] For other uses, see Conspiracy theory (disambiguation). ...


Several witnesses reported a second person seen around the time of the bombing; investigators would later call him "John Doe 2". There are several theories that the second person was also affiliated with the bombing and was even a possible foreign connection to McVeigh and Nichols.[92] Although the U.S. government did arrest an Army private who resembled an artist's rendering of John Doe 2 based on eyewitness accounts, they later released him after their investigation reported he was not involved with the bombing.[93]


Some people have argued that seismic recordings of the event indicated multiple bombs. This contention was refuted by U.S. Geological Survey and Oklahoma Geological Survey scientists, who recorded and analyzed seismic signals from the demolition of the Murrah building. These demolition seismograms showed that the two pulses of energy recorded in Norman, OK from the bombing were due to the seismic response of the Earth rather than to multiple blast sources.[94] Norman, Oklahoma, is the county seat and largest city in Cleveland County in the U.S. state of Oklahoma, and is part of the Oklahoma City Metropolitan Statistical Area. ...


In 2006, congressman Dana Rohrabacher said that the Subcommittee on Oversight and Investigations of the U.S. House Committee on International Relations, which he chaired, would investigate whether the Oklahoma City bombers had assistance from foreign sources.[95] On December 28, 2006, when asked about fueling conspiracy theories with his questions and criticism, Rohrabacher told CNN: "There's nothing wrong with adding to a conspiracy theory when there might be a conspiracy, in fact."[96] Dana Tyron Rohrabacher (born June 21, 1947, in Coronado, California) is an American politician, who has been a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives since 1989, currently representing Californias 46th congressional district. ... The U.S. House Committee on Foreign Affairs (also known as the House Foreign Affairs Committee, is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives which is in charge of bills and investigations related to the foreign affairs of the United States. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

The following is a timeline of acts and failed attempts that can be considered non-state terrorism. ... In the United States, acts of domestic terrorism are generally considered to be uncommon. ... This article is about acts of terrorism. ...

References

  • City of Oklahoma City Document Management. Final Report: Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building Bombing April 19, 1995. Stillwater: Department of Central Services Central Printing Division, 1996. ISBN 0-8793-9130-8.
  • Giordano, Geraldine. The Oklahoma City Bombing. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc., 2003. ISBN 0-8239-3655-4.
  • Irving, Clive, ed. In Their Name. New York: Random House, 1995. ISBN 0-679-44825-X
  • Linenthal, Edward. The Unfinished Bombing: Oklahoma City in American Memory. New York: Oxford UP, 2001. ISBN 0-19-513672-1.
  • Michel, Lou, and Dan Herbeck. American Terrorist: Timothy McVeigh & The Oklahoma City Bombing. New York: ReganBooks, 2001. ISBN 0-06-039407-2.
  • Serano, Richard A. One of Ours: Timothy McVeigh and the Oklahoma City Bombing. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1998. ISBN 0-393-02743-0.
  1. ^ a b Prior to 9-11, the deadliest act of terror against the United States was the bombing of Pan Am Flight 103, which killed 189 Americans.
  2. ^ Ottley, Ted (April 14 2005). License Tag Snag. Retrieved on 2007-06-22.
  3. ^ a b Talley, Tim (April 17 2006). Experts fear Oklahoma City bombing lessons forgotten. Retrieved on 2006-04-18.
  4. ^ a b c Lou Michel and Dan Herbeck, American Terrorist: Timothy McVeigh & The Oklahoma City Bombing (New York: ReganBooks, 2001): 209-231; ISBN 0-06-039407-2.
  5. ^ Except where noted, all statements in this section are sourced from the book American Terrorist.
  6. ^ McVeigh later stated: "If I had known [the day-care center] was there, I probably would have shifted the target" (Michel & Herbeck 245-46).
  7. ^ Chicago Sun-Times. Conspiracy buffs see Padilla, Oklahoma City link. Retrieved on May 25, 2007.
  8. ^ Thomas, Jo. "For First Time, Woman Says McVeigh Told of Bomb Plan", The New York Times, 1997-04-30. Retrieved on 2008-02-27. 
  9. ^ a b c d The Oklahoma Department of Civil Emergency Management After Action Report. Department of Central Services Central Printing Division, 1996. Retrieved on 2007-02-02. 
  10. ^ City Of Oklahoma City Document Management (1996). Final Report: Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building Bombing April 19, 1995. Stillwater, OK: Fire Protection Publication, 10-12. ISBN 0879391308. 
  11. ^ Forensic Engineering. Blast Loading and Response of Murrah Building. Retrieved on February 2, 2007.
  12. ^ a b c Terrorism Info. Oklahoma City Police Department Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building Bombing After Action Report. Retrieved on February 3, 2007.
  13. ^ Safety Solutions. case study 30. Retrieved on February 3, 2007.
  14. ^ a b c U.S. Department of Justice. Responding to Terrorism Victims: Oklahoma City and Beyond. Retrieved on January 31, 2007.
  15. ^ Mlakar, Sr., Paul F., W. Gene Corley, Mete A. Sozen, Charles H. Thornton (August 1998). "The Oklahoma City Bombing: Analysis of Blast Damage to the Murrah Building". Journal of Performance of Constructed Facilities 12(3): pp. 113-119. 
  16. ^ T. L. Holzer, et al., "Seismograms Offer Insight into Oklahoma City Bombing", EOS Transactions (Transactions of the American Geophysical Union) 77.41 (1996): 393-99. See also AGU.org cross-reference.
  17. ^ "The Oklahoma City Bombing": "Timothy McVeigh was executed June 11, 2001 for his role in the April 19, 1995 bombing in Oklahoma City which killed 168 people", archived in Library FactFiles: Background summaries of people & events by The Star's library, The Indianapolis Star, updated August 9, 2004, accessed March 24, 2007.
  18. ^ LAWeekly.com. Secrets of Timothy McVeigh. Retrieved on January 29, 2007.
  19. ^ a b Richard Serano, One of Ours: Timothy McVeigh and the Oklahoma City Bombing (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1998): 139-41; ISBN 0-393-02743-0.
  20. ^ CourtTV News. The Oklahoma City Bombing Case: The Second Trial. Retrieved on February 18, 2007.
  21. ^ American Journalism Review. Retrieved on October 10, 2007.
  22. ^ a b c d e "World News Tonight With Peter Jennings", ABC, April 19, 1995. 
  23. ^ CNN, "Leg Found in Oklahoma Rubble Belonged to Known Bombing Victim", CNN News, February 23, 1996, accessed March 3, 2007.
  24. ^ In Terry Nichols state trial, he was charged with 162 counts of murder; this number includes one of the unborn.
  25. ^ "Prosecutors Seek Death For Nichols", The Washington Post December 20, 2006, accessed January 31, 2007.
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Clive Irving, ed., In Their Name (New York: Random House, 1995); ISBN 0-679-44825-X.
  27. ^ Oklahoma State Department of Health. Summary of Reportable Injuries in Oklahoma. Retrieved on February 3, 2007.
  28. ^ a b Denver Post Online. April 19, 1995. Retrieved on February 2, 2007.
  29. ^ a b c The Army Lawyer. The Oklahoma City Bombing: Immediate Response Authority and Other Military Assistance to Civil Authority (MACA). Retrieved on February 2, 2007.
  30. ^ a b c U.S. Department of Justice. Chapter II: The Immediate Crisis Response. Retrieved on February 1, 2007.
  31. ^ Giordano, Geraldine (2003). The Oklahoma City Bombing. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc., 36. ISBN 0-8239-3655-4. 
  32. ^ FEMA Urban Search And Rescue (USAR) Summaries. Retrieved on August 29, 2006.
  33. ^ Giordano, Geraldine (2003). The Oklahoma City Bombing. New York: The Rosen Publishing Group, Inc., 34. ISBN 0-8239-3655-4. 
  34. ^ Linenthal, Edward (2001). The Unfinished Bombing: Oklahoma City in American Memory. New York: Oxford University Press, 140. ISBN 0-19-513672-1. 
  35. ^ CNN Interactive. Federal Building Demolition. Retrieved on February 1, 2007.
  36. ^ Linenthal, pp. 142-44
  37. ^ American Association of Law Libraries. Life in New York City after 9/11; Responding to Terrorism Victims: Oklahoma City and Beyond (Office for Victims of Crime, Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Dept. of Justice, Washington, D.C., 2000). Retrieved on February 2, 2007.
  38. ^ Linenthal, p. 47
  39. ^ San Diego Blood Bank. History. Retrieved on February 3, 2007.
  40. ^ GAO. Maintaining an Adequate Blood Supply Is Key to Emergency Preparedness. Retrieved on February 5, 2007.
  41. ^ Meet Our President/CEO. Goodwill Industries. Retrieved on August 29, 2006.
  42. ^ Lucas, Dean (2006-02-17), Famous Pictures Magazine - Oklahoma City Bombing, <http://www.famouspictures.org/mag/index.php?title=Oklahoma_City_Bombing>
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    American Morning's Miles O'Brien told outgoing Rep. Dana Rohrabacher, (R-CA) that he had "raised a lot of questions that are just kind of 'out there' in the conspiracy theorist world." O'Brien mentioned different theories relating to Middle East terrorists, Iraqi officials, neo-Nazi bankrobbers, and the alleged John Doe #2.
    "Doesn't this just add more fuel to those conspiracy theories?" O'Brien wondered.
    "Well there's nothing wrong to adding to a conspiracy theory when there might be a conspiracy, in fact," Rohrabacher responded.
    The California congressman spoke further about John Doe #2, citing numerous reported sightings by "credible witnesses" interviewed by the House International Relations Investigative Subcommittee, and slammed the FBI for calling a "premature end" to their investigation.
    "We did our best with limited resources, and I think we moved the understanding of this issue forward a couple of notches even though important questions remain unanswered," Rohrabacher told the Associated Press after the two-year report's release. is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... PA 103 redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... American Terrorist (2001) is a book by Lou Michel and Dan Herbeck that chronicles the life of American terrorist Timothy McVeigh from his military experiences in the Persian Gulf War until the Oklahoma City bombing. ... American Terrorist (2001) is a book by Lou Michel and Dan Herbeck that chronicles the life of American terrorist Timothy McVeigh from his military experiences in the Persian Gulf War until the Oklahoma City bombing. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Alfred P. Murrah building four days before its demolition Alfred P. Murrah building during demolition Aerial view of Alfred P. Murrah building after bombing The Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building was a United States Federal Government complex located at 200 N.W. 5th Street in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... 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The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... // Random House is a publishing house based in New York City. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... For information on Wikipedia press releases, see Wikipedia:Press releases. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The University of Missouri–Kansas City (often referred to as UMKC) is an institution of higher learning located in Kansas City, Missouri, USA. Its main campus is in Kansas Citys Rockhill neighborhood east of the Country Club Plaza. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The United States Court of Appeals for the Tenth Circuit is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the following United States district courts: District of Colorado District of Kansas District of New Mexico Eastern, Northern, and Western Districts of Oklahoma District of Utah District of Wyoming These districts were... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The University of Missouri–Kansas City (often referred to as UMKC) is an institution of higher learning located in Kansas City, Missouri, USA. Its main campus is in Kansas Citys Rockhill neighborhood east of the Country Club Plaza. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Dallas Morning News is the major daily newspaper serving the Dallas, Texas area. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Dana Tyron Rohrabacher (born June 21, 1947, in Coronado, California) is an American politician, who has been a Republican member of the United States House of Representatives since 1989, currently representing Californias 46th congressional district. ... The U.S. House Committee on Foreign Affairs (also known as the House Foreign Affairs Committee, is a standing committee of the United States House of Representatives which is in charge of bills and investigations related to the foreign affairs of the United States. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ...

Further reading

  • Wright, Stuart A. Patriots, Politics, and the Oklahoma City Bombing. Cambridge Studies in Contentious Politics. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge UP, 2007. ISBN 978-0521872645 (hardcover). ISBN 978-0521694193 (paperback). (Catalogue description includes summary, table of contents, and excerpts from reviews.)

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Oklahoma City bombing
  • Blast Loading and Response of the Murrah Building An objective independent engineering analysis of the Murrah building failure mode showing that without a doubt the truck bomb alone did the damage.
  • Oklahoma City Bombing Trial News archives and special reports at the Denver Post (with updated links)
  • Oklahoma City National Memorial Official website
  • Special Interactive Report: "The Oklahoma City Bombing": 9:02 April 19th at NewsOK.com
  • Oklahoma City Tragedy CNN Interactive
  • Memoirs of the Oklahoma City Bombing From MemoryArchive
  • Unofficial Oklahoma City Bombing Time Line (1986-2005)

Coordinates: 35°28′22.4″N, 97°31′01″W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Oklahoma City bombing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2278 words)
The effect of the bombing on the city was immense.
The anniversary of the bombing is the same day as the end of the stand-off in Waco, Texas 2 years earlier in 1993, and the day before the anniversary of the Columbine shooting 4 years later on April 20, 1999 (also Adolf Hitler's birthdate in 1889).
Oklahoma Bombing Investigation Committee, exploring various conspiracies and theories on the bombing.
Online NewsHour -- The Oklahoma City Bombing (341 words)
Betty Ann Bowser reports from Oklahoma City on the effect of the Sept. 11 attacks on those who lost loved ones in the Murrah Building bombing.
The dedication of a national monument marks the fifth anniversary of the Oklahoma City bombing.
A jury in Denver sentences Timothy McVeigh to death for the Oklahoma City bombing.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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