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Encyclopedia > Ojibwe language
Ojibwe
ᐊᓂᔑᓈᐯᒧᐎᓐ Anishinaabemowin 
Pronunciation: IPA: [ənɪʃɪnaːbeːmoɰɪn]
Spoken in: Canada, United States 
Region: Ontario, Manitoba and into Saskatchewan, with outlying groups as far west as British Columbia; in the United States, from Upper Michigan westward to North Dakota
Total speakers: 55,000
Language family: Algic
 Algonquian
  Ojibwe 
Writing system: Ojibwe syllabary
Language codes
ISO 639-1: oj
ISO 639-2: oji
ISO/DIS 639-3: variously:
oji — Ojibwa (generic)
ojc — Central Ojibwe
ciw — Chippewa
ojg — Eastern Ojibwe
ojb — Northwestern Ojibwe
otw — Ottawa
ojs — Severn Ojibwe
ojw — Western Ojibwe 

Pre-contact distribution of Ojibwe
 

Ojibwe, Ojibwa, Chippewa or Anishinaabemowin (ᐊᓂᔑᓈᐯᒧᐎᓐ in Eastern Ojibwe syllabics) is the third most commonly spoken Native language in Canada (after Cree and Inuktitut), and the fourth most spoken in North America (behind Navajo, Cree, and Inuktitut). It is spoken by the Ojibwe people (Anishinaabeg). As their fur trading with the French increased the Ojibwes’ power, the language became the trade language of the Great Lakes region, and was for hundreds of years an extremely significant presence in the northern US. In the Ojibwe language, the proper term for itself is Anishinaabemowin or Nishnaabemwin, which includes the Algonquin language and Mississauga language, though they are not considered Ojibwa due to not being part of the Council of Three Fires. Ojibwa forms of Anishinaabemowin are often called Ojibwemowin and Saulteaux form as Nakawêmowin. Many consider the Severn Ojibwe as a separate language functioning as a transitional language between Ojibwe and Cree; the Severn Ojibwe (or Oji-Cree) call themselves Anishinini and their language Anishininimowin. The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English Flower White trillium Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 106 24 Area Total  - Land  - Water    (% of total)  Ranked 4th 1... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) Official languages English (French is an official language of the Manitoban legislature and courts) Flower Pasqueflower Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 14 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water    (% of... Motto: Multis E Gentibus Vires (Latin: From many peoples, strength) Official languages English Flower Western Red Lily Capital Regina Largest city Saskatoon Lieutenant-Governor Gordon Barnhart Premier Lorne Calvert (NDP) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 14 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water    (% of total)  Ranked 7th 651,036 km² 591... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Official languages none stated in law; English is de facto Flower Pacific dogwood Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seat  - Senate seats 36 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water    (% of total)  Ranked... Official language(s) None (English, de-facto) Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Area  Ranked 11th  - Total 102,384 sq. ... Official language(s) English Capital Largest city Bismarck Fargo Area  Ranked 19th  - Total 70,762 sq mi  (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... Current distribution of Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families. ... The Algic (also Algonquian-Wiyot-Yurok or Algonquian-Ritwan) languages are an indigenous language family of North America. ... Pre-contact distribution of Algonquian languages The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (the two Algic languages that are not Algonquian are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... Writing Systems of the World today A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... The Ojibwe language is an Algonquian American Indian language spoken throughout the Great Lakes region and westward onto the northern plains. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2:1998 Codes for the representation of names of languages — Part 2: Alpha-3 code Twenty-two of the languages have two three-letter codes: a code for bibliographic use (ISO 639-2/B) a code for terminological use (ISO 639-2/T). ... ISO 639-3 is in process of development as an international standard for language codes. ... For other uses of Chippewa, see Chippewa (disambiguation). ... The Ottawa (also Odawa, Odaawa, Outaouais, or Trader) are a Native American and First Nations people. ... The Nishnawbe-Aski, also known as the Oji-Cree, Anishinini or, less correctly, Severn Ojibwe, are a First Nation in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba, residing in a narrow band extending from the Missinaibi River region in Northeastern Ontario at the east to Lake Winnipeg at the west. ... The Saulteaux are a First Nation in Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan, Canada. ... Image File history File links Ojibwe_Language_Map. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Phonetics (from the Greek word φωνή, phone = sound/voice) is the study of sounds (voice). ... Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ... This is a concise version of the International Phonetic Alphabet for English sounds. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Cree is the name for a group of closely-related Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 50,000 speakers across Canada, from Alberta to Labrador. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... Navajo (also Navaho) (in Navajo: Diné bizaad) is an Athabaskan language (of Na-Dené stock) spoken in the southwest United States by the Navajo people (Diné). It is geographically and linguistically one of the Southern Athabaskan languages (the majority of Athabaskan languages are spoken in northwest Canada and Alaska). ... The Ojibwa, Aanishanabe or Chippewa (also Ojibwe, Ojibway, Chippeway, Anishinaabe, or Anishinabek) are the largest group of Native Americans/First Nations north of Mexico, including Métis. ... Anishinaabe is a self-description often used by people belonging to the indigenous Odawa, Ojibwe, and Algonkin peoples of North America, who share closely related Algonkian languages. ... Algonquin (or Algonkin) is an Algonquian language closely related to Ojibwe. ... The Council of Three Fires, also known as the People of the Three Fires, was a long-standing Anishinaabe alliance of the Ojibwe, Ottawa, and Potawatomi Native American tribes and First Nations. ... Anishininimowin (also known as Oji-Cree or Severn Ojibwa) is the language of the Nishnawbe-Aski (or Oji-Cree) First Nation of Ontario. ... Cree is the name for a group of closely-related Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 50,000 speakers across Canada, from Alberta to Labrador. ... The Nishnawbe-Aski, also known as the Oji-Cree, Anishinini or, less correctly, Severn Ojibwe, are a First Nation in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba, residing in a narrow band extending from the Missinaibi River region in Northeastern Ontario at the east to Lake Winnipeg at the west. ...

Contents


Classification

Ojibwe is an Algonquian language, of the Algic family of languages, and is descended from Proto-Algonquian. Among its sister languages are Blackfoot, Cheyenne, Cree, Fox, Menominee, Potawatomi, and Shawnee. The Algic family contains the Algonquian languages and the so-called "Ritwan" languages, Wiyot and Yurok. Ojibwe is frequently referred to as a "Central Algonquian" language; however, Central Algonquian is an areal grouping rather than a genetic one. Among Algonquian languages, only the Eastern Algonquian languages constitute a true genetic subgroup. The Algonquian languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (others are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... The Algic (also Algonquian-Wiyot-Yurok or Algonquian-Ritwan) languages are an indigenous language family of North America. ... Proto-Algonquian (commonly abbreviated PA) is the name given to the posited proto-language of the languages of the Algonquian family. ... Blackfoot is the name of any of the Algonquian languages spoken by the Blackfoot tribe of Native Americans, who currently live in the northwestern plains of North America. ... The Cheyenne language is a Native American language spoken in present-day Montana and Oklahoma, USA. It is part of the Algonquian language family. ... Cree is the name for a group of closely-related Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 50,000 speakers across Canada, from Alberta to Labrador. ... Fox (known by a variety of different names, including Mesquakie, Meskwaki, Mesquakie-Sauk, Mesquakie-Sauk-Kickapoo, Sac and Fox, and others) is an Algonquian Indian language, spoken by around 1000 Fox, Sauk, and Kickapoo in various locations in the Midwestern United States. ... The Menominee language is an Algonquian language spoken on the Menominee (Menomini) Nation lands in Northern Wisconsin in the United States. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Distribution of the Shawnee language around 1650 The Shawnee language is a Central Algonquian language spoken in parts of central and northeastern Oklahoma by only around 200 Shawnee, making it very endangered. ... The Algic (also Algonquian-Wiyot-Yurok or Algonquian-Ritwan) languages are an indigenous language family of North America. ... Wiyot (also Wishosk) is an extinct Algic language. ... Yurok (also Weitspekan) is an Algic language. ... The Eastern Algonquian languages are a subgroup of the larger Algonquian family, itself a member of the Algic family; prior to European contact, the family consisted of around 17 languages, which streched from Newfoundland south into North Carolina. ...


Geographic distribution

Ojibwe is spoken by around 10,000 people in the United States and by as many as 45,000 in Canada, making it one of the largest Algic languages by speakers. The various dialects are spoken in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Michigan in the US, and north into Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec in Canada. The Algic (also Algonquian-Wiyot-Yurok or Algonquian-Ritwan) languages are an indigenous language family of North America. ...


Dialects

Ojibwe has quite a few divergent dialects. The primary ones are Nipissing, Plains Ojibwe (Saulteaux), Eastern Ojibwe (Mississaugas), Northern Ojibwe, Odaawaa (Ottawa), Severn Ojibwe (Oji-Cree), and Southwestern Ojibwe (Chippewa). Algonquin is considered by some to be a particularly divergent dialect of Ojibwe, and by others to be a distinct language which is very similar to Ojibwe. This article deals primarily with the dialect spoken in the northern United States, around Minnesota and Wisconsin, Southwestern Ojibwe. Therefore, some of the descriptions given here will not necessarily hold true for other dialects of Ojibwe. A defining characteristic of many of the more northern and eastern dialects is that they exhibit a great deal of vowel syncope, the deletion of vowels in certain positions within a word. In these dialects, generally all unstressed vowels are lost (see the article on Ojibwe phonology for a discussion of Ojibwe stress). For example, the name for the language itself in Odaawaa is Nishnaabemwin, where the unstressed vowels from Anishinaabemowin have been lost. Though Potawatomi was at one time part of the Ojibwe language, due to development of significant enough differences in the language since the contact period, it is now considered a separate language; however, among the Anishinaabeg, many still considers the Potawatomi language (known as Boodewaadamiimowin or Bodéwadmimwin) as a dialect of Anishinaabemowin. The Saulteaux are a First Nation in Ontario, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan, Canada. ... The Mississaugas are a native people located in Southern Ontario. ... The Nishnawbe-Aski, also known as the Oji-Cree, Anishinini or, less correctly, Severn Ojibwe, are a First Nation in the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba, residing in a narrow band extending from the Missinaibi River region in Northeastern Ontario at the east to Lake Winnipeg at the west. ... Algonquin (or Algonkin) is an Algonquian language closely related to Ojibwe. ... Syncope has two distinct and apparantly unrelated meanings, one in linguistics and another in medicne. ... The Ojibwe language is an Algonquian American Indian language spoken throughout the Great Lakes region and westward onto the northern plains. ... This page meets Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ...


Many dialects have separate Ethnologue entries and SIL codes: ALQ (Algonquin), CIW (Southwestern Ojibwe ("Chippewa")), OJC (Central Ojibwe), OJG (Eastern Ojibwe), OJB (North(west)ern Ojibwe), OJS (Severn Ojibwe), OJW (Plains Ojibwe/Salteaux ("Western Ojibwe")), and OTW (Odaawaa). Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with native language biblical texts. ... SIL International is a worldwide non-profit organization whose main purpose is to study, develop and document lesser-known languages in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy and aid minority language development. ...


Phonology

Main article: Ojibwe phonology

Ojibwe dialects generally have 18 consonants. Obstruents are often said to have a lenis/fortis contrast, where those written as voiceless are pronounced more strongly, significantly longer in duration, and often aspirated or pre-aspirated, while those written as voiced are pronounced less strongly and significantly shorter in duration. For many communities, however, the distinction has become a simple voiced/voiceless one. The Ojibwe language is an Algonquian American Indian language spoken throughout the Great Lakes region and westward onto the northern plains. ... In phonetics, an obstruent is a consonant sound formed by obstructing the airway. ... Fortis (from Latin fortis strong) and lenis (from Latin lenis weak) are linguistics terms. ... In phonetics, a voiceless consonant is a consonant that does not have voicing. ... In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some obstruents. ... A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ...


There are three short vowels, /i a o/, and three corresponding long vowels, /iː aː oː/, as well as a fourth long vowel which lacks a corresponding short vowel, /eː/. The short vowels differ in quality as well as quantity from the long vowels, are phonetically closer to [ɪ], [ə]~[ʌ], and [o]~[ʊ]. /oː/ is pronounced /uː/ for many speakers, and /eː/ is for many /ɛː/. There are also nasal vowels, which are comparatively rare. In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ... A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through the mouth and the nose. ...


With regards to stress, Ojibwe divides words into metrical "feet," each foot containing a strong syllable and (if two-syllables long) a weak syllable. The strong syllables all receive at least secondary stress. In general, the strong syllable in the third foot from the end of a word receives the primary stress. In many dialects, unstressed vowels are frequently lost or change quality.


Grammar

Main article: Ojibwe grammar

Like many Native American languages, Ojibwe is polysynthetic, meaning it exhibits a great deal of synthesis and a very high morpheme-to-word ratio. It is agglutinating, and thus builds up words by stringing morpheme after morpheme together, rather than having several affixes, each of which carry numerous different pieces of information. The Ojibwe language is an Algonquian American Indian language spoken throughout the Great Lakes region and westward onto the northern plains. ... Polysynthetic languages are highly synthetic languages, i. ... A synthetic language, in linguistic typology, is a language with a high morpheme-to-word ratio. ... In morpheme-based morphology, a morpheme is the smallest lingual unit that carries a semantic interpretation. ... It has been suggested that Agglutination be merged into this article or section. ...


There is a distinction between two different types of third person, the proximate (the third person deemed more important or in-focus) and the obviative (the third person deemed less important or out-of-focus). Nouns can be singular or plural, and one of two genders, animate or inanimate. Separate personal pronouns exist, but are usually used for emphasis; they distinguish inclusive and exclusive first person plurals. Grammatical person, in linguistics, is used for the grammatical categories a language uses to describe the relationship between the speaker and the persons or things she is talking about. ... Animacy is a grammatical category, usually of nouns, which influences the form a verb takes when it is associated with that noun. ... Animacy is a grammatical category, usually of nouns, which influences the form a verb takes when it is associated with that noun. ... In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a pro-form that substitutes for a noun phrase. ... Inclusive we is a pronoun or verb conjugation that indicates the inclusion of the speaker, the addressee, and perhaps other people, as opposed to exclusive we, which specifically excludes the addressee. ... Inclusive we is a pronoun or verb conjugation that indicates the inclusion of the speaker, the addressee, and perhaps other people, as opposed to exclusive we, which specifically excludes the addressee. ... ...


Verbs constitute the most complex word class. Verbs are inflected for one of three orders (indicative, the default, conjunct, used for participles and in subordinate clauses, and imperative, used with commands), as negative or affirmative, and for the person, number, animacy, and proximate/obviative status of both its subject and object, as well as for several different modes (including the dubitative and preterit) and tenses. A clause is a group of words consisting of a subject (often just a single noun) and a predicate (sometimes just a single verb). ...


Vocabulary

Although it does contain a few loans from English (gaapii, "coffee," maam(aa), "mom") and French ni-tii, "tea" (from le thé, "the tea")), in general, Ojibwe is notable for its relative lack of borrowing from other languages. Instead, speakers far prefer to create words for new concepts from existing vocabulary. For example, "airplane" is bemisemagak, literally "thing that flies" (from bimisemagad, "to fly"), and "battery" is ishkode-makakoons, literally "little fire-box" (from ishkode, "fire," and makak, "box"). Even "coffee" is called makade-mashkikiwaaboo ("black liquid-medicine") by many speakers, rather than gaapii.


Writing system

Main article: Ojibwe writing systems

Ojibwe is written using a syllabary, which is usually said to have been developed by missionary James Evans around 1840 and based on Pitman's shorthand. In the United States, the language is most often written phonemically with Roman characters. Syllabics are primarily used in Canada. The newest Roman character-based writing system is the Double Vowel System, devised by Charles Fiero. Although there is no standard orthography, the Double Vowel System is quickly gaining popularity among language teachers in the United States and Canada because of its ease of use. The Ojibwe language is an Algonquian American Indian language spoken throughout the Great Lakes region and westward onto the northern plains. ... James Evans (January 18, 1801-November 23, 1846) was a Canadian Methodist missionary and amateur linguist. ... Pitman Shorthand is a system of rapid writing developed by Sir Isaac Pitman (1813-1897). ... The Ojibwe language is an Algonquian American Indian language spoken throughout the Great Lakes region and westward onto the northern plains. ... The Ojibwe language is an Algonquian American Indian language spoken throughout the Great Lakes region and westward onto the northern plains. ...


Double Vowel System

The Double Vowel System consists of three short vowels, four long vowels, 18 consonants and 1 nasal, represented with the following Roman letters:
The Ojibwe language is an Algonquian American Indian language spoken throughout the Great Lakes region and westward onto the northern plains. ...

a aa b ch d e g ' h i ii j k m n ny o oo p s sh t w y z zh

This system is called "Double Vowel" from the fact that the long vowel correspondences to the short vowels <a>, <i> and <o> are written with a doubled value. In this system, the nasal "ny" as a final element is instead written as "nh." The allowable consonant clusters are <mb>, <nd>, <ng>, <nj>, <nz>, <ns>, <nzh>, <sk>, <shp>, <sht> and <shk>.


Examples

This example text is taken, with permission, from the first four lines of Niizh Ikwewag, a story originally told by John Nichols, on Professor Brian Donovan of Bemidji State University's webpage.


Text

  1. Aabiding gii-ayaawag niizh ikwewag: mindimooyenh, odaanisan bezhig.
  2. Iwidi Chi-achaabaaning akeyaa gii-onjibaawag.
  3. Inashke naa mewinzha gii-aawan, mii eta go imaa sa wiigiwaaming gaa-taawaad igo.
  4. Mii dash iwapii, aabiding igo gii-awi-bagida'waawaad, giigoonyan wii-amwaawaad.

Translation

  1. Once there were two women: an old lady, and one of her daughters.
  2. They were from over there towards Big-Bowstring.
  3. See now, it was long ago; they just lived there in a wigwam.
  4. And at that time, once they went net-fishing; they intended to eat fish.

Gloss

Aabiding gii-ayaawag niizh ikwewag: mindimooyenh, odaanisan bezhig.
aabiding gii- ayaa -wag niizh ikwe -wag mindimooyenh, o- daanis -an bezhig.
once PAST- be in a certain place -3PL two woman -PL old woman, 3SG.POSS- daughter -OBV one.
Once they were in a certain place two women: old woman, her daughter one.
Iwidi Chi-achaabaaning akeyaa gii-onjibaawag.
iwidi chi- achaabaan -ing akeyaa gii- onjibaa -wag.
over there big- bowstring -LOC that way PAST- come from -3PL.
Over there at Big-Bowstring that way they came from there.
Inashke naa mewinzha gii-aawan, mii eta go imaa sa wiigiwaaming gaa-taawaad igo.
inashke naa mewinzha gii- aawan mii eta go imaa sa wiigiwaam -ing gaa- daa -waad igo.
look thus long ago PAST- be EMPH only EMPH there EMPH wigwam -LOC PAST.CONJ- live -3PL.CONJ EMPH.
Look thus long ago it was, only there so in a wigwam that they lived just then.
Mii dash iwapii, aabiding igo gii-awi-bagida'waawaad, giigoonyan wii-amwaawaad.
mii dash iw- -apii aabiding igo gii- awi- bagida'waa -waad, giigoonh -yan wii- amw -aawaad.
EMPH CONTR that- -then once EMPH PAST- go and- fish with a net -3PL.CONJ fish -OBV DESD- eat -3PL/OBV
And then then, once just then that they went and fished with a net those fish they are going to eat those

Abbreviations:

SG singular
PL plural
POSS possessive
OBV obviative
LOC locative
EMPH emphatic
CONJ conjunct order
CONTR contrastive
FUT future
DESD desiderative

The word singular may refer to one of several concepts. ... Look up Plural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Plural is a grammatical number, typically referring to more than one of the referent in the real world. ... Possessive can refer to: Possessive case Possessive pronoun This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Narrator. ... Locative is a case which indicates a location. ... The word emphasis, in addition to its main dictionary meaning, may have the following techincal meanings. ... Contrast has several meanings: // Visual perception Left side of the image has low contrast, the right has higher contrast. ... It has been suggested that Future perfect tense be merged into this article or section. ... In linguistics, a desiderative form is one that has the meaning of wanting to X. Desiderative forms are often verbs, derived from a more basic verb through a process of morphological derivation. ...

See also

Canadian aboriginal syllabic writing (often syllabics for short) is a family of writing schemes which are used to write a number of aboriginal Canadian languages from the Algonquian, Athabaskan and Inuit language families. ... Pre-contact distribution of Algonquian languages The Algonquian (also Algonkian) languages are a subfamily of Native American languages that includes most of the languages in the Algic language family (the two Algic languages that are not Algonquian are Wiyot and Yurok of northwestern California). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Ojibwa, Aanishanabe or Chippewa (also Ojibwe, Ojibway, Chippeway, Anishinaabe, or Anishinabek) are the largest group of Native Americans/First Nations north of Mexico, including Métis. ...

References

  • Mithun, Marianne. 1999. The Languages of Native North America. Cambridge: University Press.
  • Nichols, John D. and Earl Nyholm. 1995. A Concise Dictionary of Minnesota Ojibwe. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  • Picard, Marc. 1984. On the Naturalness of Algonquian ɬ. International Journal of American Linguistics 50:424-37.
  • Rhodes, Richard A. 1985. Eastern Ojibwa-Chippewa-Ottawa Dictionary. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
  • Valentine, J. Randolph "Randy". 2001. Nishnaabemwin Reference Grammar. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ojibwe syllabary, pronunciation and language (289 words)
This was sufficient to write Ojibwe, but Evans' superiors were not keen on his invention and would not allow his to use it.
Ojibwe is an Algonquian language spoken on by about 50,000 people in the Canadian provinces of Ontario, Manitoba and Saskatchewan, and by about 30,000 people in the US states of Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Montana and North Dakota.
The Ojibwe syllabary is used mainly in Canada, while in the USA the Latin alphabet is prefered for writing Ojibwe.
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The Ojibwe call themselves "Anishinaabeg," which means the "True People" or the "Original People." Other tribes and Europeans called them "Ojibwe" or "Ojibwe," which means "puckered up," probably because the Ojibwe traditionally wore moccasins with a puckered seam on the toe.
Ojibwe religious life was largely personal, but was also a daily concern with living appropriately and making one's way through a world filled with spirits which inhabited birds, animals, rocks, and cosmic phenomena including the sun, moon, the four winds, thunder, lightning, and thunderbirds.
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