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Encyclopedia > Oirats
History of Mongolia
Before Genghis Khan
Mongol Empire
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Oirats (also spelled Oyrats or Oyirads; Mongolian: Ойрадын Ojradyn) refers to both a Western Mongol people of Europe and Asia and, historically, to a Turkic people now known as the Altays. In 1206 AD, a single Mongolian state was formed based on nomadic tribal groupings under the leadership of Chinghis Khan (see Genghis Khan). ... // Origins of the Mongols Archaeological evidence places early Stone Age human habitation in the southern Gobi between 100,000 and 200,000 years ago. ... Mongol Empires largest extent outlined in red; Timur-i-Lenks empire is shaded The Mongol Empire (1206–1368) was the largest contiguous land empire in world history ruling 35 million km² (13. ... Chagatai Khan (alternative spellings Chagata, Chugta, Chagta, Djagatai, Jagatai), a son of Genghis Khan (1206—1227), controlled the part of the Mongol Empire which extended from the Ili river (eastern Kazakhstan) and Kashgaria (western Tarim Basin) to Transoxiana. ... This article refers to the medieval Turkic state. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... The Yuan Dynasty (Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus; Chinese: 元朝 or 大元帝國) lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, also called the Mongol Dynasty, was the name given to the significant ruling family of Borjigin in Asia. ... The Dzungars (also Jungars or Zungars; Mongolian: Зүүнгар Züüngar) were a tribe of the Oirat Mongols. ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qÄ«ng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China, expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of Inner Asia, establishing... The Peoples Repubic of Mongolia was a communist state in central Asia which existed between 1924 and 1990. ... Following the collapse of the Peoples Republic of Mongolia, Mongolias first free, multi-party elections for a bicameral Peoples Khural were held on July 29, 1990. ... 1911: Mongolia declares independence under Bogd haan. ... The Mongols are an ethnic group that originated in what is now Mongolia, Russia, and China, particularly Inner Mongolia. ... Turkic peoples are Northern and Central Eurasian peoples who speak languages belonging to the Turkic family, and who, in varying degrees, share certain cultural and historical traits. ... Altai or Altay can refer to: The Altay Mountains The Altai Republic The city of Altay in Xinjiang, also spelled Aletai The city of Altay in Govi-Altay Province, Mongolia This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

This article deals with the Mongol ethnic group. For further treatment of the Turkic Altays, see Altay language, Altai Republic.

Although the Oirats originated in Dzungaria in north-central Asia, the most prominent group of Oirats today are the nearly 200,000 Kalmyks of Eastern Europe. Other Oirats remain in present-day Mongolia (ca. 200,000) and China (ca. 140,000 in Xinjiang, Qinghai, and Inner Mongolia).[1] Oirats are traditionally Tibetan Buddhist and many still follow a nomadic lifestyle. Oirats speak Western Mongolic languages including Oirat, Kalmyk, Dorbot, Torgut, and Darkhat as well as the official languages of the regions they inhabit. The Mongols are an ethnic group that originated in what is now Mongolia, Russia, and China, particularly Inner Mongolia. ... Altay is a language of the Turkic group of languages. ... The Altai Republic (Altay: Алтай Республика; Russian: ) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Dzungaria (also Junggar, Jungaria, Sungaria, Zungaria) is a physical region, covering approximately 777,000 km², within the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, in northwestern China. ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: Респу́блика Калмы́кия; Kalmyk: Хальм Тангч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange) and other former communist regimes (light orange). ... Xinjiang (Chinese: æ–°ç–†; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang; literal meaning: New Frontier; Uyghur: (Shinjang)), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake (Koko Nor). ... Inner Mongolia (Mongolian: ᠥᠪᠦᠷ ᠮᠣᠨᠺᠤᠯᠤᠨ ᠥᠪᠡᠷᠲᠡᠺᠡᠨ ᠵᠠᠰᠠᠬᠤ ᠣᠷᠤᠨ r Mongghul-un bertegen Jasaqu Orun; Chinese: 内蒙古自治区; Hanyu Pinyin: N i Měnggǔ Z qū) is an Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Tibetan Buddhism — formerly also called Lamaism, after their religious gurus known as lamas — is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and the Himalayan region. ... Kazakh nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, ca. ... The Mongolic languages are a group of thirteen languages spoken in Central Asia. ... The Kalmyk (Kalmuck, Calmouk, Oyirad) language of the Kalmyks is spoken in Kalmykia ( Russian Federation), Western China and Western Mongolia. ... The Kalmyk (Kalmuck, Calmouk, Oirat) language of the Kalmyks is spoken in Kalmykia (Russian Federation), Western China and Western Mongolia. ...

Contents


History

Oirats share some history, geography, culture and language with both Western and Eastern Mongols, and were at various times united under the same leader as a larger Mongol polity — whether that ruler was of Oirat or Mongol descent.


The name Oirat may derive from a corruption of the group's original name Dörvn Öörd, meaning "The Allied Four." Perhaps inspired by the designation Dörvn Öörd, other Mongols at times used the term "Döchin Mongols" for themselves ("Döchin" meaning forty), but there was rarely as great a degree of unity among larger numbers of tribes as among the Oirats.


Comprised of the Khoshut (Хошууд Hošuud), Olot (Өөлд Ööld) or Dzungar (Зүүнгар Züüngar), Torgut (Торгууд Torguud), and Dorbot (Дөрвөд Dörvöd) tribes, they were dubbed Kalmak or Kalmyk, which means "remnant" or "to remain," by their western Turkic neighbors. Various sources also list the Bargut, Buzav, Kerait, and Naiman tribes as comprising part of the Dörvn Öörd; some tribes may have joined the original four only in later years. This name may reflect the Kalmyks' remaining Buddhist rather than converting to Islam; or the Kalmyks' remaining on Altay region when their Turkic migrated to the West. The Khoshuud are a tribe within the Oirad Mongol people. ... The Dzungars (also Jungars or Zungars; Mongolian: Зүүнгар Züüngar) were a tribe of the Oirat Mongols. ... The Dorbots (Mongolian: Дөрвөд Dörvöd) are a tribe within the Oirat Mongol people. ... Viewed historically or developmentally, a tribe consists of a social formation existing before the development of, or outside of, states. ... Turkic peoples are Northern and Central Eurasian peoples who speak languages belonging to the Turkic family, and who, in varying degrees, share certain cultural and historical traits. ... A Turkic people living in Central Asia. ... The Naimans or Naiman Mongols (Naiman also means eight in Mongolian) were a Mongol people dwelling in central Asia, closely related to the Kara-Khitai, and subservient to them until 1177. ... The Altai is a mountain range in central Asia, where Russia, China, Mongolia and Kazakhstan come together, and where the great rivers Irtysh, Ob and Yenisei have their sources. ...


Early history

One of the earliest mentions of the Oirat people in a historical text can be found in the Secret History of the Mongols, the 13th century chronicle of Genghis Khan's rise to power. In the Secret History, the Oirats are counted among the "forest people" and are said to live under the rule of shaman-chiefs known as bekis. In one famous passage the Oirat chief, Quduqa Beki, uses a yada or "thunder stone" to unleash a powerful storm on Genghis' army. The magical ploy backfires however when an unexpected wind blows the storm back at Quduqa. Although they initially oppose Genghis' rule, the Oirats eventually ally themselves with the khan and distinguish themselves as a loyal and formidible faction of the Mongol war machine. (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... ▶ (help· info) (c. ...


From the 13th until the middle of the 18th century, the Dörvn Öörd or Oirats at various times dominated Central Asia. The Oirat people were often in conflict with other Mongols. Illustrative of this history of confrontation is the Oirat/Kalmyk epic song, "The Rout of Mongolian Shulum Ubushi Khong Tayiji," about the war between the Oirats and the first Altan Khan of the Khalkha. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The epic is a broadly defined genre of poetry, and one of the major forms of narrative literature. ... Ubasi Khong Tayiji was a 15th century Mongolian prince. ... Khong Tayiji (also spelled Qong Tayiji; in Manchu: Hong Taiji) is a title of the Mongols. ... The House of Altan Khan (lit. ...


Esen Tayisi led the Oirats from 1439 to 1454, during which time he unified Mongolia under Oirat rule. "Tayisi" (variant spellings Taisi, Tayishi, Tayiji) is a Oirat language word which can be translated as "grand marshall," indicating a military leader of high rank but below the level of a khan. In 1449 Esen Tayisi invaded the Ming Empire and captured the Zhengtong Emperor at Tumu. He was deposed only after attempting to claim the title of khan to which, among the Mongol tribes of that time, only members of Genghis Khan's family could be elected. A 15th century Mongolian prince of the Oirad horde. ... The Kalmyk (Kalmuck, Calmouk, Oyirad) language of the Kalmyks is spoken in Kalmykia ( Russian Federation), Western China and Western Mongolia. ... Zhu Qizhen (November 29, 1427 – February 23, 1464) was an emperor of the Ming Dynasty. ... The Tumu Crisis (Chinese: 土木之變; pinyin: Tŭmù zhī bìan); also called Crisis of Tumubao (土木堡之變); or Battle of Tumu (土木之役), was a frontier conflict between Mongolia and the Chinese Ming Dynasty which led to the capture of the Zhengtong Emperor on September 8, 1449. ... Khan (sometimes spelled as xan, han, Polish chan) is a title meaning ruler in Mongolian and Turkish. ...


The Kalmyks move west

Late in the 16th century, the Kalmyk Oirats began to migrate westwards. They reached the Volga delta and, in the 17th century, established the Kalmyk Khanate in the area of present-day Kalmykia, becoming subjects of the Russian Tsar. Migration occurs when living things move from one biome to another. ... The Volga river in Western Russia, Europes longest river, with a length of 3,690 km (2,293 miles), provides the core of the largest river system in Europe. ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Kalmyk: Хальмг Таңһч; Russian: ) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Look up Tsar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary For the US community of Czar, see Czar, West Virginia. ...


Khoo Örlög Tayisi of the Torghuuds, and Dalai Batur of the Dörvuuds, led their people westward at the beginning of the 17th century. By some accounts this move was precipitated by internal divisions or by the Khoshuud tribe; other historians believe it more likely the migrating clans were seeking pastureland for their herds, scarce in the Central Asian highlands. Part of the Khoshuud and Ölööd tribes would join the migration almost a century later.


The Kalmyk migration had reached as far as the steppes of southeast Europe by 1630. At the time, that area was inhabited by the Nogai Horde. But under pressure from Kalmyk warriors, the Nogai fled to the Crimea and the Kuban River. All other nomadic peoples in the European steppes subsequently became vassals of the Kalmyk Khanate. The Nogai Horde was the Tatar horde that controlled the Caucasus Mountain region after the Mongol invasion. ... The Crimea /kraɪˈmia/ is a peninsula and an autonomous republic of Ukraine on the northern coast of the Black Sea. ... The Kuban (Куба́нь) is a river in Russia, in the Northern Caucasus region. ...


Dzungaria

The 17th century saw the rise in power of another Oirat empire in the east, known as the Khanate of Dzungaria, which stretched from the Great Wall of China to the River Don, and from the Himalayas to Siberia. It was last Empire of the Great Nomads of Asia. Dzungaria (also Junggar, Jungaria, Sungaria, Zungaria) is a physical region, covering approximately 777,000 km², within the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, in northwestern China. ... The Great Wall of China (Simplified: 万里长城; Traditional: 萬里長城; Hanyu Pinyin: ; literally Long City/Fortress of 10,000 Li¹), is an ancient Chinese fortification built circa 200 BC and greatly strenghtened from the 14th century until the beginning of the 17th century, during the Ming Dynasty, in order to protect the Ming... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... Perspective view of the Himalaya and Mount Everest as seen from space looking south-south-east from over the Tibetan Plateau. ... Siberia Siberia (Russian: , common English transliterations: Sibir’, Sibir; from the Tatar for “sleeping land”) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of northern Asia. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Eurasian nomads are a large group of peoples of the steppes of Central Asia, Mongolia and Eastern Europe. ...


The Oirats converted to Tibetan Buddhism around 1615, and it was not long before they became involved in the conflict between the Geluk (or Gelug) and Karma Kagyu schools. At the request of the Geluk school, in 1637 Güüshi Khan of the Khoshuuds defeated Choghtu Khong Tayiji, who supported the Karma Kagyu school, and conquered Amdo (present-day Qinghai). The unification of Tibet followed in 1641, with Güüshi Khan of the Khoshuuds proclaimed khan of Tibet by the fifth Dalai Lama. The title "Dalai Lama" itself was bestowed upon the third lama of the geluk tulku lineage by Altan Khan (not to be confused with the Altan Khans of the Khalkha), and means, in Mongolian, "Ocean of Wisdom." Tibetan Buddhism — formerly also called Lamaism, after their religious gurus known as lamas — is the body of religious Buddhist doctrine and institutions characteristic of Tibet and the Himalayan region. ... The Geluk or Gelug (Wylie transliteration: Dge-lugs, Tibetan: དགེ་ལུགས་པ་) school of Buddhism was founded by Tsongkhapa (1357-1419), a philosopher and tibetan religious leader. ... Karma Kagyu is the largest lineage of the Kagyu school, one of the four major schools of Tibetan Buddhism. ... Choghtu Khong Tayiji, born Tümengken (Tümengken čoγtu qong tayiǰi, 1581_1637), was a ruler of the Khalkha Mongols. ... Amdo (Tibetan: ཨ༌མདོ, Chinese: 安多, Pinyin: Ä€nduō) is considered the northern part of Tibet by Tibetans and is the place from where the present Dalai Lama comes from. ... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake (Koko Nor). ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Lozang Gyatso, the Great Fifth Dalai Lama, (1617-1682), is one of only two Dalai Lamas formally titled Great. He initiated the construction of the fabulous Potala Palace in Lhasa, Tibet. ... The 14th and current Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso (born 1935) The 13th Dalai Lama, Thubten Gyatso (1876-1933) In Tibetan Buddhism, the successive Dalai Lamas (taa-lai bla-ma) form a tulku lineage of Gelugpa leaders which trace back to 1391. ... In Tibetan Buddhism, a tulku is the reincarnation of a lama or other spiritually significant figure. ... Altan Khan (1507-1582), whose given name was Anda, was the de facto ruler of the Right Wing of the Mongols and exercised his power over whole Mongolia. ... The House of Altan Khan (lit. ...


Amdo, meanwhile, became home to the Khoshuuds. In 1717 Ölööds invaded Tibet and killed Lha-bzang Khan (or Khoshut Khan), a great-grandson of Güüshi and the fourth khan of Tibet. Amdo (Tibetan: ཨ༌མདོ, Chinese: 安多, Pinyin: Ä€nduō) is considered the northern part of Tibet by Tibetans and is the place from where the present Dalai Lama comes from. ...


China had been taken over by the Qing (or Manchu) Dynasty in the mid-17th century. The Manchu consolidated their rule over the ensuing decades both though cultural assimilation of the Han Chinese and by expanding the areas they held militarily to include all the lands formerly claimed by the previous ruling Ming Dynasty. In 1723 Lobzangdanjin, another descendant of Güüshi, defended Amdo against attempts to extend Qing rule into Tibet, but was crushed in the following year. Thus, Amdo fell under the domination of Qing. The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of Inner Asia, establishing the... The Manchu (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: 满族; Traditional Chinese: 滿族; pinyin: ) are an ethnic group who originated in the dong bei or North East region consisting of Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang provinces, collectively known in English as Manchuria. ... Cultural Assimilation, or assimilation for short (but that word also had other meanings), is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ... Han Chinese (Simplified: 汉族; Traditional: 漢族; Hanyu Pinyin: ) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... The Ming Dynasty (Chinese: 明朝; Hanyu Pinyin: ) was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644. ...


External links

  • Official Republic of Kalmykia page about the history of Kalmykia; features photographs of Kalmyks in traditional dress
  • Timeline of Oyirad history as defenders of Tibetan Buddhist hierarchy
  • A painting of Lha-bzang Khan appears on this Tibetan colleges page
  • the regional history page at the Altai Republic's official web portal
  • Forum of Kalmyk Internet Community

  Results from FactBites:
 
Oirats - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1063 words)
Oirats speak Western Mongolic languages including Oirat, Kalmyk, Dorbot, Torgut, and Darkhat as well as the official languages of the regions they inhabit.
Oirats share some history, geography, culture and language with both Western and Eastern Mongols, and were at various times united under the same leader as a larger Mongol polity — whether that ruler was of Oirat or Mongol descent.
The Oirats converted to Tibetan Buddhism around 1615, and it was not long before they became involved in the conflict between the Geluk (or Gelug) and Karma Kagyu schools.
Esen Tayisi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1355 words)
Esen Tayisi was a 15th century Mongolian prince of the Oirat horde (also known as the Kalmyks), best-known for capturing the Zhengtong Emperor after the Battle of Tumu Fortress.
Under Esen Tayisi's leadership, the Oirats conquered the rest of Mongolia, including the Jurchens and Tuvans (Uriankhais), and took over control of the Hami oasis on the Silk Road between the Gobi and the Takla Makan deserts.
The Chinese had long pursued a "divide and rule" strategy in dealings with their northern neighbors, maintaining trade and tribute relationships with multiple leaders who they could then turn against one another by inciting jealousy or suggesting intrigue; a unified Mongolia under one ruler was much less susceptible to such tactics.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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